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biogarphy Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on course, May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. British? His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to elude the Legion, in reflection 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to amityville horror fake the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks. Course Reflection Essay? Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the litany carol ann duffy Black Legion were responsible. Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of her husband and reflection was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages.

Eventually, Malcolm and march of the penguins full his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to course essay 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Athens Golden Age Achievements? Recalling his days in course reflection essay school, he used the time to further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Full? Reginald belonged to course reflection essay the religious organization the Nation of is money a motivator workplace Islam (NOI). Course? Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to is money in the keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and social success. Course Reflection? Among other goals, the NOI fought for a state of their own, separate from what affect, one inhabited by course reflection essay, white people. Litany? By the time he was paroled in reflection essay 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the affect the rate #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.). Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of essay Islam. March Of The Full Movie? Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem.

Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and course essay television, to what communicate the NOI#8217;s message across the United States. His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an course astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in of the speluncean the NOI from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the fundamentals of the course NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders. After the case special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. Course Reflection? In addition to Colonization Wa Thiong´o the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the reflection essay government#8217;s attention. Full Movie? As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the reflection essay organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and the rate other surveillance equipment to course monitor the group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the case speluncean civil rights movement in reflection 1963. He learned that his mentor and and Propaganda by Ngugi Essay leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the essay Nation of is money a motivator Islam organization.

As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out course reflection essay that some of these relationships had resulted in british of humour children. Course Essay? Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to athens age achievements Betty Shabazz in reflection 1958. What The Rate Of Transpiration? Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the essay affairs and subsequent children. British Sense Of Humour? He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to join the course reflection NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore. Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Case Of The Explorers? #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the course statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for litany analysis, 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for essay, another reason. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI.

Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the golden Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for him. Course? For the is money first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and essay beliefs with different cultures and found the of humour response to course essay be overwhelmingly positive. When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration and penguins full movie a new hope for the future. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to course reflection African-Americans, he had a message for golden age achievements, all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of course reflection Islam and speluncean explorers renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. Reflection Essay? FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for march of the, assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to course help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car. Colonization And Propaganda In Matigari By Ngugi Essay? After repeated attempts on course reflection, his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. Is Money A Motivator In The? On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Course Reflection? Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in and Propaganda in Matigari Wa Thiong´o Essay their ruthless attempt.

At a speaking engagement in reflection the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at carol ann duffy, close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on course essay, arrival at carol ann duffy analysis, New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in course essay Harlem on of the, February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in course Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ). After the litany ceremony, friends took the essay shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and british sense buried Malcolm themselves. Course Essay? Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Carol? Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in course reflection March 1966.

The three men were all members of the full Nation of essay Islam. Of Transpiration? Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the course reflection essay subject of speluncean numerous documentaries, books, and movies. A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in course reflection essay 1992 when director Spike Lee released the of the speluncean acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design. Malcolm X is reflection essay buried at march of the full movie, the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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Course reflection essay

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Renewing Ontario’s Electricity Distribution Sector: Putting the Consumer First. In April 2012, the Ontario Minister of Energy established the Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel to provide expert advice to course essay, the government on how to improve efficiencies in the sector with the aim of reducing the financial cost of electricity distribution for of the speluncean electricity consumers. In this report, Renewing Ontario’s Electricity Distribution Sector: Putting the Consumer First , the essay, Panel has produced a thorough review of the british sense of humour, sector. Our plan builds a new model for electricity distribution in Ontario, one that creates robust, efficient and reflection, well-resourced utilities that will reduce costs to the consumer and case speluncean explorers, support the continued economic growth of this province. From the start, the course reflection essay, electricity distribution sector was helpful and supportive of our efforts, and their advice added immeasurably to our recommendations. We thank all those who met with us and in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, provided written submissions.

We were ably supported by staff at the Ontario Ministry of course essay, Energy, especially Ken Nakahara, Kaleb Ruch and Elizabeth Farrelly. John McGrath supplied writing and editorial services, and Navigant Consulting provided the march of the, technical and financial analysis of the sector. I personally wish to thank my fellow Panel members, Floyd Laughren and David McFadden, for their commitment, their hard work and their pragmatism. It is now up to all the partners in the electric distribution sector, the government, utilities and their owners and the regulator to deliver on essay the challenge we have given them. Consumers deserve a successful transformation of their electricity distribution sector. Murray Elston, Chair. Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel.

The Report of the Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel. Message from the is money a motivator, Chair Member Biographies – Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel Preface LDC Service Areas in Ontario Chapter 1 – The Imperfect World – How We Got Here Chapter 2 – The New World of course reflection, Electricity Chapter 3 – The LDC of the Future Chapter 4 – The Vision Chapter 5 – The Road Forward Chapter 6 – Recommendations Conclusion List of horror fake, Presenters/Stakeholders Glossary Notes. Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel. Mr. Reflection! Elston has extensive energy sector experience, serving as a former president and CEO of the Canadian Nuclear Association and past member of the Board of Hydro One Inc. He also sits on an Advisory Board for is money a motivator in the Samsung Canada. He is a current member and past Chair of the Canadian Nurses Foundation and reflection, a past Chair of the Board of the Walkerton Clean Water Centre. Mr.

Elston was a member of the Ontario Legislature from 1981 to 1995, holding such roles as Minister of Health, Chair of the Management Board of Cabinet, Minister of Financial Institutions, and Chair of the Public Accounts Committee. Mr. March Of The Full! Laughren serves as Laurentian University’s Chair of the Board of Governors and is a member of Ontario’s Economic Advisory Committee. He was named Chair of the Ontario Energy Board in March 1998, after a 27-year career in provincial politics. Mr. Course! Laughren served as a member of the Ontario legislature from of the penguins movie, 1971 to 1998, holding such roles as Deputy Premier and Minister of Finance. He chaired the Policy and Priorities Board of Cabinet, the course, Treasury Board and sat on british sense of humour the Cabinet Subcommittee on Industrial Assistance. Mr. McFadden is a partner at course essay, Gowling Lafleur Henderson and is Chair of the british sense, firm’s International Management Committee.

He has served as past Chair of the Toronto Board of Trade and its Task Force on course reflection essay the Electricity Industry, and sense of humour, was a member of the Ontario government’s Electricity Conservation and course, Supply Task Force. Mr. McFadden is a member of the Smart Grid Forum of the Independent Electricity System Operator, the Energy Council of Canada and the Council for Clean and Reliable Electricity. Penguins! Mr. McFadden served as a member of the Ontario legislature from 1985 to reflection essay, 1987. Ontario has developed a prosperous and diversified economy over the past century. This has permitted the penguins full, province to enjoy a high standard of course reflection, living combined with quality health care, education and is money a motivator in the workplace, other public services. This would not have been possible without efficient and cost-effective infrastructure, ranging from roads and transit systems to the provision of electricity. Investment in cost-effective infrastructure also improves Ontario’s competitiveness with other jurisdictions in North America and around the world. In its most recent annual report, the reflection, Ontario government’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and and Propaganda in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, Economic Progress said Ontario has great strengths economically and has achieved solid economic results.

The Task Force also said the province could do a lot better: “We have a wide prosperity gap with other large North American jurisdictions. The source of this gap is our inability to be as innovative as we could be in course, our economic life.” 1. Electricity is a critical building block not just of Ontario’s standard of living, but also of its ability to compete economically. In a highly competitive world, it is vital that electricity be delivered in case of the speluncean explorers, the most efficient and cost-effective manner. That is why the Ontario government appointed the Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel (Panel) to course, review the province’s local distribution companies (LDCs 2 ). Full! In order to ensure that Ontario’s LDCs deliver power at reflection, the lowest possible cost and contribute to age achievements, a strong economic future, the government 3 asked the Panel to look at whether a restructured distribution system could lead to price stability, a more efficient and course reflection essay, reliable system configuration, as well as fairness and value for money. While the Panel’s work involved a thorough review of the distribution sector, Panel members kept their efforts focused on one key question: How can the province’s LDCs deliver improved, cost-effective service to their customers while simultaneously supporting the future economic growth of Ontario?

Panel members recognized that their key responsibility was not to rearrange the is money workplace, pieces to deal with the course reflection essay, issues of today, but to Colonization in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o, make sure the province’s electricity distribution system puts its customers first, so that Ontario can prosper a decade from now and reflection essay, beyond. The Panel members heard from close to 85 stakeholders including LDCs, associations, consumer groups, unions, municipalities, government ministries and agencies, financial and a motivator, investment organizations and individuals from across the province. The Panel found that most presenters and submitters agreed that significant change is required if all the province’s LDCs are to adopt the technological innovations that will enhance the course essay, safety and reliability of the electricity system, reduce its operating cost, and enable a renewed focus on the customer. The Panel was encouraged to see that stakeholders in the industry are not wedded to the status quo. The Panel has also determined that Ontario’s electricity distribution system will require significant additional resources if it is to replace aging equipment and sense of humour, provide new services. Reflection Essay! The current structure of electricity distribution is Colonization and Propaganda in Matigari Wa Thiong´o, a barrier to course reflection, this required investment and needs to Colonization and Propaganda in Matigari Wa Thiong´o Essay, be changed. Ontario’s distribution system got started when community and business leaders realized in the early 1900’s that the economic well-being of their towns and cities depended on reflection essay having electricity readily available at an affordable cost. The province faces a similar challenge today.

In order to ensure the future well-being of case of the speluncean explorers, Ontarians, the reflection essay, electricity distribution system must be able to adapt to the coming technological and of the penguins full movie, economic challenges. This is the most significant test the distribution system has faced in one hundred years. Failure to meet the challenge will mean a diminished future for the people of Ontario. Figure 1: LDC Service Areas in Ontario. Source: Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) Ontario’s Electricity Distribution System – Local Distribution Company Service Areas.

Serving: Sarnia, Point Edward, Petrolia, Alvinston, Oil Springs and Watford Brant County Power Inc. Brantford Power Inc. Burlington Hydro Inc. Cambridge and North Dumfries Hydro Inc. Canadian Niagara Power Inc. (Fortis)

Serving: Fort Erie and course reflection essay, Port Colborne Cat Lake Power Utility Centre Wellington Hydro Ltd. Serving: Elora and penguins movie, Fergus Chapleau Public Utilities Corp Collus PowerStream. Serving: Collingwood, Stayner, Creemore and essay, Thornbury Co-operative Hydro Embrun Inc. Cornwall Street Railway Light and Power Company (Fortis) Dubreuil Forest Products Ltd. E.L.K. Energy Inc. Serving: Essex, Harrow, Belle River, Comber, Kingsville and Cottham Eastern Ontario Power (Fortis) Serving: Gananoque Enersource Hydro Mississauga Inc. Athens Age Achievements! Entegrus Powerlines Inc. Serving: Parkhill, Strathroy, Mount Brydges, Newbury, Dutton, Wallaceburg, Dresden, Bothwell, Thamesville, Ridgetown, Chatham, Blenheim, Merlin, Tilbury, Wheatley, Erieau EnWin Utilities Ltd.

Serving: Windsor Erie Thames Powerlines Corporation. Serving: Aylmer, Belmont, Burgessville, Beachville, Clinton, Embro, Ingersoll, Otterville, Port Stanley, Norwich, Tavistock and Thamesford, West Perth Espanola Regional Hydro Distribution Corporation. Serving: Espanola, Webbwood and course essay, Massey Essex Powerlines Corporation. Serving: Amherstburg, LaSalle, Leamington and Tecumseh Festival Hydro Inc. Serving: Stratford, St. Mary’s, Seaforth, Hensall, Brussels, Zurich and Dashwood Five Nations Energy. Serving: Attawapiskat First Nation, Fort Albany Power Corporation and Kashechewan First Nation Fort Frances Power Greater Sudbury Hydro Inc. Serving: Sudbury and West Nipissing Grimsby Power Inc. Guelph Hydro Electric Systems Inc. Serving: Guelph and Rockwood Haldimand County Hydro inc. Halton Hills Hydro Inc.

Hearst Power Distribution Company Limited Horizon Utilities Corporation. Serving: Hamilton, St. Catharines Hydro 2000 Inc. Serving: Ottawa, Casselman Innisfil Hydro Distribution Systems Limited Kitchener-Wilmot Hydro Inc. Kingston Hydro (Utilities Kingston) Kenora Hydro Electric Corporation Ltd. Case Of The Speluncean Explorers! Lakefront Utilities Inc.

Serving: Cobourg Lakeland Power Distribution Ltd. Serving: Bracebridge, Burk’s Falls, Huntsville, Magnetawan and Sundridge London Hydro Inc. Reflection! Midland Power Utility Corporation Milton Hydro Distribution Inc. Newmarket-Tay Power Distribution Ltd. Serving: Newmarket, Tay Township and Perth County Niagara-on-the-Lake Hydro Inc. Niagara Peninsula Energy Inc. Serving: Niagara Falls, Lincoln, Pelham and West Lincoln Norfolk Power Distribution Inc. North Bay Hydro Distribution Limited Northern Ontario Wires Inc. Serving: Cochrane, Iroquois Falls and Kapuskasing Oakville Hydro Electricity Distribution Inc.

Orangeville Hydro Limited. Serving: Orangeville and Grand Valley Orillia Power Distribution Corporation Oshawa PUC Networks Inc. Ottawa River Power Corporation. Serving: Almonte, Beachburg, Killaloe and Pembroke Parry Sound Power Corporation Peterborough Distribution Incorporated. Serving: Peterborough, Lakefield and Norwood PowerStream Inc. Serving: Alliston, Aurora, Barrie, Beeton, Bradford West Gwillimbury, Penetanguishene, Markham, Richmond Hill, Thornton, Tottenham and march of the full movie, Vaughan PUC Distribution Inc. Serving: Sault Ste.

Marie Renfrew Hydro Rideau St. Lawrence Distribution Inc. Serving: Westport, Prescott, Cardinal, Iroquois, Morrisburg and Williamsburg Sioux Lookout Hydro Inc. St. Thomas Energy Inc. Thunder Bay Hydro Electricity Distribution Inc. Tillsonburg Hydro Inc. Toronto Hydro-Electric System Limited Veridian Connections Inc. Serving: Ajax, Beaverton, Belleville, Bowmanville, Cannington, Gravenhurst, Newcastle, Orono, Pickering, Port Hope, Port Perry, Sunderland and course, Uxbridge Wasaga Distribution Inc. Waterloo North Hydro Inc. Serving: Waterloo, Woolwich and a motivator in the, Wellesley Welland Hydro-Electric System Corp.

Wellington North Power Inc. Serving: Holstein, Mount Forest and Arthur West Coast Huron Energy Inc. Serving: Hanover, Huron-Kinloss, Kincardine, Saugeen Shores, South Bruce, Wingham, Brockton and Minto Whitby Hydro Electric Corporation Woodstock Hydro Services Inc. The Imperfect World – How We Got Here. Ontario’s electricity distribution system is reflection essay, a product of its history.

One cannot understand how the province arrived at the current structure if one does not recognize the importance of the factors surrounding its birth. The province’s electricity distribution sector is the joint invention of the Ontario government and the province’s local distribution utilities. It was created in the early 1900’s under pressure from business leaders and politicians in Toronto, Kitchener, London and other communities who understood that their communities needed an affordable supply of electricity in order to prosper. 4. The towns and cities in Ontario at the beginning of the of humour, 1900’s also knew they needed an assured supply of this new source of energy. So local politicians and business leaders campaigned for access to the electricity generated by Niagara Falls. The pressure grew to such an extent that in 1906 the Ontario government created the Hydro-Electric Power Corporation (HEPC) to course reflection essay, transmit power from the Falls. 5 HEPC and its successor Ontario Hydro established the generation and transmission facilities that supplied electricity to Colonization and Propaganda, generations of Ontarians. From that foundation, the province’s utilities grew as the province’s economy grew. At one point in 1923, Ontario had 393 different utilities supplying electricity to customers. Course Essay! 6 Essentially, any municipality could create a distribution utility, and HEPC or Ontario Hydro would supply the of the explorers, power, both generation and transmission.

This was basically the course reflection essay, state of affairs until 1996, when a provincially appointed committee led by the Hon. Donald S. Macdonald recommended significant changes to the structure of municipal electricity utilities (MEUs). The Macdonald Committee 7 recommended that Ontario’s 307 remaining MEUs be merged with the distribution systems then operated by Ontario Hydro to create shoulder-to-shoulder distribution utilities along regional and workplace, county lines. A shoulder-to-shoulder distribution system would have resulted in a smaller number of utilities with contiguous boundaries, and no distributors embedded inside another distributor’s territory. The 1996 report, “A Framework for Competition,” also proposed that Ontario Hydro be broken up into separate generation and transmission companies. 8. Two-and-a-half years later, the Ontario legislature passed the Energy Competition Act (ECA) , putting into place a number of the reflection essay, recommendations of the Macdonald Committee. Is Money! The ECA created a new company for course generating electricity (Ontario Power Generation) and another to take over Ontario Hydro’s transmission and distribution assets (Hydro One Inc.). The ECA did not however mandate the creation of shoulder-to-shoulder utilities that would follow regional or county boundaries. March Movie! While the ECA did confirm that municipal governments owned the electricity utilities, it required that they be transformed into business corporations under the Ontario Business Corporations Act (OBCA) , a departure from the past when local commissions were the norm. Even though the legislation did not mandate a wholesale consolidation of the province’s MEUs, a flurry of mergers and acquisitions did occur during this period, reducing the number of utilities from 307 to course reflection, 89.

9. Many utilities were sold by their municipal owners, who took advantage of a temporary lifting of a transfer tax to monetize the value of the assets. The transfer tax holiday eliminated a 33% tax that would have been levied on the proceeds of the sale. 88 of the amityville, smaller utilities were bought by Hydro One Networks, and absorbed into its distribution network; an reflection, 89 th , Brampton Hydro, was purchased by Hydro One Inc. and and Propaganda in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o, set up as a separate subsidiary. Larger utilities were created when their municipal owners were amalgamated, such as Hydro Ottawa, Chatham-Kent Hydro, Greater Sudbury Hydro, Hamilton Hydro, and Toronto Hydro. Many other utilities merged with neighbouring utilities. Since then, there have been a handful of further consolidations among LDCs, including PowerStream, Veridian Connections, Horizon Utilities, and Entegrus Powerlines. However, the pace of consolidation and rationalization of the distribution sector has slowed to reflection essay, a snail’s pace. Today, Ontario continues to have a large number of LDCs, with a wide variety of sizes.

Ontario’s fragmented system for british of humour distributing electricity is unique in Canada, a product of history rather than the outcome of rational planning. Course Essay! No other jurisdiction has chosen this structure as a desired outcome. There are, in fact, 80 licensed electricity distributors operating in golden, Ontario. While they are all licensed by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), the OEB does not regulate the rates charged by three of them: Cornwall Street Railway Light Power Company Ltd (Cornwall Electric) is exempt from rate regulation as it obtains its electricity from Quebec; Dubreuil Lumber operates mostly on company-owned land; and the distribution assets that serve the course essay, Cat Lake community are managed by Hydro One Networks. Golden Age Achievements! 10. All the reflection essay, remaining utilities have their rates regulated by the OEB.

The rate-regulated utilities include the province’s largest LDC, Hydro One Networks, as well as 76 others. The range and athens golden, variety of the province’s LDCs is remarkable and course reflection essay, cannot be found in any other jurisdiction in Canada. One of the smaller utilities, Hydro 2000, serves just 1,208 customers in the eastern Ontario towns of athens, Alfred and course reflection, Plantagenet. 11 The largest distributor in golden, the province, Hydro One Networks, has a thousand times as many customers. The province’s electricity distribution system is also notable for course reflection essay the large number of small LDCs. 12. There are 29 LDCs in case of the, Ontario that have fewer than 12,500 customers each. 13 These ‘small’ LDCs account for over a third of essay, all the utilities in of the speluncean, Ontario, but less than 4% of the province’s electricity customers. Essay! The median-sized LDC in Ontario has 19,885 customers. The average-sized LDC has 65,394 customers. The fact that the median is so far below the average shows that there is a preponderance of small LDCs in Ontario.

Hydro One Inc. put it this way in its submission: “When compared against other Canadian jurisdictions, Ontario has almost twice as many LDCs… as all of the british of humour, remaining provinces combined.” 14. Source: Based on 2011 Ontario Energy Board Yearbook of Electricity Distributors Data. Not only do Ontario’s LDCs vary in size, they vary in the density of their customer base. Course Essay! 16. Toronto Hydro, which serves the amityville, province’s largest city, has an average of course reflection, 71 customers for every kilometre of distribution line. Hydro One Networks, which predominately serves sparsely populated rural areas, has an average of just 10 customers for every kilometre of distribution line. Ontario’s distribution sector is unusual in another respect. The boundaries of many of the LDCs lack any coherence or consistency.

A number of utilities serve a patchwork of widely separated areas with noncontiguous boundaries. They include for example, Veridian Connections, Erie Thames Powerlines, and Entegrus Powerlines. Fig. 3 shows the boundaries of speluncean, one of them, Veridian Connections. Course Reflection Essay! In most cases the sense of humour, intervening territory between these non-contiguous areas is served by Hydro One Networks. Figure 3: Veridian Connections Service Areas. At the reflection essay, same time, a number of municipalities have multiple distributors serving residents within their municipal boundaries. For example, residents and businesses in communities such as Ottawa, Hamilton, Chatham-Kent, Sudbury and Kingston are served by golden either Hydro One Networks or their local utility, depending on where they live. The boundaries of these LDCs are a remnant of the cities’ preamalgamation borders and have not kept pace with change. The status quo also produces examples such as Thornton, a village near Lake Simcoe with 1,000 inhabitants, where the service areas of three separate LDCs converge, namely Hydro One Networks, PowerStream and Innisfil Hydro.

Variation also exists in the ownership of LDCs, but to a much lesser extent. Essay! Ontario’s provincial and municipal governments own the british of humour, vast majority of the province’s distribution utilities. Course! The Ontario government owns Hydro One Inc., which in turn owns three distribution utilities: Hydro One Networks, Hydro One Brampton, and Hydro One Remote Communities. Hydro One Networks also operates the distribution assets that serve the Cat Lake community. There is only one private sector majority LDC owner in Ontario, FortisOntario. A Motivator! FortisOntario owns 100% of three smaller utilities in different parts of the province: Algoma Power; Canadian Niagara Power, which serves customers in Port Colborne, Gananoque and Fort Erie; and Cornwall Electric. However, FortisOntario and two investment firms also hold minority interests in a number of essay, other LDCs. FortisOntario owns 10% of Westario Power, which serves communities in Bruce, Grey and Huron counties, as well as 10% of Rideau St Lawrence Distribution and amityville fake, Grimsby Power. In 2007, Corix Utilities, whose majority shareholder is the reflection, British Columbia Investment Management Corporation, bought a 10% interest in Chatham-Kent Energy, now known as Entegrus. A number of pension plans have found electricity distributors to be very attractive investments, as the stable rates-of-return they earn from a regulated industry are ideal for their portfolio.

In 2001, Borealis Infrastructure, the infrastructure investment arm of the british sense of humour, Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System (OMERS), bought a 10% stake in Enersource, which serves customers in course, Mississauga.17 Michael Nobrega, the President and CEO of OMERS, has said that the pension plan would like to increase its investment in Colonization by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, Enersource, and invest in reflection essay, other larger utilities in the province, but the existing transfer tax imposes a financial penalty to do so. 18,19. The rest of Ontario’s LDCs are either wholly owned by one of the province’s municipalities, or jointly owned by a number of municipalities. The municipal ownership of LDCs makes itself felt in a number of ways. Municipal councillors are often appointed to the Boards of the local utility and amityville, municipal governments frequently use the dividends they receive to help pay for municipal services and capital projects. If Ontario was to set out to establish a new electricity distribution system from course essay, scratch, it is highly doubtful that it would choose to replicate the current structure. The arrangement of Ontario’s distribution system cannot be found anywhere else in Canada.

Many other provinces have only golden, a single electricity distributor that is part of a vertically integrated utility handling both the transmission and the distribution of electricity. Small or Medium Utility. There is further evidence that Ontario’s electricity distribution system is unique, and it comes from the province’s natural gas sector. Ontario’s two main natural gas distributors are Enbridge and Union Gas. Enbridge has 2 million customers, and Union has 1.4 million customers; both have more customers than the province’s largest electricity distributor, Hydro One Networks. 20. The fragmentation that is the hallmark of the Ontario distribution system comes at a cost. Reflection! The Panel’s research and analysis shows that the horror, current approach to delivering electricity is course reflection, costing families, farms and businesses more than it should. Compared to their larger counterparts, smaller LDCs tend to have higher per capita costs for Operations, Maintenance Administration (OMA), which are passed down to customers through rates.

There is a duplication of equipment and facilities among neighbouring LDCs. The large number of LDCs also increases the cost of providing necessary regulation. LDCs have varying capabilities, which affects their capacity to meet evolving customer needs. The key question for the Panel is whether there is a better way to manage the costs of delivering electricity to the consumer in Ontario. As Fig. 5 shows, 22% of what a typical residential customer in Ontario pays for electricity goes towards distribution charges paid to amityville fake, LDCs. Figure 5: Components of a Typical Residential Electricity Bill in Ontario.

Source: Ontario Energy Board. 51% Electricity (Commodity) Charges 22% Distribution Charges 7% Transmission Charges 4% Debt Retirement Charges 4% Regulatory Charges 12% Taxes. *Based on consumption of 800 kWh per month, prices as of November 1, 2012. The province’s distribution sector has been able to avoid a lot of attention from consumers because local distribution costs encompass a smaller proportion of a typical electricity bill. Course! The Panel believes however that there are efficiencies to be found that will ease future costs to consumers. Data show that there have been significant increases in the OMA costs of the distribution sector. March Of The Full Movie! The OMA expenses for utilities increased by more than 42% between 2005 and 2011. During the same time the number of customers served by LDCs saw an essay, increase of just 7% and in Matigari Wa Thiong´o Essay, inflation was just 11.6%.21 Moreover, when compared to municipalities, LDCs’ OMA costs increased by 36% between 2005 and 2010, while the total operating costs of municipalities increased by just 26%. 22. The increase in course reflection essay, OMA expenses was not spread evenly throughout the sector. When one looks closer at individual LDCs, it is clear that OMA costs per customer are generally higher for smaller LDCs.

As Fig. Athens Age Achievements! 6 and essay, Fig. 7 shows, OMA costs follow a general rule: the larger the LDC, the lower the OMA costs per customer. 23. Figure 6: OMA Costs per Customer for Small, Medium and of the penguins, Large LDCs. Source: Ontario Energy Board, 2011 Yearbook of course essay, Electricity Distributors Data. Figure 7: OMA Costs per Customer by is money in the workplace LDC Size. Source: Ontario Energy Board, 2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors Data.

To put it another way, in reflection, 2011 OMA costs per customer for a motivator in the small LDCs were, on average, 75% higher than for large LDCs. This is in part driven by the fact that small LDCs on reflection average have approximately 2.2 full-time employees for every 1,000 customers, while medium and large LDCs have approximately 1.7 full-time employees for every 1,000 customers. The cost of these additional employees is ultimately borne by the electricity consumer. Even though the operating costs of small LDCs are generally higher, they would be even greater if they incorporated the full cost of march full movie, distributing low-voltage power to customers. Some LDCs, such as Hydro One Brampton, Hydro Ottawa and PowerStream buy high-voltage power from course reflection essay, Hydro One Networks, then run it through their own transformer stations to step down or reduce the horror, voltage of the electricity before sending it to consumers. Essay! Some large LDCs and most small and mid-sized LDCs buy their power from horror, Hydro One Networks but at a lower voltage after it has already been stepped down because they have no transformer stations themselves.

A number of small and mid-sized “embedded” LDCs buy low-voltage power directly from a “host” distributor. These are critical distinctions, as the small and mid-sized LDCs are charged for reflection the use of the transformer stations and other distribution assets required to serve their customers. LDCs do not typically reflect these charges in the standard operating and capital costs reported to is money a motivator in the, the OEB, leading to understated OMA totals, though they do ultimately pass these transformation and low voltage distribution costs on to their customers through a separate recovery mechanism. Nonetheless, the essay, differentiation between large and small LDCs’ OMA costs could be even greater. OMA costs are not the only reason that customers of and Propaganda in Matigari Wa Thiong´o, smaller LDCs generally pay more for their electricity than customers of larger LDCs; there is also the issue of financing costs. Smaller LDCs usually have to pay more to raise money and attract investment. Course Essay! As Fig. 8 shows, smaller LDCs are typically charged higher interest rates and financing charges than LDCs that have a larger asset and customer base.

Larger LDCs generally have access to a wider variety of capital markets, and benefit from the british sense of humour, best terms and lowest debt costs. These lower financing costs are passed on to their customers. Figure 8: Average Financing Costs of Long-Term Debt by LDC Size. This difference in course reflection essay, financing costs will become only more significant in the future. Utilities will need billions of dollars in additional investment to transform themselves into modern LDCs that use up-todate technology and offer higher levels of service to their customers. In Matigari! This investment will be more easily secured by larger LDCs. Currently, LDCs can turn to Infrastructure Ontario (IO) for loans.

This provincial government agency has loaned 22 LDCs more than $200 million for capital projects. Course Essay! 24 It charges LDCs between 3.2% and 3.3% for a 15-year loan.25 There seems to be little public policy rationale for a government adding to penguins full movie, its debt load for this purpose, when private financing is course essay, available. It is case speluncean, already a struggle for many small LDCs to essay, meet the demands of renewing their networks and adding state-of-the-art technology and services. Fig. 9 shows that small LDCs have typically focused their expenditures on maintaining their existing asset base, while medium and large LDCs have undertaken more improvements and capital projects that have added new capacity and services. In addition, larger LDCs tend to british sense, reinvest the majority of their net income back into the business. This pattern of investment is a concern for the future of the electricity system in course reflection, Ontario, and the families and businesses that depend on it. Unless the entire distribution industry spends the money needed to modernize its equipment and a motivator in the workplace, offer new services, differences will continue to grow between two classes of electricity consumers: those who have the course reflection essay, ability to control costs and obtain value-added services from their electricity distributor; and those without access to such services. As a result of the current structure of the distribution sector, there are more facilities and distribution equipment in Ontario than are needed to efficiently serve electricity customers. Hydro One Networks, for instance, has divided the of the, province into 52 separate service areas for distribution.

Each of these 52 service areas has its own operations centre. Often these centres are just down the road, or in the case of Orangeville, just across the street from the operations centre owned by course the local distributor. One of Entegrus Powerlines’ operations centres is just a few kilometres away from the Hydro One Networks’ operations centre in Chatham-Kent. Approximately half of these service areas, including Guelph, Peterborough, Kingston, Arnprior and Kapuskasing, have a Hydro One Networks operations centre as well as an operations centre for one or more LDCs within their boundaries. The OEB assumed responsibility for regulating the province’s distribution utilities in 1998. One of its roles is to speluncean, protect consumers by setting just and course, reasonable rates while providing reasonable financial returns for the industry. The OEB’s operating budget for 2012/2013 is $34.97 million dollars.

26 The OEB recovers its costs from the utilities, agencies and retailers it regulates: approximately 80% of its revenue comes from the is money a motivator in the, electricity sector; the other 20% is paid for by the natural gas sector. 27. The OEB’s operating costs, which are ultimately born by the consumer, are higher than they need be because of the fragmented nature of Ontario’s distribution sector. The large number of LDCs in course reflection essay, Ontario requires more OEB resources to monitor their operations and adjudicate their rate applications than would otherwise be the case. A review of the cost of regulation indicates that customers of small LDCs tend to pay more for the regulation of their utilities than customers of large LDCs. Full Movie! According to a 2011 report by Ontario’s Auditor General, the cost of filing a full Cost of Service (COS) rate application for course essay many small and mid-sized LDCs ranges from $100,000 to $250,000. 28 While the cost of filing a COS application for in the larger LDCs can be as much as $1 million or more, 29 the cost per course reflection, customer is actually much lower because of their larger customer base. The Auditor General’s report noted that the cost of regulatory scrutiny can consequently be as high as $40 per customer for smaller utilities, while it shrinks to about $1 per horror, customer for the largest utilities. 30. The province’s distribution workforce is “greying,” and course reflection, the wave of retirements expected over the coming decade threatens to cause a shortage of skilled labour in of the penguins full, the province’s LDCs. Ontario’s LDCs employ a little over 10,200 people.

31 In 2008, a study for The Electricity Sector Council of Canada estimated that about 45% of the electricity distributors’ employees across Canada were between the course, ages of 45 and in Matigari by Ngugi Essay, 54, putting many of them now, four years later, on the edge of retirement. 32. According to this 2008 study the reflection, situation appears most critical for british the highly skilled trades that are crucial to the safe and reliable operation of the electricity grid: 53% of essay, power system operators across the electricity system were aged 45 to 54 years; 42% of power line workers were also in that age group; 74% of their managers and supervisors were 45 years of age or older. 33. Many of these employees cannot be replaced quickly. A linesperson requires extensive apprenticeship before he or she can work on dangerous high-voltage lines and electricity infrastructure. Electrical engineers need significant training and experience to design and maintain systems. The recent economic downturn has slowed down this oncoming skills shortage.

However, a wave of retirements is inevitable. 34. Consolidation can be of significant assistance in dealing with these workforce issues. March Of The! Some of the course essay, job reductions that will come from the increased efficiency of the sector can be painlessly absorbed by is money in the retirements. There would also be a bigger talent pool in larger LDCs, making it easier to shift employees into vacant positions without the need for new hires. The next few years present a rare opportunity to rationalize the reflection essay, distribution system with a reduced impact on employees. The current distribution system in Ontario is mainly a product of history. There is a real danger that the heavy hand of case of the speluncean, history will hold the sector back from contributing to the future economic well-being of the province.

LDCs are a crucial part of the infrastructure that supports and powers the province’s economy. Ontario needs to course reflection essay, have them be creators, and not just observers, of its future economic growth. Around the world, dramatic changes are occurring to the way people generate and case, use electricity. Electricity distributors are having to rethink how they do business in order to stay ahead of the curve. For decades, LDCs were relatively passive players in reflection essay, the electricity sector, delivering electricity that was generated elsewhere. They have been the brokers of a one-way flow of energy. The electricity would be produced at a central generation station using hydroelectric, coal, or nuclear energy, where it would then be transmitted, often over long distances, to local communities and then distributed to customers. Jurisdictions everywhere are changing how they generate electricity and how they use it.

Instead of mega-projects, they are building smaller-scale distributed generation closer to where the energy will be consumed. In order to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that come from the use of carbonbased fuels, industrialized nations everywhere are turning their minds towards new uses for electricity, such as emission-free electric vehicles. Electricity distributors will have to play a central role in making all of this work. Case Of The! This promises to be a far more complex and sophisticated role than Ontario’s LDCs are used to currently. At the same time, many countries are facing a second challenge: they have to replace the reflection, aging and outmoded infrastructure they use to distribute electricity. This cannot be done on age achievements a simple likefor- like replacement. Electro-mechanical switches that were once the essay, backbone of the transmission and in the, distribution systems are going the way of the typewriter. The future for electricity distribution is computerized and reflection essay, data-driven.

If this were the recording industry, it would be like jumping from LPs to digital MP3 files. Just as this new digital world shook up telephone companies and Colonization and Propaganda in Matigari, led to the creation of new consumer services, the course, advent of computerized switching and digital data in electricity distribution will present challenges for movie LDCs. Course Reflection! Some of the larger ones, such as Hydro One Networks, Horizon Utilities and PowerStream have already taken advantage of the new technology to develop new services for customers. Others are in danger of being left behind. The investment needed to transform the province’s current electricity distribution system into one that uses modern technology to provide new customer services will cost billions of dollars. This investment is critical to ensuring the preservation of and in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o, the future economic prosperity of sustainable communities throughout Ontario. With every challenge, there is an essay, opportunity. The world of electricity is in Matigari Wa Thiong´o, changing, and Ontario has the chance to course reflection essay, harness these changes so that they enhance the province’s economic competiveness and the quality of life of its people.

This cannot be done without a modern, high-tech distribution system. Ontario now has the opportunity to case speluncean, ensure that all utilities in the province are equipped to meet these future challenges and deliver the course reflection essay, future to the electricity consumer as efficiently as possible. Ontario’s economic prosperity and the future of its communities depend upon it. Distributors throughout North America are starting to replace their aging infrastructure with new technology that is being widely described as the case of the speluncean explorers, Smart Grid. The Smart Grid is a paradigm shift that changes the transmission and distribution of electricity much the way cell phones revolutionized telecommunications.

It uses computers, sensors, automation, digital communications and monitoring to add intelligence to networks whose architecture hasn’t changed substantially since the beginning of the 20 th century. Source: Ontario Ministry of Energy. The Smart Grid gives consumers more control over their electricity usage. Essay! The more immediate payoffs however are for the province’s distribution and transmission utilities. The Smart Grid allows them to integrate the variable output that comes from renewable energy sources and accommodate the charging of electric vehicles. When energy storage becomes commercially viable, the “smart” distribution networks will be able to handle that as well. Smart Grid switches also allow utilities to create self-healing distribution networks that can quickly reroute power around outages. Fake! The urgent need for this transformation was highlighted in the summer of 2012 by the widespread blackouts that hit millions of households in reflection, the northeast United States.

Repair crews could not restore power quickly because there were no high-tech sensors to allow them to locate outages and reroute power to athens, isolate the course, problems. This scenario is less likely at some of is money a motivator in the, Ontario’s more innovative utilities. PowerStream for instance, which serves about course reflection, 333,000 customers in by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, York Region and Simcoe County, is one of the leaders in engineering computerized intelligence into the distribution network. Its new state-of-the-art control centre has led to enough improvement in outage response times that its reliability index now exceeds 99.99%. Trucks are often dispatched before the first customer calls in to complain about an outage. This is reflection essay, just the first step in Ontario.

As the government’s Long Term Energy Plan described it, “we are moving toward a modern, smart electricity system that will help consumers have greater control over their energy usage – even when they’re not at home… and make it easier for consumers to amityville horror, produce their own power.” 35. The first phase of this new world for energy consumers is occurring in the home. It began with the smart meters that are installed in virtually all homes and businesses. Following this, many homeowners applied for and received microFIT contracts that allowed them to course essay, install solar panels and wind turbines to feed electricity back into the grid. Next, manufacturers developed stand-alone modules that allow homeowners to turn off lights and british sense of humour, small appliances using a smart phone app. The same app can connect with a home thermostat, allowing homeowners to raise or lower the temperature on their furnace or central air conditioner. A number of major appliance manufacturers are now selling washer/dryers and course reflection, refrigerators with built-in Wi-Fi connectivity.

This functionality allows owners to athens golden, program the appliances and to turn them on-andoff remotely using a home’s Wi-Fi network. These are just the course essay, first steps in in the, the making of a “Smart Home.” As the “Smart Home” continues to develop, homeowners will have increasing opportunities to engage in their own energy management with easy-to-understand graphic displays of their moment-to-moment energy usage; program furnaces and course essay, air conditioners from anywhere that has the internet; and instruct fridges and dryers to reduce consumption during periods of high prices. They will also be able to use energy they generate from their own solar panels and heat pumps to power the is money, house, feed back into the grid, or charge an electric vehicle. As the number of electric vehicles increase, they will have a number of significant impacts on course essay the distribution system. They will not only increase the consumption of electricity but also put new pressure on the network’s reliability; an electric vehicle with a quick-charge capability may draw the same amount of electricity as a single-family home.

Electric vehicles are not just a mode of transportation, but in the future they could also be storage devices. This would require an unprecedented sophistication in the distribution network. Athens! Owners could charge their vehicles overnight using lower-cost power, drive it to work, and sell the energy they do not need to return home back into the grid at higher prices during peak demand periods. There is a new equation for delivering electricity to the customer. Instead of relying on large generating stations and transmitting the power over long distances, much smaller generators are being connected directly to distribution systems. Utilities around the course reflection, world have found this an appealing alternative when faced with community opposition to large transmission lines.

Distributed energy comes in many shapes and sizes: While the distributed energy of case explorers, today is renewable energy, in the future it will likely include energy storage. The increase in renewable energy generation has presented a challenge for many LDCs in Ontario. Wind-power and solar-power generation took off in course reflection, Ontario after the Ontario government introduced the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) and microFIT programs, which provide set prices for the production of athens age achievements, renewable energy. This began changing the traditional one-way flow of electricity from central generating stations such as Niagara Falls or the Darlington nuclear station into a more decentralized, intermittent two-way flow of electricity. Distribution companies now have to adjust to fluctuating power flows and reflection, changes in voltage. Colonization And Propaganda In Matigari By Ngugi Wa Thiong´o! Many LDCs have found it difficult to connect FIT and microFIT projects because they have outmoded systems that were designed for one-way energy flows. The problem is a critical one for the distribution sector, because the Long-Term Energy Plan forecasts an increase of approximately 9,000 megawatts (MW) in renewable power (excluding renewable power from hydroelectric) between 2010 and 2030.

36. This increase in renewable energy is just one aspect of a larger trend towards the decentralization of the power supply. Distributed generation would see smaller, cleaner sources of generation that reduce communities’ dependence on course power transmitted over long distances from large, centralized power plants. Distributed generation includes other “close-to-load” technologies, such as combined heat and athens golden age achievements, power (CHP) and district energy, which are expected to increasingly provide an alternative to course reflection, the conventional generation/transmission/distribution paradigm. Further off, but still expected, are improvements in energy storage. Wide-scale storage will fundamentally change the economics of electricity production, as it will allow the stockpiling of energy that previously had to be consumed as soon as it was produced.

High engineering and british of humour, construction costs currently stand in the way of extensive adoption of energy storage, but technologies are improving. Like distributed generation, energy storage is ideal for local communities. Generation and consumption are not the course reflection, only things that are changing in the energy world; so is the energy consumer. It used to a motivator in the workplace, be said that people just wanted the reflection essay, certainty that lights would go on when they turned on the switch. This is no longer the case.

The new computerized networks are giving consumers power and choice they never had before. Instead of being passive consumers, many want to have increased control over march of the penguins movie the electricity they use. A recent study has shown there is a new emerging diversity of consumers with different needs and essay, profiles. The consulting company, Accenture, recently published a report, Actionable Insights for the New Energy Consumer . Accenture proposes that there are now four broad types of electricity consumers: 37. Consumers who want predictability, with a consistent, stable bill.

Consumers who want the lowest possible price. Consumers who use the latest technology to control their consumption. Consumers who were willing to pay more for renewable energy. Accenture suggests these last two consumer groups, the “Save Time” and “Save the Planet” customers will grow in importance over time, as they are found more often in the 18 to 34 age groups. Is Money Workplace! As Accenture points out “more than ever, consumers are seeking added value, personal connection and products and course essay, services that align with their lifestyles – all of which go beyond the traditional energy experience.” 38. New electricity consumers take the same approach to energy that they take to everything else they buy. They are demanding more from the athens, products and services they purchase.

If they are not satisfied, they will go elsewhere. Tomorrow’s LDCs must adapt to increased competition from other service providers such as telephone and cable companies if they hope to satisfy changing customer desires. They must master the new technologies and ways of doing business if they hope to survive as important players in the energy world. There is reflection, a new era of british sense, electrification looming, and LDCs have to essay, adapt, not just for british sense of humour their own sakes, but for reflection their customers’ benefit as well. LDCs need to march of the full movie, be an active contributor to course reflection essay, an electricity system that will enhance the future competiveness of the provincial economy, and provide a firm foundation for case of the sustainable communities. From the outset, the Panel’s mandate required that it not just address the course reflection, status quo, but also position LDCs so they can flourish a decade from now and, in sense of humour, doing so, enhance the economic competitiveness of the province. There will be increased demands for service, and reflection, increased requirements for investment to renew and transform the distribution network. Horror Fake! Any electricity distributor of the future will need to meet a number of objectives if it is to serve its customers in the new era of electricity distribution.

The very idea of an reflection, LDC is movie, going to change. When Ontario’s distributors were born, they were the hightech companies of their age and helped transform the essay, economy. Sense! A lot has changed since then, but not in the distribution sector. If Alexander Graham Bell were alive today, he would not recognize the telephone he invented. Thomas Edison on the other hand, the father of the light bulb and electricity distribution, would feel quite at home with the current use of his inventions. Electricity distribution utilities are now facing a difficult challenge. Will they be able to transform themselves into modern high-tech energy companies? Some have already started down that road.

James Rogers, the Chair, President and CEO of Duke Energy, the largest electricity utility in North America, describes Duke as “a high-tech company disguised as a utility.” 39. This future is not that far away; parts of it are already here. If people look closely, they can see glimpses of what the electricity distributor of the future will look like. The new era of course reflection, electrification will involve more efficient utilities, with a stronger capital base that will enable them to modernize their equipment and have a renewed focus on the consumer. Customer service is being revolutionized around the world.

Businesses know that good service brings added value to the customer and march of the full movie, can establish a lasting relationship that will return dividends to the business in the future. To start with, all electricity consumers should be able to course essay, access immediate and responsive service from their LDC, whether it is a large utility or a small one. Yet many smaller utilities have been slow to adopt the march of the full, provision of 24-hour service response. Most of them do not have 24/7 control rooms to monitor and control their networks. There is a varying capacity among LDCs to course essay, adopt new practices. It is golden, fair to say that innovations in reflection, customer service come from larger utilities more often than smaller ones. Two of the province’s larger utilities have used the comprehensive digital data they have obtained to of the speluncean, develop new services that bring added value for course reflection essay the customer. Hydro One Networks has a Geographic Information System (GIS) that gives it data on the location of all of the poles, transformers and equipment on its distribution network. It has used this information to case, build a smart-phone app that not only tells customers the location of a power outage, but how many people are affected, whether crews are on site, and when power will be restored.

At the end of October 2012, 30,550 customers of Hydro One Networks had downloaded the app. 40 Horizon Utilities, serving Hamilton and St. Catherines, has pioneered efforts in “energy mapping.” In a pilot project with the Ontario Power Authority (OPA), it is combining customer data from course, smart meters with information obtained from the Municipal Property Assessment Corporation on a home’s size, date of construction, energy type, air conditioning, and whether it has a finished basement and a swimming pool.41 That allows Horizon Utilities to identify customers who stand to benefit the most from energy conservation programs. The aim is to develop a best practice that any LDC in Ontario can adopt. British Sense! 42. As Chapter 1 has shown, the distribution sector has plenty of course, room to moderate its costs for delivering electricity. Of The Speluncean Explorers! Some smaller utilities have realized this and have developed ways to increase their efficiency that do not involve consolidation. The Cornerstone Hydro Electric Concepts Association (CHEC) is a group of 12 LDCs scattered from course essay, Prescott in Colonization and Propaganda in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o, eastern Ontario to Goderich in the west, and north to Huntsville. CHEC’s smallest member has 3,441 customers, while its largest has 15,723 customers. 43 Members of the CHEC Group have reduced their costs by reflection essay jointly developing conservation and demand management (CDM) programs, sharing regulatory costs, and jointly purchasing smart meters and consulting services.

While the CHEC Group has achieved savings, the co-operative model is not stable enough to be used as a template for the transformation of the distribution sector. For one thing, participation is voluntary; some CHEC members have stayed out of one or more related back-office arrangements. This reduces the potential cost savings. Secondly, CHEC’s largest member, Collus Power, has entered into a partnership with PowerStream, to british of humour, get the advantages that come from course, linking with a larger, innovative utility. There has been another more commonly seen method for increasing efficiency, and that is through the merger or acquisition of nearby utilities. The evidence shows that these consolidations have resulted in golden age achievements, significant cost savings and efficiencies: 44. Veridian Connections, 1999: Veridian was created though the consolidation of the three neighbouring distribution utilities in Pickering, Ajax and Clarington. In the first three years of operation, Veridian reportedly achieved savings of reflection, 13% in OMA expenses.

PowerStream, 2004: PowerStream was created in 2004 with the voluntary merger of the march of the penguins, distribution utilities of Markham and Vaughan and the acquisition of Richmond Hill’s LDC. That consolidation brought about $6.9 million in annual cost savings Veridian Connections’ purchase of Scugog and Gravenhurst Hydro, 2005: As a result of the course reflection essay, acquisition, the total cost of operating, maintaining and in Matigari, administering the combined utility decreased from $21.1 million to $18.8 million, an 11% reduction. This works out to savings of almost $40 per customer per year. Chatham Kent Hydro’s Purchase of Middlesex Power Distribution, 2005: The consolidation of each utility’s administrative functions resulted in annual savings of course essay, $450,000. Middlesex Power Distribution later acquired and consolidated Dutton Hydro and Newbury Power with its own operations.

In 2012, the march penguins full, operations of reflection essay, Chatham Kent Hydro and age achievements, Middlesex Power Distribution were merged into one new utility, Entegrus Powerlines. Entegrus Powerlines says the consolidations brought about annual savings of $1.3 million. “The experience of Entegrus confirms that significant savings, specifically in the administrative functions, can be achieved through mergers and acquisitions.” 45 PowerStream’s merger with Barrie Hydro, 2009: The two utilities achieved $6.2 million in annual cost savings through their consolidation. Residential electricity consumers in Barrie typically saw distribution rate reductions of reflection essay, 11.5% in 2010 and, according to PowerStream, were expected to see another 5% decrease in 2013. The transition costs of implementing the merger equalled about one year of cost savings. It is clear from the of the speluncean, results of past mergers and acquisitions that further consolidation is a way to achieve added efficiencies. The added heft of these larger distributors will also have an additional benefit. Course Essay! It will make it easier for LDCs to attract the investment that all utilities are going to need in the future. As if the ongoing challenge of efficiently delivering electricity and energy services is not enough, LDCs are facing an additional financial challenge: persuading the consumer to pay for british of humour the renewal and transformation of the distribution networks upon course essay, which they depend. As the province’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress noted in its 2011 annual report, some of the of humour, money will be needed to course reflection essay, make up for past under-investment: “Ontario businesses have under invested in Colonization and Propaganda Wa Thiong´o, machinery, equipment and software relative to their counterparts in the United States, so that the essay, capital base that supports workers in Ontario is not as modern as that of their counterparts in the peer states.” 46. Many LDCs in older downtowns will have to sense, spend billions of dollars to upgrade their assets in order to maintain safety and reliability.

Utilities everywhere will also need to invest heavily in course essay, innovative technology in horror fake, order to essay, meet the challenges of the future. In an estimate released in April 2011, the Conference Board of Canada predicted that Ontario electricity distribution companies would need to invest $16.6 billion over and Propaganda by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o the next 20 years to maintain their current networks, and an additional investment of course, close to $4 billion to grow and serve new customers, new requirements, and new territories. 47. The Conference Board of Canada report acknowledges that this is only a preliminary picture of the horror, financial demands facing distributors. The report anticipates three additional pressures will add to its $20.6 billion estimate of needed distribution investment.

48 The first is the additional investments that will be required to connect more distributed generation and renewable energy. Course Essay! A second pressure is the investments needed for the development of a Smart Grid. The third is the changing electricity requirements that come from new technologies such as electric vehicles. Despite this need for new investment, LDCs are restricted in their ability to attract new financing. Municipal governments face legal barriers that make it difficult for them to make additional investments in sense, the LDCs they own.

Additionally, there is a significant barrier to attracting private investment. If the utility sells or transfers assets to a private investor, a transfer tax of up to 33% is paid to the province on the fair market value of those assets. While the transfer tax does serve an important function of protecting payments made by distributors in lieu of course essay, taxes (PILs), it is horror, also a major deterrent for reflection private sector investment in the sector. The mantra for modern business is march penguins, “Innovate or Die.” In its 2011 annual report, the Ontario government’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress said improving innovation has to be the province’s priority for the coming decade: “When economists observe that productivity in Canada and Ontario is lagging, they are seeing the results of a sub-standard innovation record among our businesses.” 49. The Smart Grid is just the beginning of what can be done with the digital sensing that will soon be the course reflection, backbone of all distribution networks. Similar computerized intelligence is already being transferred to the home, allowing a thermostat, for sense instance, to sense when a family has left the home and reduce the level of heating or air-conditioning in order to save money.

A number of LDCs say it can be difficult to course reflection, be innovative in the current regulatory environment. They cite a recent OEB decision that prevented Guelph Hydro from recovering the costs of a pilot program for electric vehicles, or the costs of including additional technology in its smart meters to enhance communication with in-home displays and appliances. 50 While the OEB said it might allow the recovery of the of the, additional smart meter costs in the future, the decision has persuaded many LDCs that innovation is too risky. The expectations and requirements of the LDCs and the OEB need to be aligned if innovation is to be encouraged in Ontario’s distribution sector. The results of previous consolidations have shown that a reduction in the number of utilities can result in essay, significant cost savings. It is and Propaganda in Matigari, important to course, acknowledge however that the consolidations of the past may understate the extent of possible savings in the future. That is amityville fake, because many of the consolidations were accomplished by amalgamating two utilities that were distances apart and did not have any adjoining boundaries. Four of the five examples of consolidations cited in this chapter did not eliminate any boundaries.

The existing boundaries were maintained; only the course reflection, administration and operations were merged. Additional savings can be achieved when the boundaries themselves are erased, consolidating neighbouring utilities into one new larger LDC with one contiguous boundary. Boundaries in fact are a problem in the current makeup of the distribution sector. There are too many of them. Boundaries are an obstacle because they inhibit the efficient use of capital and athens, resources. With fewer boundaries between utilities, they would be able to install new switches and sub-stations so that they serve a wider area. In addition, physical plants can be rationalized, eliminating the need for multiple control rooms in favour of one advanced system control centre with computerized monitoring and controls. There will also be fewer instances of the oft-heard complaint that crews from one LDC must pass through another LDC’s service area in order to attend to its own customers, requiring trucks to drive further than what ought to be necessary – a clear example of inefficiency. Fewer boundaries and fewer LDCs will also mean better planning. Course Reflection! Currently there is a perverse incentive for a utility to build up its own capital base, rather than share equipment owned by workplace another utility. LDCs earn revenue in course reflection essay, part based on the assets they own.

As a result, the Panel has heard of instances where some LDCs have found it in their interest to install new equipment at their boundaries instead of leveraging assets owned by an adjacent utility. While it may be in the distributor’s interest to of humour, undertake such practices, it is clearly not to course essay, the customer’s benefit. The OEB’s recently released Renewed Regulatory Framework for athens age achievements Electricity concludes that LDCs will be expected to course, file evidence in rate and in Matigari by Ngugi, leave to construct proceedings that demonstrates that regional issues have been appropriately considered. 51 This requirement is itself an course essay, acknowledgement that the fragmented nature of the distribution system in Ontario is an impediment to is money a motivator workplace, the cost-effective planning and development of electricity infrastructure in the province. A more practical and workable solution would be to have fewer utilities to deal with. A new world of electricity distribution is emerging, and it will look a lot different from course reflection essay, what Ontarians see today.

In many ways, the change has been galvanized by the development of Smart Grid technology. The digital nature of golden, modern electricity distribution has now made its way into the sensors and controls that are part of the “Smart Home.” The next steps will include the course essay, adoption of electric vehicles, the spread of energy storage and an increase in distributed energy. Over the athens, next decade, Ontarians will be changing the reflection, way they generate, manage and consume electricity. Of Humour! This presents a big challenge for course reflection essay the province’s LDCs, the biggest challenge many have ever faced. Ontario’s LDCs will need to adopt new ways of doing business if they are to meet the needs of the new electricity consumer. The Panel does not believe the current structure of the province’s distribution system will allow it to meet this challenge. The LDC of the future must have a stronger balance sheet, and the capacity to adopt new technology and athens age achievements, offer advanced services in a cost-effective manner.

This requires “shoulder-toshoulder, robust, well-resourced, and efficient LDCs,” to borrow a phrase from the Electricity Distributors Association (EDA). 52. The Panel is supporting consolidation not as an end, but as a means to an end. The current fragmented nature of Ontario’s electricity distribution system, with its large number of small distributors, is course reflection, a barrier to the innovation that is needed in the sector, and that its customers deserve. It is also an obstacle in the way of the most cost-effective delivery of electricity. The Panel agrees with what The Conference Board of british sense of humour, Canada said in its 2012 report, Needed: A Comprehensive Growth Strategy for course reflection essay Ontario: “…Ontario firms and organisations will have to step up their own commitments to strengthen productivity growth and speluncean explorers, competiveness. Reflection! They can enhance their commitment to research and development in the province and work to build an innovation culture within organizations of Colonization Wa Thiong´o, all sizes and types, one that places high value on reflection new ideas and constant refinements to products and process.” 53. There is case of the speluncean explorers, a strong consensus in course reflection, the industry that consolidating the province’s LDCs will not only encourage innovation but also result in full movie, a less costly and more efficient delivery of electricity. This is the view of the reflection essay, Ontario Energy Association: “…now is the ideal time for athens golden age achievements the Ontario government to move decisively to eliminate costly inefficiencies in the LDC sector to the benefit of ratepayers, and unlock the value of each company for reflection essay its shareholder.

Rationalization of LDCs would bring economic benefit to all Ontarians – especially important given the province’s fiscal challenges and the broader economic landscape.” 54. A number of electricity customers share this opinion. Sense Of Humour! In its presentation, the Retail Council of Canada (Council) said the current distribution system “causes extra administrative costs for retailers in multiple service areas, costs that have no return on course reflection essay investment.” 55 The Council also said it “increases the british sense of humour, cost and administrative burden of participation in distributor-level conservation programs.” 56 Many LDCs and course, stakeholders who made submissions or appeared before the Panel also felt that Ontario could be better served by a smaller number of amityville fake, larger utilities. This is supported not just by essay the experience of prior mergers and acquisitions in the Ontario distribution sector, but also by numerous international studies. A 2009 publication from Applied Economics found that large utilities could be more efficient than their smaller counterparts. In The Workplace! It recommended that countries with a large number of small utilities allow mergers in order to exploit potential gains in efficiency. 57. A similar study published in 2007 in course, The Energy Journal stated a 16% reduction in expenses could be achieved by case merging smaller utilities into large ones. 58 A Spanish study in 2009 by course essay the Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Applicada found that company size is an important issue in the evolution of the penguins, industry’s productivity, and that technological advances can bring more benefits to reflection essay, larger firms than smaller ones.

59,60. While most of the case of the explorers, existing academic studies support the argument for consolidation, the research is not unanimous. A small number of reports examined by the Panel have found there were no cost savings or substantial economies of scale to be gained from creating a number of larger electricity distributors. 61 However, the analysis of the experience in Ontario done by the Panel shows that there are cost savings that can be achieved. In Ontario, the report of The Commission on the Reform of reflection essay, Ontario’s Public Services supports the consensus view that consolidation is amityville horror fake, a way to reduce costs. Course! The Commission, led by economist Don Drummond, recommended that the march full movie, province “Consolidate Ontario’s 80 local distribution companies (LDCs) along regional lines to create economies of scale. Reducing the $1.35 billion spent on reflection operations, maintenance and administrative costs for Ontario’s LDCs would result in direct savings on the delivery portion of the electricity bill.” 62.

In its presentation to case of the, the Panel the EDA, the voice of the province’s LDCs, recognized that the consolidation of fragmented service areas was one of the ways to improve the efficiency of electricity distribution. “The efficiency of distribution utility and industry structure is affected by at least three important factors. The first is contiguity. Course Reflection! The wires business requires a single utility to serve all customers within a contained area and for this reason service franchises have prevailed since the early years of electrification.” The second and third factors cited by the EDA were the scale and scope of a utility’s operations. 63. The EDA recommended the Panel consider a series of horror, changes that would end with the creation of shoulder-to-shoulder, robust, well-resourced and efficient LDCs: “One of the reflection essay, principles which underlies this model is the potential for gains arising out of economies of contiguity. The technology of electricity distribution is such that it is march of the penguins full movie, more efficient to service customers that populate a contiguous self-contained area.” 64. As noted in Chapter 1, the structure of the electricity distribution sector in course reflection, Ontario is unique. No other jurisdiction in Canada has the number or share of small LDCs that are evident in Colonization in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o, Ontario’s distribution sector. While there was a general understanding that the status quo was no longer appropriate, there was also a surprising amount of agreement on what should replace the currently fragmented distribution system: a dramatically reduced number of course essay, LDCs. The Panel heard a broad range of proposals on the ideal number of utilities, and as well their optimum size.

One stakeholder suggested that only of the full movie, one distribution utility was needed to serve the entire province. Others suggested there should be 6 to 7 LDCs, each with 500,000 to course, 800,000 customers apiece. Another participant felt Ontario should have 8 regional distributors centered on an urban hub, each with at least 500,000 customers and a rate base of at least $1 billion. In the horror fake, end, Panel members agreed with this general direction. So it is recommending the consolidation of Ontario LDCs into 8 to 12 regional distributors that are large enough to reflection, deliver improved efficiency and enhanced customer focus, while at the same time maintaining connections with local communities. 65. The Panel’s recommendations will not apply to all LDCs in Ontario. On the basis of their unique constitutional status, the three First Nations’ utilities in northeast Ontario are not covered by the Panel’s recommendations , unless they decide otherwise. The three non-rate regulated utilities in Ontario, Cornwall Electric, Dubreuil Lumber, and the assets serving the british sense of humour, Cat Lake community will also be exempt unless they choose to reflection essay, join in. Cornwall Electric is exempt because it buys its electricity from Quebec; Dubreuil because it operates mainly on amityville fake private property; and essay, the distribution assets that serve the Cat Lake community are exempt because they are under the control of Hydro One Networks under an interim electricity distribution licence.

Hydro One Remote Communities will also remain separate, as it services off-grid communities in the north. The new regional distributor will be anchored by one or more urban centres and will have to provide service to customers in its territory regardless of the of the movie, costs of course, service. Northern Ontario needs to of the, be treated differently because of the smaller number of customers spread out over longer distances. Reflection! There should be two regional distributors in the north, one serving the horror, northeast part of Ontario, and the other serving the northwest. This would leave the rest of the province to be served by between 6 and reflection, 10 regional distributors. Of the existing LDCs, the Panel expects only one, Toronto Hydro, will remain unchanged as it is already large enough and has contiguous boundaries. It can thus be considered as one of the 6 to athens, 10 regional distributors in southern Ontario. Each new regional distributor in southern Ontario should have a minimum of 400,000 customers. The Panel feels that the existing LDCs should be encouraged to voluntarily merge their distribution assets and create the new regional distributors within two years. While there was intense consolidation and sale activity in course reflection, the years immediately following the passage of the ECA, the situation has been relatively stagnant in recent years. The Panel anticipates that its report will spark new activity in the industry as LDCs explore consolidating with each other.

Since consolidation is a proven method to explorers, curb costs, ensure the broadest adoption of technological innovation and reflection essay, make the necessary funding available at the lowest price, inaction is golden, not in the best interests of the consumers or the province. The Panel believes that establishing the boundaries of the new regional distributors is best left to the leadership of the distribution sector. However boundaries should follow the existing structure and architecture of the distribution system, and take into account the essay, existing Hydro One Networks service areas. The Panel understands that some stakeholders might prefer a more tangible depiction of sense, what the new map of course reflection essay, distribution might look like. Colonization And Propaganda In Matigari By Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay! So, for discussion purposes only, the Panel has prepared a map (Fig. 12) to illustrate what the course reflection, future could look like with 8 regional distributors. Figure 12: Illustration of 8 Regional Distributors 66. Map Schematic – 8 Regions. North West, North East, South East, East GGH, Central, Toronto, West GGh, South West. While the eventual number of utilities remains to be determined, there are additional principles the amityville horror fake, Panel feels are essential if the province is to have an electricity distribution sector that supports the economic well-being of its citizens. Exempted utilities aside, there should only reflection essay, be regional distributors.

The current situation where a smaller utility is embedded in, or surrounded by, the territory of another distributor should end. The new regional distributors must have boundaries that are contiguous and stand shoulder-to-shoulder. There should be no across-the-board sale of Hydro One Inc.’s distribution assets (of its Networks or Brampton subsidiaries). The creation of the new system of regional distributors should be facilitated by the merger of horror fake, its assets with those of existing distributors. Course Essay! As the shareholder of Hydro One Inc., the british sense, government benefits from the revenue streams it receives from its distribution businesses. Given current market conditions, it is unlikely that the sale price obtained for course reflection its distribution assets would be able to pay down a sufficient amount of public debt to be worthwhile. 67 A sale of march of the penguins movie, Hydro One Brampton and Hydro One Networks’ distribution assets would almost certainly hurt the course, province’s fiscal position.

The recommendation to merge and not sell Hydro One Networks’ distribution assets is in line with a recommendation from the Drummond Commission: “Do not partially or fully divest any or all of the province’s government business enterprises – Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation, Liquor Control Board of Ontario, Ontario Power Generation and Hydro One – unless the net, long-term benefit to Ontario is considerable and can be clearly demonstrated through comprehensive analysis.” 68. The Panel is convinced that consolidating the applicable rate-regulated LDCs into a smaller number of considerably larger utilities will significantly curb costs and generate benefits for the industry. The following are realistic efficiency targets that the Panel believes are achievable by the new regional distributors: In the first ten years after consolidation, $1.7 billion in costs at net present value can be removed from the electricity distribution sector. 69 After allowing for $500 million in a motivator workplace, transaction and transition costs, it is course essay, expected that cost savings of $1.2 billion at horror fake, net present value would be achieved across the sector over the first ten years for the benefit of customers and reflection essay, shareholders. A Motivator! This would be equivalent to approximately $70 per year for every electricity customer by the end of the tenth year. The benefits will largely come from a reduction in course, the OMA expenses of LDCs.

Regional distributors should be able to reduce sector-wide administration costs by 20% when compared to a projection for the current, unconsolidated sector. Efforts to increase administrative efficiency should focus on customer care, billing and british of humour, collections, facilities and facilities maintenance and administrative salaries and expenses. Similarly, reductions in operations and reflection essay, maintenance costs would amount to 2%. Benefits accrue from curbing operating expenses, the is money in the, number of service and control centres, and supervision and engineering costs. Consolidation will allow LDCs to avoid $1.3 billion in reflection essay, infrastructure investment over the first ten years resulting in a 5% reduction in Colonization and Propaganda in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, depreciation and return on capital when compared to the continuation of the course reflection essay, status quo – worth over $300 million in present terms. The new regional distributors will be able to utilize their existing equipment such as switches and sub-stations to serve a wider area more efficiently. In addition, duplicate service and sense of humour, control centres can be eliminated.

There will also be improved economies of scale for facilities and course, transportation, and for advanced computer software such as customer information systems. Fig. 13 and Fig. 14 illustrate the source and of humour, timeframe for costs savings in the ten years following consolidation versus a projection of the reflection, status quo. Age Achievements! The savings will continue to increase beyond ten years, with relatively more of the savings accruing from essay, avoided infrastructure investments and the resulting reductions in the regulated asset base over time. Consolidation will not just reduce costs, but it will also enable the province’s LDCs to modernize their operations and regain their status as the high-tech companies they were at their birth. The new regional distributors will be able to adopt a renewed focus on customer service. This can include modern operation centres that offer 24/7 customer service throughout the province and enhance reliability using Smart Grid technology. Figure 13: Estimated Benefits from LDC Consolidation (First 10 Years) Figure 14: Breakdown of $1.7 Billion (Net Present Value) in movie, Cost Savings. 64% – Administration 13% – Cost of Capital 18% – Capital Expenditures 5% – Operations and Maintenance Larger distribution utilities will have the resources and capacity to deal with the impending changes in electricity generation and consumption, including distributed generation, energy storage and electric vehicles.

It will also allow them to more quickly adopt the Smart Grid technology that will be the foundation for the sector’s future development. They will have the capacity to adopt and share best practices from other utilities, not just in Ontario but from around the word. The innovation seen in Hydro One Networks’ outage app, or Horizon Utilities’ energy mapping cannot be as efficiently developed and utilized by essay smaller utilities. Larger, better-resourced distributors will be able to use enhanced asset management methods to focus replacement or upgrades on assets most at risk. They will be able to amityville, track the age and condition of equipment, and ensure that improvements are made where they are most needed. Reflection! This will increase reliability and reduce the risk of power outages. Larger regional distributors will be better equipped to reduce their line losses. Right now distributors lose about 4% of the energy they purchase due to Colonization in Matigari by Ngugi, technical matters and course, theft. 70 Technical line losses are caused primarily by magnetic losses in transformers and by the electrical resistance inherent to is money in the workplace, sending lower-voltage electricity over long distances.

Line loss has historically been higher for reflection essay smaller LDCs with older equipment than for larger newer ones, and this cost is passed on directly to consumers. Regional Planning will be easier. As noted previously, the OEB’s Renewed Regulatory Framework for Electricity concludes that LDCs will be expected to file evidence in march of the full, rate and leave to construct proceedings that demonstrates that regional issues have been appropriately considered and, where applicable, addressed in the utility’s capital budget or infrastructure investment proposal. Course Essay! After consolidation, a lot of the work of planning the optimal investment in infrastructure at march movie, the lowest possible cost will be done as a matter of course reflection essay, routine by the new regional distributor. Regional distributors will be better positioned to take a leadership role in innovation and promote conservation and demand management (CDM). This is not currently possible because many small LDCs do not have a strong enough balance sheet, making them naturally risk averse. Athens Golden! A stronger financial balance sheet will provide distribution utilities with more resources and flexibility to innovate and develop a range of new services that have an enhanced customer focus. There will be savings in course reflection, regulatory costs. With a smaller number of utilities, there will be fewer rate applications for the OEB to process and a reduced number of the other regulatory filings that are required by the OEB. Less diversity among LDCs will also allow the OEB to develop a more focused regulatory framework. March Penguins Full! These changes will have two benefits: It will allow the essay, OEB to Wa Thiong´o, streamline operations and reduce its cost of regulation, thus saving customers money; and since the per course reflection essay, customer cost of regulatory filings is less for large utilities than small ones, consumers will receive a second, more immediate benefit.

Financing costs will be lower. As previously noted in Chapter 1, larger LDCs generally find it easier than smaller utilities to attract capital, often because they have gone through the in the, discipline of reflection essay, being rated by a credit agency. In general, smaller utilities have not found it worthwhile to undertake this activity. The cost of capital will be increasingly important in the future, as the electricity distribution sector requires billions of dollars of additional infrastructure investment to renew and transform its distribution networks. Ontario needs to british of humour, transform its distribution sector if it wants it to help and not hinder future economic growth. The Panel believes a system of much larger regional distributors will deliver increased efficiency and economies of scale, and create a potential for innovation and customer focus that is currently lacking in the industry as a whole. This will require a change in the attitudes and course reflection, policies of a number of the players currently involved in the province’s electricity sector. Though it must lead the way, the task of changing the status quo does not rest solely with the provincial government. Everyone, from the LDCs and municipalities to the provincial government and the OEB, must work together to in Matigari Wa Thiong´o Essay, ensure this new vision of distribution takes root and essay, flourishes in Ontario. Substantial efficiencies will not occur unless Hydro One Networks is part of the golden, solution. This single distribution company serves 25% of the 4.8 million electricity customers in course, Ontario.

Without its cooperation, it will be impossible to realize the savings that will result from contiguous, shoulderto- shoulder regional distributors. The Panel recommends that the Ontario government, as the shareholder of amityville, Hydro One Inc., should give it clear, unambiguous direction to lead and course essay, engage in fair, market-value based discussions with LDCs in order to british of humour, create the new regional distributors. Reflection Essay! Hydro One Inc. should put all of the distribution assets of its subsidiaries on the table in of the, order to enable transactions that can result in the shoulder-to-shoulder consolidation of the industry as envisioned in Chapter 4. 71. In order to protect their investments, the current owners of the course reflection, LDCs to be consolidated will receive equity in Colonization Essay, the new regional distribution utilities in proportion to the valuation of their assets used to create each of the course reflection essay, new regional distributors. This will ensure the LDC shareholders’ fiscal positions are not adversely affected by march penguins full the changes in the distribution sector. Since ownership of the new regional distributors will depend on the assets that were contributed, it is possible that Hydro One Inc. or its subsidiaries could have significant ownership positions in a number of the new regional entities. While some stakeholders argued for course essay mandatory consolidation, others told the Panel that they preferred voluntary consolidation. The Panel’s preference is for voluntary consolidation, but action must be swift. The Panel recommends that licence applications of all new regional distributors be submitted to amityville fake, the OEB within two years of the government adopting the recommendations of this report. Even though the Panel believes substantial consolidation can be achieved voluntarily within two years, it also feels immediate action must be taken if this is to succeed.

Therefore, the Panel is recommending that the essay, government appoint a Transition Advisor to monitor the process of consolidation. The Transition Advisor will advise the is money in the workplace, government on the progress being made, but will not act as a facilitator among LDCs as part of course essay, this process. Within six months of the government’s acceptance of the Panel’s recommendations, merging LDCs will provide a Progress Report to the Transition Advisor. The Progress Report will include evidence of an agreement among the merging LDCs, such as a Memorandum of Understanding, committing them to work towards consolidation within the two-year time frame. After receiving a Progress Report, the Transition Advisor may advise LDCs of any conflicts that would inhibit the achievement of the athens golden age achievements, Panel’s vision for the sector, such as mergers that may not result in efficient, contiguous regions, or that may result in stranded service territories.

LDCs may then submit a revised Progress Report based on reflection further negotiations before the end of the initial six months. At the end of the six-month period, the Transition Advisor will provide a Status Report to the government outlining the progress-to-date on the formation of regional distributors. The Transition Advisor will provide advice on the formation of contiguous and fake, shoulder-to-shoulder regional distributors. The Transition Advisor will notify the government of reflection essay, mergers that may not result in efficient, contiguous regions as envisioned in Chapter 4, or that may result in Colonization and Propaganda in Matigari by Ngugi Essay, stranded service territories. The Transition Advisor will also report on course essay instances where LDCs have not taken steps to co-operatively create regional distributors. After consideration of the Status Report, if any of the proposed regional distributors need more time to finalize their voluntary agreements, the government may permit them up to three additional months to finish their work. At the end of this supplementary three-month period, the Transition Advisor will submit a Final Report updating the government on the results. Where it is clear, after consideration of the Transition Advisor’s Status Report, or in the event that the government has sanctioned an sense, additional 3 months, the Final Report, that formation of regional distributors cannot be completed through voluntary means, the Panel recommends that the government introduce legislation at reflection essay, that time to ensure consolidation is successfully completed. Fig. March Of The Penguins! 15 illustrates the actions the essay, Panel is proposing to ensure Ontario’s distribution sector is consolidated within its two-year time frame. * Should voluntary agreements not be arrived at of the, by the drafting of the course reflection essay, Status Report, the by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, government may allow an additional 3 months of negotiations or proceed directly to course, mandatory consolidation.

Legislation would need to be drafted regardless during this 3 month period. ** Should voluntary agreements not be arrived at in Matigari by Ngugi Essay, by the reflection essay, drafting of the Final Report, the government should proceed directly to mandatory consolidation. Figure 15: Timeline for Consolidation Illustration. Owners of the LDCs participating in voluntary consolidation will receive shares in fake, the new regional distributors based on the valuation of their assets used to create each of the new regional distributors. Course Reflection! LDCs that do not voluntarily agree to a merger and are amalgamated through mandatory mechanisms should have their assets assigned to the new regional distributors assessed at book value. Utilities that successfully form a voluntary agreement during the horror fake, initial six to nine month period, and submit a licence application for the new regional distributor to the OEB within two years, should be allowed to recover their prudent transaction costs, which may include the costs of a third-party facilitator. In order to reflection essay, facilitate consolidation, LDCs involved in any merger should not be required to go through the OEB process for assessing mergers as it is currently operated.

The Panel is concerned that a regulatory process involving the consolidation of multiple LDCs will be cumbersome and drawn out. Mergers taking place within the two-year period for voluntary consolidations should be deemed by the province to have delivered a net benefit to customers. Consumers will still be protected, as the OEB will have regulatory oversight over golden age achievements any rate applications filed by distributors in the post-merger period. The new consolidated regional utilities will be able to offer improved efficiency and enhanced services for customers. In previous consolidations, the municipal shareholder often kept the funds that came from the course reflection, sale of buildings or property that were no longer required by the new utility. The Panel feels the money should stay in the distribution system. Any shareholder gains from the disposal of excess utility assets prior to the merger are expected to be reinvested in the regional distributor to strengthen the system, and not used for dividends or other non-electricity purposes.

Any ongoing savings from the increased efficiency of the new regional distributors are anticipated to be shared between the age achievements, shareholder and the customer. As the Panel has heard from many stakeholders that significant capital investment will be required over the coming years, the Panel expects that much of the savings accruing to the shareholder will be reinvested in the electricity distribution system. Many utilities in essay, Ontario have subsidiaries or non-regulated affiliates that provide services beyond the of the speluncean explorers, regulated poles and wires business of electricity distribution. These services include billing for water and wastewater services, construction, solar installation and district energy. When Markham Hydro became part of PowerStream, the City of Markham kept ownership of the utility’s district energy affiliate. Affiliates currently owned by LDCs are not within the scope of this report. The Panel believes there are two reasons to leave the affiliates out of the process: It will simplify the mergers and eliminate the conflict that might occur when one LDC wants to have its affiliates included as part of the assets they bring to the table, while others want them excluded. Secondly, the essay, Panel feels the consolidations that will create the new regional electricity businesses will take the full and uninterrupted attention of the new regional electricity distributors’ managers, and that they should not be distracted by any unregulated business affairs.

Only when the sector is fully consolidated should regional distributors begin to establish affiliate businesses. The existing Rural or Remote Rate Protection (RRRP) benefit should be reformed to become a Northern Rural or Remote Rate Protection benefit. Under RRRP, all electricity customers in Ontario pay a small charge to amityville horror fake, cushion the high-cost of electricity distribution for hard to serve rural or remote customers. In 2012, Hydro One Networks customers who qualify have their distribution service charge reduced by $28.50 a month. The Panel believes the RRRP will no longer be needed in southern Ontario because unlike the course reflection essay, present situation, the contiguous, shoulder-to-shoulder regional distributors will have a mix of both urban and of humour, rural customers, allowing them to balance urban and course, rural rates within each region.

This change is not expected to affect customers of First Nations’ LDCs, Hydro One Remotes Communities, or qualifying customers in areas of northern Ontario currently covered by the RRRP. The Panel feels that a lot of potential benefits of consolidation could be unleashed by making changes to the governance and athens, management of the province’s LDCs. Strengthening managerial capacity was one of the reflection essay, recommendations of the Ontario government’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and athens golden, Economic Progress. Course Reflection! “Strong Management is horror, important for sizing up competitive challenges and threats, assessing consumer behaviour for course business opportunities, putting in is money, place the necessary resources and capabilities, and course reflection, building skills and talents in the organization.” 72. Since 1998, distribution utilities have been incorporated under the OBCA. Sense Of Humour! The Panel feels it is time to reflection essay, treat the case of the, province’s LDCs as the commercial enterprises they are; this will require municipal shareholders to course, adopt best practices in the stewardship of the LDC assets in order to ensure strong operating performance. The municipal owners of the province’s LDCs currently face barriers to making loans to march, the utilities in which they have an essay, interest. This is a deviation from british sense, accepted practice, whereby shareholders of a corporation are responsible for ensuring it is adequately capitalized. The Panel believes the distribution sector should be treated the reflection essay, same as other corporations in and Propaganda in Matigari by Ngugi, Ontario, and recommends the course, government eliminate the restrictions that prevent municipalities from making loans to distributors.

Many municipalities hold promissory notes from in Matigari by Ngugi, their LDCs that were taken out at course, the time of the utilities’ transformation into corporations under the Wa Thiong´o, OBCA. These notes have frequently continued to bear the higher interest rates that were common at reflection essay, the time. Municipalities should retire the outstanding notes with LDCs that are above market value, or renegotiate them so that they reflect current interest rates. Many stakeholders told the Panel that the current transfer tax acts as a barrier to athens age achievements, the consolidation of the province’s distribution sector. The Panel recommends that Ontario enter into essay discussions with the federal government on a tax agreement that would facilitate the removal of the explorers, transfer tax on the sale of LDC assets. The Panel believes that it is important to ensure that new sources of capital be made available to the regional distributors so they can meet the essay, funding requirements that are outlined in this report. The Panel expects that the athens age achievements, removal of the transfer tax will encourage pension plans to invest in distribution utilities. The investment by pension funds will not only help Ontario’s utilities meet their financing needs, but also provide a source of stable and secure income to the funds and their pensioners, and help pension funds deal with the market challenges they currently face. Investing in essay, Ontario’s distribution utilities should, for Ontario-based pension plans, be a valuable alternative to investing in utilities in other countries. Infrastructure Ontario should stop its lending program providing subsidized credit facilities to LDCs, and not make any additional loans to the regional distributors. There seems to british of humour, be little public policy rationale for the Ontario government to add to its debt load for this purpose, when private financing is course essay, available.

The new regional distributors will have sufficient assets and income to obtain the most favourable rates from banks and fake, other private lenders. Given the importance of electricity distribution to reflection essay, the province’s economy, it is important that the Boards of Directors of the british sense, regional distributors display a high standard of corporate governance. To achieve this, the Panel recommends that at least two-thirds of the Board of Directors of regional distributors should be composed of independent directors. The Panel considers that it would be preferable to have 100% independent Board membership. Essay! This has worked with the merged utility of Bluewater Power Distribution, and would help to overcome conflicting local priorities. The Boards should be adequately sized to have directors with an appropriate range of skills and experience, and be populated on the basis of is money a motivator in the, directors’ qualifications to meet the management and oversight requirements of an electricity distribution utility. Some current Boards of LDCs are too small to provide adequate governance processes. The Panel expects that the Boards of the regional distributors would have Boards with a range of 7 to 11 directors. Regional distributors should also encourage their Board members to acquire proper training in course reflection essay, the areas of in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, governance and the roles of Boards. The importance of strong governance and leadership in the new regional utilities is course essay, highlighted by is money a motivator workplace the business issues they will face in the period immediately following consolidation. The utilities will have to work through a number of essay, issues such as the is money a motivator in the workplace, differing pension plans, labour rates and accounting standards that currently exist among the LDCs.

The Panel does not minimize the amount of work that will have to be done, but does not believe the issues are an insurmountable barrier to consolidation. It is confident a new approach to leadership and essay, governance will be sufficient to case speluncean explorers, meet the essay, challenge. The 73 LDCs that are the focus of this report should be consolidated into 8 to 12 larger regional distributors that are large enough to deliver improved efficiency and enhanced customer focus, while at the same time maintaining a strong connection with their local communities. There should be two regional distributors to serve the north, one serving the is money a motivator workplace, northeast part of Ontario, and the other serving the northwest, leaving 6 to 10 regional distributors in southern Ontario. Any new regional distributor in southern Ontario should have a minimum of 400,000 customers. As it has already been consolidated, Toronto Hydro may be one of the 8 to 12 regional distributors. The three rate-regulated First Nations’ utilities, and the three utilities that are not rate-regulated (Dubreuil Lumber, Cornwall Electric, and Hydro One Networks Inc./Cat Lake Power Community) will be exempt from this consolidation, unless they decide they want to course reflection essay, join in. Hydro One Remote Communities, because it serves off-the-grid communities, will remain separate. The new regional distributors must have boundaries that are contiguous and stand shoulder-to-shoulder. Boundaries should follow the existing structure and architecture of the distribution system, and take into account the athens golden, existing Hydro One Networks service areas. Consolidation should be completed within two years of the Government’s acceptance of the recommendations of this report.

There should be no across-the-board sale of Hydro One Networks’ distribution assets. Reflection! The creation of the new system of regional distributors will be facilitated by the merger of Hydro One Networks’ assets with those of the other existing distributors. The Ontario government should give clear and unambiguous direction to speluncean explorers, Hydro One Inc. to lead and engage in the discussion of the merger of its distribution assets with the appropriate interested utilities. The goal is to create new regional distributors with contiguous boundaries. Reflection! The discussions will be based on a fair, market-based evaluation of assets. The owners of the current LDCs will get shares in the new regional distributors they voluntarily create in proportion to the valuation of the assets they contributed. British! LDCs that are amalgamated through mandatory mechanisms will have their assets valued at course, book value. The government should appoint a Transition Advisor to oversee the british, consolidation process. The Transition Advisor will advise the essay, government on the progress of achieving complete consolidation.

The Transition Advisor will not act as a facilitator among LDCs in the creation of the individual regional distributors. Within 6 months of the by Ngugi, government’s acceptance of the Panel’s recommendations, merging LDCs will provide a Progress Report to the government-appointed Transition Advisor. The Progress Report will be required to reflection essay, include evidence of an agreement among the parties, such as a Memorandum of Understanding, committing them to proceed towards consolidation within the two-year timeframe. Upon receipt of a Progress Report, the Transition Advisor may indicate to a proposed regional distributor where the merger may not result in case of the speluncean explorers, an efficient, contiguous region or may result in stranded service territory. Course Reflection! Merging LDCs may then submit a revised Progress Report to the Transition Advisor before the end of the initial 6-month period. At the end of the 6-month period, the Transition Advisor will provide a Status Report to the government outlining progress on the formation of regional distributors. The report will provide information on the status of regional distributor formation; indicate which proposed mergers do not result in case speluncean, efficient, contiguous regions, or create stranded service territories; and identify LDCs that have not been taking steps to create a regional distributor.

If any of the proposed regional distributors need more time to finalize their voluntary agreements, the course reflection, government may decide to permit them up to three additional months to british sense, finish their work. Reflection Essay! The Transition Advisor will then submit a Final Report updating the government on the results before the end of this supplementary period. Where it is speluncean explorers, clear after consideration of the Transition Advisor’s Status Report, or in the event that the government has sanctioned an additional 3 months, the Final Report, that formation of course reflection essay, regional distributors cannot be completed through voluntary means, the Panel recommends that the government take legislative action to ensure complete consolidation. The existing RRRP benefit should be reformed to become a Northern Rural or Remote Rate Protection benefit. Regional distributors will now have a mix of urban and rural customers that will permit the respective rates to be balanced within each region in southern Ontario. The Ontario government should enter into discussions with the federal government to facilitate removal of the transfer tax on the sale of of the speluncean explorers, LDC assets to private investors.

Infrastructure Ontario should stop its lending program providing subsidized credit facilities to LDCs, and not make any additional loans to the regional distributors. LDCs that reach a successful voluntary agreement during the initial six to nine month period and submit a licence application for the new entity to the OEB within two years should be allowed to recover their prudent transaction costs. This may include the costs of any third-party facilitation. LDCs involved in any voluntary consolidation should not be required to go through an OEB review of the merger, as it is currently set up. The mergers will be deemed by the province to have a net benefit to customers. The OEB will have regulatory oversight over any rate applications filed by distributors in the post-merger period.

The Panel anticipates that any funds from the disposal of excess utility assets would be re-invested in reflection, the regional distributors in order to strengthen the system, and not used for dividends or other non-electricity purposes. The Panel also anticipates that savings from the increased efficiency of the new regional distributors would be shared between the shareholder and customer. Given the requirement for significant capital investments, it is expected that much of the savings accruing to the shareholder will be reinvested in the electricity distribution system. Municipalities that hold promissory notes from their distributors should retire the is money in the workplace, outstanding notes that are above market value, or renegotiate them so that they reflect current interest rates. Restrictions that prevent municipal governments from making loans to the distributors in which they have an interest should be removed.

The membership of the reflection, Board of a regional distributor should have at case speluncean, least two-thirds independent directors. The Panel believes a Board with 100% independent membership would be preferable. The Boards should be adequately sized to have directors with an appropriate range of skills and experience, and be populated on the basis of directors’ qualifications to meet the management and oversight requirements of an electricity distribution utility. Utilities should ensure that their Board members have adequate training in governance and the roles of course essay, Boards, and represent an appropriate range of skills and experience. Affiliates currently owned by LDCs will not be included in any consolidation. Ontario’s electricity distribution sector is at an historic turning point. A Motivator! The work that LDCs have been doing for the past century is undergoing a dramatic transformation: the nature of electricity generation is changing, and course reflection essay, computers are turning electricity distribution into a digital, high-tech endeavour.

The foundation on which Ontario’s electricity system was built has served the province well and british, has supported the province’s economic growth. It is not suitable, however, for the challenges and course essay, the opportunities of the future. This province needs a stronger, more innovative distribution system that can meet the changing needs of the consumer and the province. The Panel believes most municipalities and athens, LDCs understand the status quo will not serve the citizens of the province well in the decades to come. Substantial investments in infrastructure and new technologies will eventually have to be made; the only question is whether those investments will keep pace with the evolving nature of electricity distribution, or whether the sector will be scrambling to catch up. The Panel’s first priority in reviewing the distribution sector was to decide how electricity distributors could make their customers’ needs central to what they do, and enhance the course reflection essay, economic competitiveness of this province. The Panel is convinced that these proposals put this future within Ontario’s grasp. The Panel is confident the leaders of the distribution sector have the vision and the skills to fake, forge a new era in the distribution of electricity in Ontario. List of reflection, Presenters and Submitters.

Association of amityville, Municipalities of Ontario Association of Power Producers of Ontario Bluewater Power Distribution Corporation Brookfield Canadian Federation of Independent Business Canadian Manufacturers Exporters Canadian Union of Public Employees Ontario Capstone Infrastructure Corporation CIBC World Markets Inc. City of Barrie City of reflection, Cambridge City of Hamilton City of Port Colborne City of british sense of humour, Sault Ste. Marie City of Toronto Collus Power Corporation Consumers Council of course reflection essay, Canada Corix Group of Companies Cornerstone Hydro Electric Concepts Association Electrical Contractors Association of Ontario Electrical Safety Authority Electricity Distributors Association Emera Inc. Enersource Corporation Entegrus Powerlines Inc. EnWin Utilities Ltd Erie Thames Powerlines Corporation Fort Frances Power Corporation Fortis Inc.

FortisOntario Inc. Greater Sudbury Hydro Inc. Guelph Hydro Inc. Of The Speluncean Explorers! Halton Hills Hydro Inc. Hamilton Chamber of Commerce Hamilton Utilities Corporation Horizon Utilities Corporation Hydro One Inc. Hydro Ottawa Holding Inc./Hydro Ottawa Group of Companies Independent Electricity System Operator International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Lakefront Utilities Inc. Course Essay! KPMG London Hydro Inc. Low-Income Energy Network Ministry of Labour Ministry of Municipal Affairs Housing Northeast Utilities Group Oakville Hydro Corporation Ontario Chamber of Commerce Ontario Energy Association Ontario Energy Board Ontario Financing Authority Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System Ontario Power Authority Oshawa PUC Networks Inc.

Peterborough Distribution Inc. Power Workers’ Union PowerStream Inc. March Of The Movie! RBC Capital Markets Retail Council of Canada School Energy Coalition Simul/UtilityPULSE The Common Voice Northwest Energy Task Force The Federation of Northern Ontario Municipalities The Northwestern Ontario Municipal Association The Society of Energy Professionals Toronto Hydro-Electric System Limited Town of Collingwood Town of Fort Frances Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake Township of North Dumfries Utilities Kingston/Kingston Hydro Corporation Utilities Standards Forum Utility Collaborative Services Inc. Veridian Connections Inc./Veridian Corporation Whitby Hydro Electric Corporation. Donald Carmichael Gerhard Langematz John McNeil Parker Gallant Private Citizen Private Citizen Private Citizen. Contiguity: A boundary without any breaks or interruptions. Course! An electricity distributor with a contiguous boundary serves a single, unified service territory. March Full! Electricity distributors with non-contiguous boundaries serve customers in a number of separate, unconnected service areas. Distribution: A distribution system carries electricity from the transmission system and reflection essay, delivers it to consumers.

Typically, the network would include medium-voltage power lines, substations and pole-mounted transformers, low-voltage distribution wiring and electricity meters. Feed-in Tariff (FIT): A guaranteed rate program that provides stable prices through long-term contracts for energy generated using renewable resources, including biogas, biomass, landfill gas, on-shore wind, solar photovoltaic and waterpower. Greenhouse Gas (GHG): Gases that contribute to the capture of heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the most prominent GHG, in addition to natural sources it is released into in Matigari by Ngugi the Earth’s atmosphere as a result of the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil or natural gas. Widely acknowledged as contributing to climate change. Intermittent Power Generation: Sources of electricity that produce power only reflection, during certain times such as wind and solar generators whose output depends on wind speed and solar intensity. Infrastructure Ontario (IO): A crown corporation wholly owned by amityville horror fake the Province of Ontario, the reflection, remit of which includes the provision of financing for infrastructure purposes to municipalities and eligible public organizations. LDCs as municipal corporations are eligible to and Propaganda in Matigari Wa Thiong´o, apply for reflection an IO loan for capital expenditures. Kilowatt (kW): A standard quantity of power in british sense, a residential-size electricity system, equal to 1,000 watts (W).

Ten 100-watt light bulbs operated together consume one kW of reflection essay, power. Kilowatt-hour (kWh): A standard unit of electrical energy in a residential-size system. Golden Age Achievements! One kWh (1,000 watt-hours) is the course, amount of electrical energy produced or consumed by a one-kilowatt unit during one hour. Ten 100-watt light bulbs, operated together for Colonization in Matigari Essay one hour, consume one kWh of energy. Local Distribution Company (LDC): An entity that owns a distribution system for the local delivery of energy (gas or electricity) to consumers.

The focus of this report is solely electricity LDCs. Megawatt (MW): A unit of course reflection essay, power equal to 1,000 kilowatts (kW) or one million watts (W). Megawatt-hour (MWh): A measure of the energy produced by a generating station over time: a one MW generator, operating for 24 hours, generates 24 MWh of energy (as does a 24 MW generator, operating for one hour). MicroFIT: Ontario residents are able to develop a very small or “micro” renewable electricity generation project (10 kilowatts or less in size) on of the speluncean explorers their properties. Under the microFIT Program, they are paid a guaranteed price for all the electricity they produce for at least 20 years. Municipal Electricity Utility (MEU): An infrequently used term for essay a LDC which faded from usage after 1998, when MEU’s were converted into corporations under the OBCA. The term is still used in some legislation to describe LDCs. Ontario Power Authority (OPA): An Ontario government agency that assesses the long-term adequacy of electricity resources in in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o, Ontario, plans and procures electricity supply, and coordinates province-wide conservation efforts. Operations, Maintenance and course essay, Administration (OMA): The cost of Colonization by Ngugi, operating, maintaining and providing the back-office administration of a business. OMA expenses typically include salaries and equipment required to provide regulated services and course reflection, maintain a state of good repair. Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILs): In Ontario, electricity utilities that are at least 90% publiclyowned are exempt from corporate taxes.

Instead they pay PILs to Colonization and Propaganda in Matigari, the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation (OEFC). PILs which replicate federal and provincial corporate taxes and property taxes payable by private sector companies, are used to help pay down the stranded debt of the former Ontario Hydro. Peak Demand: Peak demand, peak load or on-peak are terms describing a period in reflection essay, which electricity is expected to be provided for a sustained period at a significantly higher than average supply level. Rate Setting: The OEB sets an LDC’s rates to of the, enable the LDC to recover the forecasted costs which it will prudently incur to provide regulated services. Once every four years, an course reflection, LDC undergoes a comprehensive Cost of age achievements, Service (CoS) application where the OEB uses one year forecasted cost and revenue information submitted by the LDC to determine a base revenue requirement and course essay, the “base” rates that are set to recover that revenue requirement. In the intervening years, as part of the Incentive Regulation Mechanism (IRM) those base rates are adjusted annually according to an OEB-approved formula that includes components for inflation and the OEB’s expectations of efficiency and is money a motivator in the workplace, productivity gains. The rate setting methods are being revised as part of the OEB’s Renewed Regulatory Framework for Electricity. Rural or Remote Rate Protection (RRRP): Rural or Remote Rate Protection was established by the Ontario government to keep distribution rates in rural and remote parts of the province at levels similar to those paid by the rest of the province. The cost of the RRRP benefit is reflection, recovered through a regulated charge on all Ontario electricity customers approved by the OEB. In 2012, this charge was set at 0.11 ?/kWh. Scale of Operations: The size of an LDC’s customer base and service area.

A large utility has a larger scale of operations than a small one. Scope of Operations: The extent to which an LDC also owns and operates other utility-like services. An LDC that also provides natural gas and water and wastewater services has a larger scope of golden age achievements, operations than a utility that restricts its operations to electricity distribution. Shoulder-to-Shoulder Distributors: Distributors which have adjacent contiguous service areas. See contiguity.

Smart Grid: A Smart Grid delivers electricity from suppliers to course, consumers using digital technology with two-way communications to control appliances at Colonization by Ngugi, consumers’ homes to save energy, reduce costs and increase reliability and transparency. Structure and Architecture: The existing configuration of transformer stations and distribution and course essay, transmission lines that provide the framework and skeleton of the province’s electricity system. The major building blocks of the system’s structure and architecture are the 52 services areas established by Colonization in Matigari by Ngugi Hydro One Networks. Transmission: The movement or transfer of course essay, electricity over an interconnected group of lines and march penguins movie, associated equipment between points of supply and course, points at which it is transformed for in the delivery to consumers, or is delivered to other, separate electric transmission systems. Transmission of reflection, electricity is done at high voltages; the energy is transformed to lower voltages for distribution over local distribution systems. Ontario has several licenced electricity transmitters who own and operate parts of Ontario’s transmission network; the largest by far is Hydro One Networks. 1 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, “Prospects for Ontario’s Prosperity,” November 2011, p. 4.

2 Industry jargon provides a wealth of synonyms for a local distribution company (LDC): distributor, local or electricity distributor, utility, local utility, distribution company and so on. Though there has been an attempt to full movie, limit the course reflection, number of times this occurs, please treat any such uses as completely interchangeable. 3 In this report, unless otherwise specified, references to ‘government’ and ‘province’ are taken to mean the Government of Ontario and the province of Ontario respectively. 4 N.B. Sense! Freeman, “The Politics of Power: Ontario Hydro and its Government, 1906-1995, 1996,” University of Toronto Press, p. 10-13. 7 Formally referred to as the Advisory Committee on course reflection Competition in Ontario’s Electricity System. 8 Advisory Committee on Competition in Ontario’s Electricity System, “A Framework for Competition: The Report of the Colonization in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, Advisory Committee on course essay Competition in Ontario’s Electricity System to the Ontario Minister of Environment and Energy,” May 1996. See Summary of Recommendations. 9 The reduction to 89 LDCs is based on speluncean an interview with Neil Freeman, author of reflection essay, The Politics of athens golden, Power (see earlier references). 10 Hydro One Networks currently holds an interim electricity distribution licence issued by the OEB under section 59(2) of the course essay, Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 under which Hydro One Networks has possession and control of certain distribution businesses serving the Cat Lake community. 11 Data based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” September 2012.

Accessed October 2012. 13 Ibid. Athens Age Achievements! Note that OEB Yearbook data does not include: the three First Nations-owned LDCs (Attawapiskat Power, Fort Albany Power and Kashechewan Power); the three non-rate-regulated LDCs (cited previously in course essay, this chapter); and Hydro One Remote Communities’ customer numbers are included in Hydro One Networks’ customer numbers. 14 Quoted from Hydro One Inc.’s official submission to the Panel. 15 References to LDC sizes throughout this Report are based on these thresholds. 16 Based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” op. cit. 17 According to Borealis’ website. Accessed November 2012. 18 A provincial tax of as much as 33% is payable when a municipally-owned LDC transfers or sells assets to a private investor. When the Ontario government gave municipalities ownership of their MEUs, they were provided with a source of income and the potential to athens, realize significant profits should they sell their utilities. The transfer tax captures some of that gain to help pay down the course essay, stranded debt that occurred when Ontario Hydro was restructured.

19 Quoted from OMERS’ meeting with the Panel. 21 OMA and customer analysis based on Ontario Energy Board Yearbook of Electricity Distributors from the years 2005 to 2011, inclusive, op. cit. Inflation analysis based on seasonally adjusted Total Consumer Price Index, taken from The Bank of Colonization and Propaganda by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, Canada website. Accessed October 2012. 23 The OMA costs of the two largest utilities in course reflection essay, Ontario, Hydro One Networks and Toronto Hydro, are excluded from the charts in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 because of their unique circumstances. British Sense Of Humour! Hydro One Networks has higher costs because its low overall customer density is spread out over course reflection essay a wide service area. Toronto Hydro also has unique cost pressures. Its aging assets have to serve a dense urban core that has the highest growth rate in multi-residential buildings in North America.

24 Infrastructure Ontario – October 2012. 26 Ontario Energy Board, “2012-2015 Business Plan,” August 2012, p. 24. Accessed October 2012. 27 Ontario Auditor General, “2011 Annual Report of the Office of the Auditor General of Ontario,” 2011, p. 67. 31 OEB – November 2012. 32 The Electricity Sector Council of Canada, “Powering up the Future: 2008 Labour Market Information Study,” 2008, p. 57.

34 Ontario Energy Association, “Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel Submission,” July 2012, p. Colonization And Propaganda Essay! 28. 35 Ontario Ministry of Energy, “Ontario’s Long-Term Energy Plan: Building Our Clean Energy Future,” 2010, Queen’s Printer for course reflection Ontario, p. 3. 40 As of October 31 2012. Source: Hydro One Networks. 41 In developing this pilot, Horizon Utilities has followed the Ontario Information and a motivator in the workplace, Privacy Commissioner’s approach of “Privacy by Design.” More on “Privacy by Design.” 42 Horizon Utilities – November 2012. 43 Based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” op. cit. 44 Information compiled from a variety of sources, including the Panel’s own analysis. 45 Quoted from essay, Entegrus Powerlines’ official submission to the Panel. 46 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, op. Speluncean Explorers! cit., p. 20.

47 B. Baker, L. Coad, T.A. Crawford, I. Sklokin, “Canada’s Electricity Infrastructure: Building a Case for Investment,” Conference Board of Canada, April 2011, p. Reflection Essay! 23. 49 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, op. cit., p. 12. 50 See Ontario Energy Board’s Decision and Order on February 22, 2012 regarding EB-2011-0123. 52 Electricity Distributors Association, “The Power to Deliver: Recommendations for the future of electricity distribution in Ontario,” August 2012, p. 5. 53 G. Athens! Hodgson, “Needed: A Comprehensive Growth Strategy for Ontario,” Conference Board of reflection, Canada, November 2012, p. 4. 54 Ontario Energy Association, “Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel Submission,” July 2012, Cover Letter. 55 Quoted from the Retail Council of of the penguins movie, Canada’s official submission to the Panel. 57 C. Growitsch, T. Jamasb, M. Pollitt, “Quality of service, efficiency and scale in network industries: an analysis of course reflection, European electricity distribution,” Applied Economics 41 (2009), no.

20, p. Amityville Horror! 2555-2570. 58 N. Bagdadiolglu, C.W. Price, T. Weyman-Jones, “Measuring Potential Gains from Mergers among Electricity Distribution Companies in Turkey using a Non-Parametric Model,” The Energy Journal 28 (2007), no. 2, p. 109. 59 B. Tovar, F.J. Ramos-Real, E.F. de Almeida, “Productivity evolution and Scale effects in Brazilian Electricity Distribution Industry. Course Essay! Evidence from 1998-2005 period,” Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada 4 (2009), p. Of The Penguins Movie! 2. 61 See, for example: A. Yatchew, “Scale Economies in course reflection, Electricity Distribution: A Semiparametric Analysis,” Journal of Applied Econometrics 15 (March/April 2000), no. 2, p. 187-210.

62 Commission on case of the speluncean explorers the Reform of Ontario’s Public Services, “Public Services for essay Ontarians: A Path to british sense, Sustainability and Excellence,” February 2012, p. Essay! 331. 63 Electricity Distributors Association, op. cit., p. 37. 65 Texts in bold face are summaries of the Panel’s recommendations. The formal recommendations can be found in Chapter 6. 66 ‘GGH’ is an abbreviation for Greater Golden Horseshoe. 67 Commission on the Reform of Ontario’s Public Services, op. cit., p. 406. Full! See discussion on Asset Transactions.

69 Assumed annual discount rate of 6%. 70 Based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” op. cit. 71 Note that Hydro One Remote Communities and the distribution assets in the Cat Lake community are considered out of scope. 72 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, op. cit., p. 41. 73 Built off the glossary of: Ontario Ministry of Energy, “Ontario’s Long-Term Energy Plan: Building Our Clean Energy Future,” op. cit., p. 66-68.

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English 1101 Reflective Essay Essays and Research Papers. English 1101 Growing Up Georgia State University was my destination the course essay fall of 2005. I was a starting freshman for the class . of 2009. Everything seemed to be going perfect because I had graduated high school with a high grade point average. I thought I was the ready for every class especially English 1101 because I felt that my former high school teachers had taught me everything I need for march of the movie, college, little did I know that I had no clue how to write like a good writer. I lacked the grammar skills. Creative writing , Essay , Grammar 1197 Words | 3 Pages. Reflective Essay on English Literature Module. Reflective Essay It is amazing that my journey as an English : Literature major has almost come to a close so . quickly. My path has been a smooth and enjoyable one, and it is with great sadness that I begin to gather up the essay ends of march penguins full my literary education.

I know that I will continue to grow and develop as a critical reader/thinker throughout my lifetime, but I will sorrowfully miss the educational structure that has shaped my literary understanding for the last three years. I consider my greatest. Essay , Essays , Fiction 1178 Words | 3 Pages. my essays were about summarizing a chapter from a book or writing a short story. There was no set length it had to be and there were not any . specifics to focus on essay, such as to focus on a strong introduction or to focus on Colonization by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, being organized when writing. The essays that I wrote in high school were just for a quick grade or to help out our grade. I did not really have that much experience in writing essays . In the past semester I have grown more as a writer than I have in reflection essay the past years. March Of The Full! My essays have. Better , Essay , Essays 1419 Words | 4 Pages.

? English Essay #2 Final Draft Michael . Jordan Michael Jeffrey Jordan is course reflection essay widely known as one as the greatest basketball players of all time. However, he was not only a great basketball player, but a great person as well. He was a role model for many people around the world not just in the United States. He was highly regarded for of humour, his business ventures and skyrocketing endorsement deals. He was most importantly. Chicago Bulls , Houston Rockets , Kareem Abdul-Jabbar 888 Words | 3 Pages. ? Reflective Essay Jazmine Caballero Walden University Dr. Paul Trautman EDUC 6731: Assessment for . Course Reflection! Student Learning June 28, 2015 Reflective Essay I can give faith that my assumptions about assessment have been changed throughout this course. Fake! Dr.

Davies stated, “When students are involved in course essay the classroom assessment process, they are more engaged and motivated, and sense of humour, they learn more” (Reeves, 2007, p.31). Therefore, when creating are lesson plans we should establish appropriate. American Psychological Association , APA style , Assessment 1343 Words | 7 Pages. reflection in the mirror. The same can be said about the reflective compositions. A reflective composition is the result of . introspection into past experiences or memorable events in our lives.

We introspect into these memorable events and reflect over course reflection them with regards the emotions and influences they have left in our lives. In simple words a reflective essay is a piece of ‘you’ being presented in is money a motivator workplace words. What is Reflection? In a reflective composition you really need to think about yourself. Emotion , Essay , Essays 1498 Words | 5 Pages. ?The Reflective Essay Since joining the course reflection essay class and over the last semester, I have been pursuing English as a . Case Of The! subject consequently learning the importance of course reflection brainstorming, aspects of is money a motivator in the workplace organizing prior to course essay writing, revising and and Propaganda Essay, collaborating in course essay writing. The subject has provided a gateway through which I have learnt the art of expressing myself, literature, grammar as well as the language itself.

However, this did not come without its challenges. Athens Age Achievements! English being my second language, it took me a while to. Clause , Dependent clause , English language 769 Words | 3 Pages. How to write a Reflective essay ? This type of essay is aimed to reflect a personal event or experience of the . essay author. Course! The main condition is british that it has to course reflection essay be a certain personal experience on which the author has his very own perception. March Full Movie! This experience or even is revealed in the essay in order to demonstrate its importance for understanding social relations and the essence of course essay people. It may be said that a reflective essay possess the traits of a philosophical analysis of of humour different experiences. Article , Essay , Essays 990 Words | 3 Pages. audience, and tone - Purpose: 1. Reflection Essay! Self-exploration 2. Self-expression 3. entertain 4. Is Money! share insights about human relationships - Audience: 1. . English teacher 2. Classmates - Tone: 1. Course Reflection Essay! Writer’s attitude 2. Unique voice 3. utilize expressive style Prewriting: Choose a person - Who would make a good subject for this reflective essay ? Choose a person who is meaningful. Family member?

Friend? Neighbor? Coach? - Subject-generating strategies: 1. Browse through journals, scrapbooks. Emotion , Folklore , Interpersonal relationship 439 Words | 3 Pages. Mary Ellen Zaglewski English 1101 , Fall 2012, CRN 86404 TR: 9:50-11:05 G211 CRN 89139 TR: 11:15-12:30 G221 Office . Colonization Wa Thiong´o! Hours: 11:30-3:30 MW, 3:30-5:30 TR, others by appointment. Course! Office: G110K E-mail: maryzaglewski@clayton.edu Phone: 678-466-4880 Clayton State University - English 1101 Course Syllabus Course Title: English Composition I Course Description: This course focuses on skills required for effective writing in a variety of. Academia , Clayton State University , Essay 1286 Words | 5 Pages. Reflective Essay This semester in 1010 has definitely been challenging for me, but I have learned a great deal. Although I’m not . a fan of writing papers, I do have to agree it has helped me increase my knowledge in English composition.

Before this semester, I had no clue in the world what rhetorical skills were, and a motivator in the workplace, now I am writing a paper on them. Course Reflection Essay! As a result of English 1010, my ability to think rhetorically has improved greatly. This semester in is money in the English 1010, I have learned how to use attributions. Academia , Critical thinking , English-language films 1122 Words | 3 Pages. Child Development I (ECE1101) Assessment 1 (Part B) – Reflective Essay By: Muna Farah Student ID: FAR07224027 In this . essay I will be discussing my own developing concept of childhood, my opinion of when childhood starts and course, ends as well as the importance of case explorers childhood. Course Essay! I will then discuss specific social and is money, cultural influences that had in helped me to reflection develop my own concept of childhood, than I will be relating my own concept of childhood to Locke and Freud and lastly I will demonstrate. Child , Childhood , Early childhood education 856 Words | 3 Pages. My Reflective Essay Anthony N. Houston Sept. 22, 2012 English 12 – . 7TH Hour W hen I first arrived into british, the walls of Northwestern High School as a freshman, it was a new experience for reflection, me. Adapting to Colonization by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay a new atmosphere was a big change in my life.

From being use to Elementary, and course reflection, Junior High Schools standards I had to critique my whole lifestyle. In doing this, I had to change the way I thought, my morals, values, timing, academics, and most of all. College , Educational stages , Extracurricular activity 750 Words | 2 Pages. Step of a Long Process: Studying English Academic writing is an art of expressing and horror, transforming thoughts and ideas into physical . form to deliver information logically and scientifically. This skill needs to be refined and practiced constantly regularly. Course Reflection Essay! After three months of taking ESL 273, I have accumulated various experiences in writing advanced sentences and workplace, organizing academic essays which are really necessary for me to perform well in the next English course, ESL 5, as well as other. Academia , English language , Essay 954 Words | 3 Pages. com/past_papers/ english - essay -1438.aspx English Essay . Tweet.

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English Essay 0 . Age Achievements! Essay - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Essay The word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, to try or to attempt. In English essay first meant a trial or an attempt, and reflection, this is still an alternative . English Essay , Junior English essays www. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Karachi 466 Words | 3 Pages. Reflective Essay This essay aims to critically review my strengths and weaknesses as a self-regulated learner, . in relation to key skills which demonstrate my ability to use reflective practice. Also, the case speluncean explorers essay will identify and implement the learning skills required to complete the modules in Year 2 of the programme. It will produce and make use of individual learning plans that reflect how I could improve upon essay my interpersonal skills and implement a personal development plan. March Penguins Movie! Furthermore, a demonstration. Academia , Academic writing , Educational psychology 2203 Words | 6 Pages. ?FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND LAW INDIVIDUAL COURSEWORK COVERSHEET Coursework Details Module Name and Code Event Design and course essay, Production (MANM 312) . Coursework Title Assignment 3 - Reflective Essay Deadline 05/01/2015 Word Count 926 Student Details Student URN (7 digit number on Uni card) 6323428 Student Name Xinzhu Hu Programme MSc International Events Management Student Declaration To be agreed by Student Please refer to the University of speluncean Surrey Regulations for the Conduct of Examinations. Communication , Essay mill , Idea 1738 Words | 10 Pages. It is astonishing that my journey through English class has come to a close.

My path has been a smooth and enjoyable one, and it is with great . sadness that I begin to essay gather up the ends of my literary education. Athens Golden Age Achievements! I know that I will continue to grow and develop as a critical reader/thinker throughout my life, but I will miss the educational structure that has shaped my literary understanding for the last year. Reflection Essay! I consider my greatest strengths as a writer to be my insightfulness and creative slant. Essay , Essays , Short story 914 Words | 3 Pages. Task D Reflective essay The concepts of reflective practice are widely accepted in education and many other . professions, in simple terms, Moon (2004) describes it as a process of 'cognitive housekeeping' whereby a practitioner would explore their own values, beliefs and practice to a professional situation.

It is also frequently perceived that a structure is helpful to support and encourage more than just simple reflections ,Jones (2009). Popular theorists have emerged in reflective practice. Education , Learning , Lifelong learning 2044 Words | 5 Pages. ? English 1101 Final Exam DUE FRIDAY AUGUST 9, 2013 PLEASE SUBMIT AS A .doc, .docx, or .rtf file. Sense Of Humour! 200 points. Directions: . Answer each question in essay a paragraph—be sure to of humour give specific details and examples. Remember that each of these questions has multiple parts to it. You must type your responses out and hand it to me by the end of our class period. Length: By the essay time you answer each question, you should have 5 solid paragraphs, or about 2 and 2 ? -3 pages double spaced.

If you are looking for. Better , Critical thinking , Improve 1448 Words | 4 Pages. n this reflective essay , I want to talk about march, my situation. Essay! When I was thirteen , I survived something really difficult. Is Money A Motivator In The Workplace! I got . through it and became a different person. I was the course essay person that used to talk a lot, a naughty one and I liked to make fun of other people. Is Money In The Workplace! But certainly,in a mean time, I became a different person, and course reflection, I can’t even imagine it. And Propaganda! Six years ago, at aged thirteen,as a young girl have knew nothing about the US. I had come to America. At that time, English is the most difficult. 2008 singles , Dance-pop songs , Debut albums 970 Words | 3 Pages.

Coursework Header Sheet 219343-4 Course Coursework Tutor BUSI1204: Personal Prof Dev (Business) Reflective report I Manikas Course . Reflection Essay! School/Level Assessment Weight Submission Deadline B/UG 20.00% 04/11/2014 Coursework is receipted on the understanding that it is the student's own work and that it has not, in whole or part, been presented elsewhere for assessment. Where material has been used from in the workplace other sources it has been properly acknowledged in accordance with the University's Regulations. Future , Higher education , It Is Well with My Soul 669 Words | 2 Pages. ? COVER PAGE Reflective : Terms of Reference: Part2 ?????? 25% • Write a critical reflective . essay (1000 words) on course, your journey of discovery through the module, set within the context of the learning outcomes. In particular, describe how the course challenged your thinking, brought to horror fake you new and course essay, interesting ideas and concepts, or, presented approaches to the topic with which you may have disagreed. March Of The Penguins Full! To: Anglia Ruskin University. Date: 5th January, 2015. . Creativity , Innovation , Invention 1063 Words | 6 Pages. A REFLECTIVE ESSAY This is a reflective essay based on course essay, a event which took place in and Propaganda by Ngugi Essay a hospital . setting. The aim of this essay is to course reflection explore how members of the Multidisciplinary Team (MDT) worked together and communicate with each other to achieve the march of the penguins best patients outcome.

Reflection is an everyday process and reflection, is very personal matter. Jasper (2003) suggests that reflection is of the penguins movie one of the key ways in which we can learn from our experiences. Reflective practice can be defined as process of making. Health care , Health care provider , Hospital 1439 Words | 4 Pages. Reflective essay My plan: Introduction: I aim to course reflection essay discuss what methods of learning I have felt particularly successful . during my first year and which areas need to penguins be looked and improved in reflection preparation for Colonization Essay, the next year. I will also analyse and critically assess the course development of my academic skills and experience. Horror Fake! I will also evaluate my how will I manage my time and devise ways in which to reflection use it more effectively and efficiently. Case Speluncean! Each person has different perspectives toward learning. Better , Education , Educational psychology 1097 Words | 4 Pages. ? Reflective Essay Why we use reflection It is important that we use reflection in order to reflection essay further develop our skills in . Horror Fake! practice. No matter which reflective cycle chosen it is important that you identify what has been learned from the experience, how it has helped, if it is negative, how to course reflection essay overcome the horror problem in reflection the future, and how it relates to theory and age achievements, knowledge you have been taught.

Reflective practice has been identified as one of the course reflection key ways in which we learn from our experiences in case speluncean practice. Allergy , Anesthesia , Anxiety 2708 Words | 7 Pages. Reflective Essay on Software project which specializes in the deployment of reflection integrated software platform This . Essay is march of the penguins about a Software project which specializes in the deployment of integrated software platforms. The Project’s main theme is to select and deploy an E-Learning system to experience a new way of learning and enhancing the reflection student’s skills.This System is for the Information System School which have five computer labs and around hundred users. As a Project team member the horror fake client asked.

Computing platform , Java , Learning management system 704 Words | 3 Pages. g. carrying through with the reflection author's initially posed question; focusing more critically on amityville fake, Bodi's argument and/or her responses to course this author's . comments), however, it is offered as a formidable example of athens golden how to initially tackle a critically reflective piece by focusing on only one point, argument, (or in course this case, sentence). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I found the article written by Sonia Bodi was very informative and interesting. Academic publishing , Essay , Paper 948 Words | 3 Pages. ?Princess Sara Njemanze S. Loftin AP English Language 20 January 2014 Deleterious Tardiness Tardiness is a trending concern in high . Sense! schools all around the United States of America. Many teachers withstand the course tardiness of the students and retain their words while other teachers respond with action and enforce suitable punishments. Teachers who take action are highly esteemed by students who have learned to get to athens golden age achievements their classes on time. Course Reflection Essay! By way of teaching with an iron hand, teachers have gained. Education , Essay , Essays 831 Words | 3 Pages.

? REFLECTIVE ESSAY Introduction This is a reflection of a research carried out by a group within the class on 'investigating . information sharing between professionals and how it impacts child abuse: social work perspective'. This theme was the basis for the research and published research articles were used to analyse the research question. The reporting of sense child abuse is a complex issue that generates lots of course essay controversies but recently, social policy has been focused on age achievements, improving the way child. Academic publishing , Child abuse , International Federation of Social Workers 1809 Words | 7 Pages. ? Reflective Essay The aim of this essay is to prove an understanding of my perception of reflection and how . reflective practice impacts on the clinical environment and the learning process. The essay is based on my practice and training in course reflection the cardiac ward during my Foundation degree in by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Health and Social Care. Course! I have selected 5 extracts from amityville my Reflective Journal concerning a patient experiencing shortness of breath which led to course a cardiac arrest. Speluncean Explorers! In order to be able to essay use this situation for my. Anxiety , Health care , Health care provider 2301 Words | 9 Pages. Throughout the summer semester I have had to write a number of essays using a variety of amityville horror fake techniques. Before college, I would write assuming . Reflection Essay! that the only reader, or audience, would be my teacher.

Composition helped me realize the many steps that are involved in sense the writing process from free writing to making a final copy. In order to create a good paper you need organize your ideas. Also, I realize what needs to be in reflection a essay and Colonization and Propaganda in Matigari Wa Thiong´o Essay, what doesn't. Reflection! I have improved in Colonization and Propaganda Essay my writing but. Better , Composition studies , Essay 523 Words | 3 Pages. akml 2rayet el essay ele ana ft7to m4 aktr . we hwa 3mal ybw5 , a3ml eh tyb . aktb ad eh ya bay5 enta . wah . deh m4 tre2a . t3amlo beha el dyof bto3ko 5als . ento btkrhona fe el mge 3ndko . we kda ht5sro kter www.studymode.com › Home › Health › Medicine Read this college essay and over essay 1800000 others like it now. March! . Reflection Essay! Success is march of the penguins not a gift, it should be hard to achieve and it matters how it is accomplished. Reflection! Free success Essays and Papers -. Essay , Essays , Failure 510 Words | 4 Pages. Reflective Essay High school. Those two words can nostalgically bring out the best and the . British Sense Of Humour! most tragic memories in anyone’s life.

For me, I can say that those years were anything but ordinary, at times they were terrifying, at times they were incredible, at times they were chaotic, but they were always beautiful. All my seven years at Alameda Community Learning Center have been both life altering and amazingly valuable. Course Essay! I never expected to learn from or take so. Education , Graduation , High school 1486 Words | 4 Pages. Reflective Essay Since the beginning . of time, mankind’s greatest thinkers have come across the idea of creating and maintaining the perfect society. What is the ideal society? A community built upon of humour integrity, justice, and freedom that can come together to overcome all obstacles. However, it has taken mankind centuries to establish some form of this perfected society, and in the process we’ve given up quite. Ayn Rand , Identity , Individual 833 Words | 3 Pages. Final Reflective Essay After reflecting on course essay, all of my past writing assignments it appears my most impressive work was my . personal best essay . Although I put an equal amount of effort into my later essays as I did to my personal best for of the speluncean, reasons I couldn’t explain at course reflection essay, the time I wasn’t able to fully apply the material to and Propaganda Wa Thiong´o Essay my current professional life. The main difference between my personal best scenario and all of my other essays was that in my personal best I had a formal position title that officially.

Fiedler contingency model , Fraternities and reflection, sororities , Leader 1489 Words | 5 Pages. July 25, 2011 2nd Reflective essay In what ways did Sophocles in Philoctetes, Confucians, and Taoists deal with the questions . of individualism and respect for case of the speluncean, authority? In Philoctetes, Sophocles deals with individualism in two ways from two different characters. The king Odysseus shows his individualism by becoming conniving and deceitful. That is not honorable conduct for a Greek. Course Essay! His actions are definitely not appropriate for a Greek King. He is showing that he will do anything in order. Chinese philosophy , Confucianism , Confucius 1113 Words | 3 Pages. Zach Wallace Medeiros Reflective Essay Prd.

3 12 February 2013 Reflective Essay April 20, 1995 . marks the beginning for a newborn boy about to is money in the workplace embark on the greatest journey of course essay all, life. This child’s parents, Rick and Kelly Wallace, knew that he would one day grow to be someone who makes a difference, no matter how small, in this big world. However, I must first tell you who I am, where I plan to go, how I have prepared for my journey, and how I plan to get where I am going. Now I introduce. American football , College football , Future 1383 Words | 4 Pages. ? Reflective essay : Related to an area of my work In this task I will be reflecting upon an incident undertaken on . area of my work. Movie! The model of course reflection I’ve chosen is and Propaganda in Matigari Wa Thiong´o Gibbs (1988), which involves reflection on course, the description, feelings, evaluation, conclusion and action plan (Gibbs 1988). The Gibbs (1988) reflective cycle is fairly straightforward and encourages a clear description of the british of humour situation, analysis of feelings, evaluation of the experience, analysis to make sense of the. Feeling , Grief , Nurse 765 Words | 4 Pages.

argument between a nurse and patient’s family, I came to realize that reflective skills are crucial not only for course, my current status as student . but also for my future professional development (Sharon, 2014) as registered nurse. The reflective practice helps nurses to maintain and constantly update their knowledge, as well as construct clinical skills by learning from real practice (ANMC 2009). Speluncean Explorers! As described by O’Donovan, reflective is essay “a process of deliberative thinking, looking back, examining oneself. Health care , Health care provider , Mister X 2553 Words | 5 Pages. ?Word count: 1465 Reflective essay on People in Organizations Introduction This is a reflective essay . on my experience of learning “People in organizations” during the full movie first half year of my postgraduate study. I will include my personal feelings during the learning process in teamwork when making the portfolio. Furthermore, I will also include my critical thinking of reflection essay this module and golden age achievements, how I have learnt from it.

Also, there will be an analysis of personal action plan of how I will apply the knowledge. Critical thinking , Human resource management , Human resources 1617 Words | 6 Pages. Reflective Essay : This essay is a reflective essay on my learning development from a . young age through to my current position as a University Student. I will be relating my learning development back to two theories of human development, Vygotstsky’s socio-cultural theory and course essay, Marcia’s version of Erikson’s theory of identity development. I will identify and discuss the challenge I have faced with my identity and how this has impacted on fake, my development. Vygotsky is a theorist who believed that. Adolescence , Child development , Developmental psychology 2131 Words | 6 Pages. ? Reflective Review Self reflection helps you to learn and reflect on course essay, important information.

This can be reflection on quantitative and . qualitative information. Self reflection can help me to write about the course or programme that you have studied. It can make you write about the experience that you had in modules, and if any changes need to be changed then you can work through this by sharing your skills. It can make me write about your personal reflection. It’s a way to remove any. Bond market , Capital market , Financial market 2421 Words | 7 Pages. Erin Newton Deborah Schwartz, Instructor English 102 21 April 2014 Final Reflective Essay During my time in . Professor Schwartz’s English 102 class, I feel that I improved as a writer. I am now familiar with various types of argumentative essays and how to fake properly write them. Discussion assignments taught me how to review and course reflection, synthesize articles and speeches, as well as interact with my peers.

The self-evaluations required at the end of each essay helped me to critique my own work and connect. Creative writing , Debate , Education 1195 Words | 2 Pages. Initial Reflective Essay When I first thought of what I wanted to do with my life after college, the first thing I thought . of was helping people. The next step in athens golden age achievements deciding what I wanted to do with my life was to exam how I could accomplish this goal. I started pondering and I was thinking about how much I love to take care of course reflection essay my body. Amityville Horror! Health care and course reflection, personal hygiene has always been an important factor in case of the my life. So I decided to major in Health Science. With this major, I will be able. Communication , Communication studies , Decision downloading 1384 Words | 4 Pages. ?Enterprise and Business Development BABS Year 2 21023656 Reflective Essay With reference to appropriate academic sources . compare and contrast your own personality and characteristics to reflection essay those found in entrepreneurs. I became interested earlier on my life in entrepreneurship when I started up a new boutique back in golden age achievements my home country Sudan, selling ladies Fashions that was imported from course various countries including Turkey, Lebanon and Egypt, I was very interested in the way Egyptians friends.

Business , Entrepreneur , Entrepreneurship 1066 Words | 3 Pages. Perez, Genric D. BSBA II-B Reflective essay ‘’ Significance of Information Campaign on New Generation Currency and Clean . Note Policy to Business Administration’’ It is important to workplace promote our New Generation Currency, that gives a finite information about it. The Banko Sentral issued it, there are lots of changes in our money, the texture the color, the images printed both side. Security features are spruced most notice by essay, the serial number with might some weird and its security thread. Business ethics , Ethics , Moral absolutism 1143 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jin-Sil Kim Professor Kamffer English 100 November 6, 2011 Analysis Essay : A Modest Proposal In A Modest Proposal, Jonathan . Workplace! Swift presents a literary work that attacks the vices of the English Protestants, Irish politicians, and essay, even the naivety of the Irish themselves.

Being a Protestant and native Irish himself, Swift proposes a mocking resolution to the dreadful state of Ireland in his piece. He conveys his views towards the poor by offering a fictitious solution to their unpleasant situations. A Modest Proposal , Dublin , English people 883 Words | 4 Pages. Reflective Essay – 6th June 2012 My journey to become a Counselling Psychologist began in 2008 when as a Life Coach; I had a . self referral who suffered from anxiety over his forthcoming exams in his second year at university. I started collaboratively setting goals to manage his workload and set timetable into manageable chunks through asking him challenging questions so that e can start to think for himself.

He had plenty of athens age achievements resources namely his family, time, books but he just would not settle. Behaviour therapy , Clinical psychology , Coaching 1829 Words | 5 Pages. Reflective Practice Reid (1994) Gibbs Reflective Cycle What happened? (description) What would you do if it happened again? . (action plan) What were you thinking/feeling? (feeling) What alternatives did you have? (conclusion) How can you make sense of what happened? (analysis) What was good/bad about the experience? (evaluation) Reflectivity The circular process by which our thoughts affect our actions, which affect the course reflection situation we are dealing with and therefore after feedback through. Believe , Cognition , Feeling 1542 Words | 7 Pages. Reflective essay : IKEA vs.

WHITE RABBIT The first IKEA in Thailand opened its door on November 3, 2011 in Bang Phli, Samut . Prakan. The store is adjacent to a major interchange where the Bang Na-Bang Pakong Highway and golden age achievements, Kanchanaphisek Outer Ring Road intersects, with convenient access from the more affluent eastern suburbs of Bangkok. Course Reflection Essay! It is expected to have 40,000 sq meters of horror fake retail space as a part of the reflection Mega Bangna Shopping Center. IKEA is an interesting DIY (Do-It-Yourself) business that has. Convenience store , Gelato , Ice cream 1192 Words | 4 Pages. Self- reflective Essay In life we go through different developmental stages that lead us to certain situations. This has an penguins full . effect on our future direction and course, which path we choose to take; Whether it be through Education, Career or jobs, family or just shear circumstances, these all contribute and lead us to certain points in speluncean explorers our lives and course essay, future endeavors. Amityville Fake! In this essay I have chosen to write about the course essay major influences that have led me to undertake studying at a tertiary level in the course. College , Education , Higher education 1938 Words | 6 Pages. Reflective Essay on british sense, English Class.

English 100w was a very informative and interesting class. It was taught by essay, professor E. Cochran, who is a wonderful person and excellent . teacher. Sense Of Humour! We covered lots of criteria material and discussed topics during the tenure of the class. We also learned many new ideas about the reflection incidents going on is money a motivator, around the course essay world, which were great for us. Reading skills were also honed while reading various essays and stories. Athens Golden! Essay writing was a major part of the class.

We wrote essay on race and reflection, ethnicity, gay. 2009 NBA Playoffs , Essay , Essays 535 Words | 2 Pages. Danh Nguyen Mr. Goldberg Rhetoric 120 Reflective essay Poverty has always been present in both rich and poor countries . around the world. Speluncean Explorers! Vietnam is course reflection essay not an exception. Vietnam, the march of the full movie pearl of the East, shines beautifully with a charming culture and course reflection, a long glorious history.

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The landscape, the way people live here, the norms of this culture were so different from anything I had seen before. We walked the streets of Milot that first day and I strongly recall the uncomfortable. Cap-Haitien , Haiti , Haitian Creole language 1067 Words | 3 Pages. Concursul de limba engleza – faza zonala februarie 2013 Clasa a XII-a Varianta A Use of English I. Essay! Fill each of the . numbered blanks in the following text. Use only one word in athens golden each space. (15 points) In a major breakthrough in reflection essay diving, scientists have developed an artificial gill capable 1. obtaining oxygen 2. sea water. The question of 3. fish breathe puzzled man for centuries. Now, fortunately, a team of horror chemists, physicists and course reflection essay, mathematicians at Colonization in Matigari, Tokyo University. English language , French language , Gill 889 Words | 3 Pages.

Victoria Oslund EDUC 203 12/10/12 Reflective Essay . Teaching and Learning in a Diverse Society has truly opened my eyes to reflection . what I will be facing in a classroom, whether it be the type of students I will be teaching or how I will teach my students a controversial topic. It gave me many different ways to bring up a hard topic that someone people would feel uncomfortably teaching to younger students. Not only did it open my eyes it has helped me think in Colonization and Propaganda in Matigari Wa Thiong´o Essay abstract ways on course reflection essay, topics that are new to. Class I railroad , Classroom , Education 2043 Words | 5 Pages. ? University of Technology Jodian Allen I.D #: 1305502 Business Etiquette Assessment Reflective Paper Lecturer: Dr.

Jennifer . Yee-sing Date: September 27, 2013 Reflective Paper Shifting my head slowly from left to the right I glanced at my classmates, as the lecturer entered the age achievements room I was awfully anxious with muddled thoughts flowing through my head. I sat patiently in the room amongst the others, looking peculiarly sneaky as fear had already numbed my body to a pulp. However. Better , Improve , Learning 814 Words | 3 Pages. My essay is describing the life of J.R.R Tolkien and what he did before and during the time he was an author. He was born in Bloemfontein, . South Africa on January 3, 1892. J.R.R Tolkien stayed in course reflection South Africa with his brother and parents. But the weather was very harsh on his mother so she decided she would move to England with him and his brother and their dad would come later. But later J.R.R. Tolkien’s dad died because of a brain hemorrhage so he never ended up meeting up with J.R.R. Horror Fake! Tolkien.

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How to Guide to Racing Resume / Sponsorship Proposal. So you want to race. Welcome to course the club. Whether you are trying to british sense work this out with family support, or on your own, unless you are fabulously wealthy, you have already realized that sponsorship is a must for nearly every racer on reflection the track. In your pre-racing days you had to pay for parts to make your ride go as fast as your buddy's, or to make it easier on is money a motivator in the workplace your bod while having fun. As a racer, whether you are a first year amateur or a factory pro, you will have to obtain the performance modifications and replace product when you mess it up, on or off the track. Course Reflection Essay? In fact I know of full quite a few times that perfectly good brand new parts have been destroyed in reflection the process of installing them (an expensive education and a lesson in Wa Thiong´o Essay why we should read the directions that come with our new toys). Essay? The point being that your little obsession/habit of racing/riding is and Propaganda by Ngugi going to be a costly adventure, but also the time of course reflection your life. Anyone that has been to a race track has noticed the stickers on the bikes and march penguins movie, haulers. These are sometimes put there because they came free in essay the shipment of amityville fake nerfs, handlebars or in a sticker pack the rider got at essay, the local Honda shop.

If you are a sponsored rider, then the branding/stickers on your quad and british sense of humour, hauler establish you as a part of the company that you represent. Your actions while wearing the stickers of your sponsor reflect on the sponsor as well as yourself. Sponsors consider that when choosing riders. Next question, How do I get a bunch of reflection essay those stickers without paying for them or the parts they come with? Answer: You do your darndest to earn sponsorship. Simple. Right? Not really. When I first got into of the penguins movie this arena I was in the same shoes you are in right now (unless you have a marketing degree- in which case disregard the rest of this article). My background had nothing to do with how to write a resume for essay, a racer.

Sure I could find examples from books at the library or bookstore on resumes, but none for sense of humour, a professional or semi-professional athlete, much less a racer. So I had to determine what to do to mix the style of resume that I would submit if was looking for course, a position with a secretarial pool or a teaching position and that of a professional athlete forming a `Racer's Resume'. If you are still reading this right now, you are probably one of the sponsor hungry population who are running out of Colonization in Matigari time to reflection get noticed and be considered for of the, this season's budget from most companies. How it works: Nearly every company has a `Sponsorship Budget' in their program. Each company has a person or team of essay persons responsible for distributing the monies/products or a combination of both to deserving athletes.

This person or team of persons is called `Rider Support'. Nearly every company that offers sponsorship has levels of sponsorship. Common levels are A, B C level support, Pro and is money a motivator, Factory. Support can range from a discount on course essay certain products to free products, contingency (this would be money paid for your wins at sense, certain events) all the way to the Holy Grail of the racer: Factory Support. Now let's get down to course reflection how to keep your resume on the top of the pile and out of the trash can.

Aside from the basics like your name, street address, city, state, zip code, home and and Propaganda in Matigari, cell phone numbers, you should also include your email. A common mistake, believe it or not, is to leave out contact information. Jack Bednar, from Lonestar Racing, has had to dig through the trash pile before to find the right envelope that a resume came in to find out how to get in touch with the course reflection rider. Also necessary in your resume is a short bio of you and a motivator, your riding history. Don't go into great detail of reflection essay every second, third or less finishes you have had, and don't include reasons why you didn't podium at of humour, specific races. Course Essay? Until you are sponsored, no one really cares why you didn't finish a race except your parents.

Photos are a must. You need to include a head-shot of yourself, one of your bike and one action shot of you at the very least. References must be listed on your resume. Make sure to horror include contact information on your references as well. Submit your resume to the right people, during the right time frame. What this means is make sure that you address your resume to reflection the correct department within your target sponsor. Check on the target sponsor's website or call their operator to make sure you have the of humour right address, right name and right time frame to submit your resume.

OK, these are the rules. Sounds pretty easy so far. Course Reflection Essay? If this was all there is to it, you would not have read this far. This section is more the strategy than cheat codes. There aren't really `Cheat Codes' to march penguins movie a resume, but there are bonus points you can score. Let's review what we have done so far. Essay? We have a basic 4 page resume. You have included all the case `regular' stuff and are following all the rules. Now, let's get creative and essay, find the Colonization by Ngugi Essay way to keep your resume on the `keep' pile of your target sponsor's desk. First of course reflection all do not even consider handwriting your resume. Make sure you use a good word-processor and spell check it.

Kevin Mummuah, from Lost Creek Cycle, says, Don't expect someone to do more for you, than the effort you put into your resume. Golden? I can tell how much work they put into it when I open them. The ones that haven't spent the time are obvious. Your focus should be to maximize what you can offer your potential sponsor in the form of endorsing their product and how to communicate that you can do this to the sponsor. If you are sending resumes out to companies that you really like, then it shouldn't be too hard to express your enthusiasm for the company and their product or to course reflection come up with ideas on how you would carry the message to potential customers on how awesome their products are. Is your brain full yet? Maybe this is where you should reconsider that job at the sawmill instead of fake racing. I know I have suggested something like this a couple of times to essay my racer.

Beginning with your contact information review what you have there. March Of The Full Movie? Format your information with your name in bold print. This is important. If you have included your email, and I am hoping you ARE including an essay email, you need to keep it professional. British Sense? You are asking companies to course invest a serious amount of confidence in you as well as money in you to in Matigari by Ngugi support their products and represent their company. If you have an course reflection essay email of toker420@hotmail.com or radicalrider69@yahoo.com (I don't know if these are real emails or not), it definitely gives a certain impression. Most companies have so much interest in their sponsorship programs that they can throw away any potential riders that even hint of unprofessionalism.

Go ahead and keep your identity nickname for chat and golden, private messages, but obtain a professional email with your name in it like dana@danacreechracing.com or john_smith@hotmail.com either of these would be acceptable and reflection essay, have no unprofessional image. A note on professionalism: if you include your cell phone number or private home number make sure that your recording is also mainstream. No radical music interludes, raps, or weird recordings. Keep it short and sweet. People in rider support don't have all day to listen to your favorite tunes or you goofing off on your answering machines. Make the athens age achievements choice to go with something grown-up, since you are asking for a grown-up gift. Most of the reflection Rider Support people take about 30 seconds on each resume before deciding what pile to file it in. You need to get their attention to make them even slightly interested in you in the first 10 seconds so they will put you in case of the speluncean explorers the `keep' pile rather than the `round' file next to the desk (trash can). Start your resume with an eye catcher. What catches your eye? An action photo would be a good idea.

OK, here comes the kicker: you actually need a decent action photo to essay put there. If you don't have some that have been professionally done, get some. Next make sure that the reader can tell it's you. Below are two examples. Case Explorers? They are both great `action' photos but the course reflection essay second one is defiantly more eye-catching. And Propaganda? Also use good sizes but not to overwhelming and use good quality prints. After you have your resume completed don't mess it all up by printing on your home computer with a low color cartridge. Reflection? You can have them printed in color on a laser printer for under a buck a page at the local Kinkos.

Make sure that you are the focus and that action is clear. As Kevin Mummuah said, Don't send me substandard photos with ant people in them. Next you need to describe what your abilities and qualifications are. Get rid of all the descriptions of how cool you are and what people think about you. Do include action words describing what you can do. Be willing to back it up. And Propaganda In Matigari By Ngugi Wa Thiong´o? And keep it short.

Make sure to course reflection essay include a short history of your wins. Don't include every race you did or why you didn't podium or finish a particular race. If you have a photo of your pit area at speluncean explorers, a race this would be a good place to course essay include it. I am thinking of a photo of your pit area, neat, no garbage, clean well maintained quad, your tools organized and maybe you and your mechanic (or Dad, or your dog) standing next to your quad in full clean gear. Remember you are asking a company to and Propaganda in Matigari by Ngugi be identified with your professionalism.

Do you really think they will be interested in being associated with someone who has no respect for their bike or surroundings? Include where you plan to race for the upcoming season. Just list the series that you plan to reflection do in full. If you are going to case of the do something like the full GNC National schedule then include it, otherwise say you will be attending selected National events. Be realistic on where you are going to race and choose one series to focus on. Spell check. Read it aloud to reflection someone (that usually catches something that is Colonization in Matigari by Ngugi Essay worded weird).

Check your formatting. Course Reflection Essay? Make sure you don't have lines that look. this in your resume. Do your homework. Case Explorers? Find out exactly who to send your resume to by calling the course reflection essay company or looking up on their website for in the, information on where and reflection essay, who to send your resume to AND make sure that you are submitting your resume in the right time frame. For instance Shift's Rider Support head, Rob Salcedo, says that they ONLY accept resumes during October 1-31 period. Any resumes that show up even one day early or one day late go straight into Colonization in Matigari Wa Thiong´o Essay the garbage can. Shift gets over 300 resumes from amateur riders in the ATV discipline alone.

Clancy Schmitt, from Hiper-Technology, says they get over 500 per reflection year. The competition is stiff for march, those sponsorships. So make sure yours comes to the attention of the right person during the right time period. Spell out reflection essay how you plan on earning your sponsorship. Simply `promoting my sponsors to the best of my ability and listing my sponsors on and Propaganda in Matigari by Ngugi Essay my sign-ups' is not enough.

This is EXPECTED not a perk from you. Running the sponsor's stickers and saying `Thank-You' when interviewed are also expected. Whew, now that we have that out of the way, think on course reflection essay what YOU can do that only you can do. Be original. Be clear on what your plans are.

Spell out exactly what you would like your sponsor to do for you. Do not expect free stuff. More realistically you can expect to receive some kind of a discount on product if you are selected for sponsorship. Golden Age Achievements? Many companies offer their main products at a special rate for sponsored riders. If for instance you are approaching LoneStar Racing, you can let them know what products you are planning on purchasing and when you would need to make a decision on purchasing. Fasst Company said they want to see at least six things that you can do for them.

Chris and Cole say, Whatever you want from reflection essay, this company, you need to be prepared to do double in return. References are important. Just like a `regular' resume, be prepared to supply the names, addresses, and phone numbers of british people that have knowledge of your riding and personality. Course? Your school counselor could write a quick letter of support (on school letterhead) as well as be a reference, a family member, the owner of the local bike shop and other sponsors are great references. Other riders are not good references.

If you can get someone who is nationally recognized to be a reference this is best. The ATV industry is quite small and many people know each other well enough to golden age achievements just give a quick call. If you are under 18 years old, it is absolutely imperative that you include the fact that you have family support. Even young adults will benefit from course reflection, showing a strong family support system. Age Achievements? Be prepared to show who you are, not just what you do. This is hard to accomplish in a 4 page resume but can be done.

Presentation. Make sure that you have a cover page, your resume, history/bio page, and course essay, a photo page. This is all standard stuff that most of the case of the Rider Support personnel that I spoke with wanted to see. They also have some pet peeves of what is not cool to them. Rob Salcedo absolutely hates those slippery covers that you get for reflection essay, school reports. What happens is you get a stack of them together and they all start sliding out, ending up on the floor, in the coffee etc. So binders are a big no-no. A simple staple or cover that is not slippery is good.

Have I mentioned spell checking yet? Take pride in yourself and your request. Let your potential sponsor see who you are. Biggest mistakes include: non typed or non word processed resume; slippery folders; the quote, `will promote your company to the best of my ability'; large files emailed to company; too short of a resume; too long of a resume; and misspelled words. Every company that I spoke with accepted resumes in mail form. A few accepted emails, and fewer still accepted FAXed resumes. Nearly every company accepted resumes in October and November. A few accepted them in September and a few accepted them in December.

After January 1 no one that I spoke with would look at a resume. Each company that I spoke with had different levels of support. Scot Denton, from Denton Racing, said they have four levels of march full support. Kevin Mummuah from Lost Creek Racing works with a lot of reflection essay riders at different levels of support. Lost Creek has their pros but also a large number of speluncean amateurs and pros who are not even on the roster for Lost Creek, who sometimes end up getting on track support from Kevin. Hiper Technology has three levels of support. Basically most of the reflection companies that I spoke with have different levels of increasing support the longer you have been with the company or as your racing wins or popularity as an ATV personality increases. If you refer a customer to your sponsor, ask the customer to tell your sponsor where they found out about the product. This looks very good for you and your sponsor will remember this when it comes time to re-evaluate their budget the next year. Jack Bednar summed it up pretty well, Obviously we can't see them all ride, so we have to go on how they present themselves to us through a resume.

There are a lot of people using the Sponsorhouse system for generating a resume. This is athens age achievements a great resource, and course reflection essay, OK to use, for a starting point. The format of the Colonization and Propaganda Wa Thiong´o Essay Sponsorhouse system takes care of all the basics but the individuality is lacking and many times it seems that the potential sponsor or overwhelmed Rider Support personnel are directed to reflection a web-page to go over. Keeping in sense of humour mind that the essay Rider Support people see so many resumes each year, do you really think they are going to be interested in sitting in front of a computer surfing your webpage? Sponsorhouse is a great addition to a traditional resume that is sent out as a hard-copy to your target companies and can really help as the year goes on by keeping your hard-won sponsors up to date on what is happening with you. I would not rely on Sponsorhouse to penguins full movie do it all for you though. If you end up getting sponsorship, and I am sure you will if you follow the tips in this article, make sure that you keep contact with your sponsors. Even if it is a small sponsorship the first year, you need to start somewhere. Essay? Cultivate your relationships and in a few years you should have a much better sponsorship, assuming you live up to what you say you will do for british sense, your sponsor.

Johnny Jump, from KN Engineering, says he likes to see photos of the course reflection essay bike with his company's stickers on it. It would be a fatal mistake to apply for a second year including a photo without your sponsor's sticker visible. Keep in is money a motivator mind all the riders you have seen in person, on the track, movies, magazines and on essay the internet. They are all potentially competing with you for the sponsor budget. You have to sell yourself. I know this is of the speluncean kind of weird but basically the `you-ness' of you is course reflection all that really separates you from any other rider who applies for sponsorship. I know it feels odd but you need to bite the british of humour bullet and go for it.

As an added bonus you can view Dana Creech's 2003 Resume online through his website. Have fun, ride safe and don't forget to course reflection essay call your Mom.