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Nov 16, 2017 Essay about The Issues with Bullying,
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Nov 16, 2017 Essay about The Issues with Bullying,
on line essay background and analysis by Scott Miller. from his book Sex, Drugs, Rock Roll, and Musicals. The year is 1959, a pivotal moment in The Issues with Bullying American cultural history, when rock and roll was giving birth to define the Sexual Revolution and everything in America culture was about to be turned upside down. Record companies were releasing more than a hundred singles every week and the country was about to explode. Essay About With? Grease , generally considered a trivial little musical about The Fabulous Fifties, is really the story of the man up America’s tumultuous crossing over from the 50s to Essay the 60s, throwing over poetic techniques examples repression and tradition for freedom and adventure (and a generous helping of cultural chaos), a time when the styles and culture of the disengaged and about with, disenfranchised became overpowering symbols of teenage power and autonomy. Originally a rowdy, dangerous, over-sexed, and insightful piece of poetic techniques alternative theatre, Grease was inspired by about the rule-busting success of Hair and shows like it, rejecting the trappings of other Broadway musicals for behaviour, a more authentic, more visceral, more radical theatre experience that revealed great cultural truths about America. An experience largely forgotten by most productions of the show today. Like Hair before it and The Rocky Horror Show which would come a year later, Grease is a show about repression versus freedom in Essay about Bullying American sexuality, about the was used clumsy, tentative, but clearly emerging sexual freedom of the The Issues late 1950s, seen through the lens of the middle of the Sexual Revolution in the 1970s. It’s about the techniques near carnal passion 1950s teenagers felt for The Issues with, their rock and roll, the first art form that actually changed human sexuality. Poetic Examples? (The phrase rock and roll was originally African American urban slang for sexual intercourse, going as far back as the 1920s, and it made its way onto many rhythm and blues recordings before the 1950s.) As theatre, Grease finds its roots in the rawness, the rowdiness, the lack of polish that made Hair and other experimental pieces in the 1960s such cultural phenomena. The impact of about with Bullying Hair on Grease can even be seen in poetic examples the two shows’ titles, both taking as their primary symbols the hairstyles of young Americans as a form of The Issues with rebellion and cultural declaration of poems the sun independence.
Just as the characters of Hair and Grease reject conformity and authority, so too do both Hair and Grease as theatre pieces. Like Hair , Grease is an The Issues with Bullying, anti-musical, closer to techniques the experimental theatre pieces of New York’s off off Broadway movement in the 60s, and about The Issues with, light years from define promiscuity other musicals running on Broadway at about The Issues Bullying the time, like No No Nanette (in a terrible revival), Sugar, The Rothschilds, Applause, or A Little Night Music . Goodbye to that Sandra Dee. Also like Hair , Grease is about authenticity , the watchword of that first rock and Bullying, roll generation. Teen sexuality has been an china 1949, issue in America since the about The Issues invention of the rumble seat, always moving forward like a freight train, forever going faster and farther; and china 1949, Grease is a snapshot of America right before teen sexuality exploded, examining the early cracks in the armor of Essay with middle-class respectability and repression, the fantasy American Dream that never was but that came beaming into Americans’ homes over poetic techniques the television airwaves. Movie star Sandra Dee becomes Grease ‘s overarching metaphor for the artificiality of adult American life, a symbol that needed piercing. Sandra Dee was a big star at this point, and just in the two years that Grease spans, she released The Restless Years (1958), The Reluctant Debutante (1958), A Stranger in My Arms (1959), Gidget (1959), Imitation of Essay about Life (1959), The Wild and the Innocent (1959), and A Summer Place (1959), jumping back and forth between empty-headed teen comedies and in sunni and shia, stark melodrama.
Today, it may be hard to understand what Sandra Dee represented, but she was the poster girl for the big studios’ attempts to about with make teen movies, a genre which was up until that point the promiscuity exclusive territory of small, low-budget producers like the ubiquitous Roger Corman ( The Little Shop of Essay about The Issues Bullying Horrors, Bucket of Blood , and others). But the promiscuity studios’ teen flicks were inevitably artificial in Essay about The Issues with Bullying the extreme, creating a freakish – and clueless – adult imitation of the teen world, a kind of cultural Frankenstein, that teens could see right through. To savvy teenagers, Sandra Dee was a teen sellout, and in a world where authenticity was the goal, there was nothing worse. She was a fake – in china 1949 her life, in about her acting style, and in in sunni her onscreen emotions. Teen audiences didn’t want that; they wanted High School Hellcats and with Bullying, Teenage Doll . But adults loved Sandra Dee; she reassured them that their teen was a good girl. And many American girls took Sandra Dee as a role model – but not the that real Sandra Dee, the cheery public character Sandra Dee, confusing her onscreen persona with her real life. Millions of Americans in postwar America were trying to live an American Dream that was pure fiction, particularly for the working class; and that fiction is Essay about The Issues Bullying symbolized by Sandra Dee, a fiction at the heart of poems and moon Sandy’s arc in Grease . But on another level, the about Bullying metaphor gets even deeper – and this demonstrates the craftsmanship of this script – because Sandy’s relationship with Danny mirrors Sandra Dee’s difficult real life relationship with Bobby Darin. As Rizzo taunts Sandy with Look at Me, I’m Sandra Dee, she doesn’t really know how dark that dark underbelly really is… Darphne Merkin wrote in The New York Times in define 2005 at the time of Sandra Dee’s death: …the darling, pink world, as she herself characterized it, that Sandra Dee was thought to inhabit by her fans had always been a grotesque mockery, plagued not by an overripened case of virginity but by childhood incest. The girl with brimming brown eyes and a fizzy lilt to her voice was born Alexandria Zuck in Essay with Bullying Bayonne, New Jersey.
Her parents divorced when she was five; her father, a bus driver, disappeared from her life shortly thereafter, and define behaviour, her mother, Mary, married a much-older real-estate entrepreneur named Eugene Duvan within a few years. . . Worse yet, Dee's devoted but manipulative mother turned a conveniently blind eye to the defiled sexual appetites of Essay The Issues her new husband. Was Used Up? Duvan, who liked to tease his wife that he married her just to get Sandy, started having sex with his beautiful stepdaughter when she was 8 and about The Issues Bullying, continued doing so almost until his death when she was 12. As a result, Sandra Dee later suffered from anorexia, depression, and alcoholism throughout her life. All this made her cynically manufactured faade of about and moon sweetness even darker and more complex. This was the Essay about The Issues with conventional, repressed, hypocritical, manufactured life from which Sandy Dumbrowski must escape. The thing is, [her career] happened so fast, was over practically before it began, that we can almost be forgiven for that was used, misconstruing her as a cultural simulacrum: a blip on the monitor, a media invention, an adorable incarnation of a feminine ideal of the reluctant or unwitting nymphet, rather than a flesh-and-blood creature with needs and with, wishes (not to mention raging demons) of her own. Grease looks at the fifties with twenty-twenty hindsight and it sees the darkness and deception of the decade’s role models and poetic examples, authority figures. With Bullying? Sandra Dee wasn’t happy in her real life because she was never allowed to be herself – to be authentic – and Sandy Dumbrowski suffers the same problem. Sandra Dee represents not just strict morality and virginity in Grease , but the entire manufactured mainstream culture of 1950s America, a culture the kids of Grease reject. Rizzo’s pretty great at choosing metaphors… Still, for most kids, the fifties were a time when America caught its breath.
After decades of upheaval – World War I, Prohibition, the Depression, World War II, and the Korean War – suddenly times weren’t so hard and the world didn’t seem as dangerous. (Kids were told about the threat of a Cold War nuclear attack, but it didn’t mean much to them and didn’t really affect their lives.) Before the behaviour 50s, if kids worked it was for the family’s survival. During the 50s, if kids worked it was because they were saving up to buy a car or buy parts for the car they had. About The Issues Bullying? It was a happy, playful decade for many (white) Americans, even those in the working class, as family cars transformed adult culture and define promiscuity, rock and roll transformed teen culture. And one of the points of Grease is with Bullying that kids of the 50s could afford to worry only about their own trivial problems; there was no world war, no Hitler to techniques fear anymore. Though Grease implies many complex things, it is actually about the ordinary, everyday lives of The Issues with Bullying a group of teenagers. Their chief worries are whether or not they’ll have a date to the dance and can they get the car. But the fifties were only a brief window of respite before the dark, dangerous times would return, with Vietnam, race riots, the anti-war movement, Watergate, and recession. Define? Today, some conservatives idealize the Essay about with Bullying 1950s as a time of moral clarity, patriotism, family stability, and traditional values, a time to which America should return. But that 1950s never actually existed. What looks to them like moral clarity was actually well-masked racism, sexism, and economic oppression. The only people who were safe and china 1949, comfortable were middle class and Essay Bullying, upper class white men (the only demographics that still idealize that time).
What they see as patriotism was more like nationalistic terrorism, demagoguery, witch hunts. Difference? What they see as family stability was really mind-numbing conformity and drug-addicted suburban housewives. What they label traditional values were nothing short of race, class, and gender warfare. And it all boiled down to two central bogeymen, inextricably linked in the minds of the mainstream: sex and Essay The Issues, rock and roll. The Twin Gods of define Grease . As Grace Palladino asks in Teenagers: An American History , Did the world really work better when girls had no choice in life but to get married, blacks knew their servile place, and kids who lived outside the charmed circle of upper-middle class life were invisible? The story of with Grease is set during the 1958-59 school year, at behaviour exactly the same time that America was facing the preliminary rumblings of the Sexual Revolution that would arrive in the mid-1960s and blossom in Essay about The Issues Bullying the 70s, only to be ended by AIDS in about the sun and moon the early 80s. And like The Rocky Horror Show did later, Grease shows us how America reacted to about with this tumultuous time though two of its main characters.
Danny Zuko (along with Rizzo and Kenickie) represents that segment of American teens already sexually active in the 1940s and 50s, who ultimately frees the conforming Sandy to express her sexuality without fear or shame, leading her into a new life and a new decade of sexual freedom – a theme also at the heart, though far more cautiously, of the poetic techniques 1959 film A Summer Place , starring Sandra Dee and about, Troy Donahue. Define? Sandy Dumbrowski (notice how ethnic all the character names are, to suggest that they are working class) is mainstream America, reluctant to throw off the about sexual repression of the china 1949 conforming 1950s for the sexual adventuring of the 1960s. That is the story of Grease –and the story of America – the way sex was changing and the part rock and roll and cars and drive-ins played in that transformation. In the movie, the central love story may be the point, but on stage the romance is just a device for making a larger, more interesting point. Grease isn’t about Danny and Sandy (which is why fifteen of the Essay with Bullying show’s twenty songs have nothing at all to do with them); Grease is about how rock and roll changed sex in America.
And those who criticize Grease for its immoral ending don’t understand what this show is really about – and they really haven’t paid attention to the lyric of All Choked Up. The Word Made Flesh. Grease first opened in Chicago, where its story is set, in 1971. Define Promiscuity? To a large extent, the 1970s marked the end of the Rodgers and Hammerstein revolution. Essay The Issues With? It was the decade that gave permanent berth to both the concept musical and the rock musical, both explored during the sixties but now taking their rightful place in mainstream musical theatre. These were shows that rejected the techniques sunny optimism of The Issues with Bullying earlier decades and instead revealed the feelings of rage and loss that pervaded America in this era of Vietnam and Watergate. The concept musical had been germinating since Marc Blitzstein’s very political, very angry The Cradle Will Rock in 1937, but it wasn’t until Stephen Sondheim and Hal Prince’s Company in 1970 that the define concept musical was in a position to change everything. The rock musical had been born with Expresso Bongo in 1958 and became mainstream with Hair in 1968, but it became a fixture on Broadway during the about The Issues seventies, partly because the definition of rock was so pliable, so inclusive by then.
A rock musical could be Jesus Christ Superstar, Hair, Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Rocky Horror Show , or Grease, none of which sounded anything like the others; and yet they all shared a disdain for authority, a taste for rebellion, and a sexual frankness to which only the language of poetic techniques rock and roll could give full voice. The phenomenon that was Grease began its long life in the summer of 1971 at Essay about with Bullying Chicago’s Kingston Mines Theatre, in which its authors Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey were acting ensemble members. The show opened February 5, 1971, in a basement theatre where an audience of define a hundred sat on the floor on Essay about with Bullying newspaper. The set consisted of backdrops painted on brown paper. At that time the show had far less music, far less plot, and no central characters. But it did have infectious songs like Greased Lightning, Beauty School Dropout, Those Magic Changes, and We Go Together, and a solo for Patty Simcox that was later cut, Yuck. New York producers Ken Waissman and Maxine Fox saw the show and recognized its surprising honesty and the appeal of its rough edges. Two of the Chicago cast members, Dinah Manoff (Marty) and James Canning (Doody) would play those roles on Broadway. Manoff would continue her role in the film.
Once the producers decided to about the sun and moon bring Grease to New York, they set about finding a production staff. One agent tried to sell them on hiring the bright young director-choreographer Michael Bennett, but they didn’t think he was right for Grease . They were probably right. They asked Gerald Freedman to direct, since he had helmed the original off Broadway production of Hair , but Freedman turned them down without even reading the script. About With Bullying? They finally settled on director Tom Moore and choreographer Patricia Birch who had created such interesting, real staging and choreography for The Me Nobody Knows ¸ a show about homeless kids. The producers wanted everything about the show to feel rough, unpolished, de-glamorized – honest and authentic, like Hair – a concept the subsequent film and revivals did not understand.
According to poems about and moon Adrienne Barbeau’s autobiography There Are Worse Things I Could Do , the Essay The Issues Bullying producers hired Moore to direct because Tom's strength was getting performances that were so realistic the audience didn't believe they were watching actors. Behaviour? That's what Ken [Waissman] and Maxine [Fox] wanted for Grease . What they didn't want was a cotton-candy musical. It’s easy to hear on the original 1972 Grease cast album the raw, pure, untrained sound of 1950s rock and Bullying, roll. Grease knows that sound because its creators lived it, the sound of Muddy Waters, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, and Bo Diddley. The earliest rock and roll was never about polish or precision; this was the punk rock of the fifties, purposefully rejecting mainstream necessities like playing in tune, singing on pitch, keeping the tempo, staying together. It was a wholesale rejection of the poems about values of their parents and Essay The Issues with Bullying, their parents’ culture, an aggressive fuck you to Pat Boone and the like. Define? Three decades later, American kids in the Reagan Era (The Neo-50s) would rebel in much the same way with the creation of punk rock. Essay About With Bullying? Just as the greasers sported leather jackets, engineer boots, crazy hairstyles, and other rebellious fashions, so did their descendants, the punks, have their rebellious fashion statements in tattoos, piercings, and occult symbols. And now, so does the hip-hop community. Critic Michael Feingold wrote in china 1949 his introduction to the 1972 published Grease script: The people of Grease are a special class of Essay Bullying aliens, self-appointed cynics in about and moon a work-oriented, upwardly mobile world.
We know from the prologue that history has played its dirty trick on them before they even appear. They are not at the reunion; they will not be found among the prosperous Mrs. Honeywells and the go-getting vice presidents of Straight-Shooters, Unlimited. Nor, on the other hand, did they actively drop out; that was left to Essay about their younger siblings and cousins. About And Moon? (Memory of Essay about a line too explicit, and cut from the script early on: Course I like life. Whaddaya think I am, a beatnik?) They were the group who thought they had, or chose to china 1949 have, nowhere to go. They stayed in the monotonous work routine of the lower middle class, acquiring, if they were lucky, enough status to move to one of the more nondescript suburbs, and losing their strongest virtue – the group solidarity that had made them, in high school, a force to be reckoned with.
It is appropriate that the finale of Grease celebrates that solidarity, with the saving of about its heroine, and about, the reclamation of its hero from the clutches of respectability – a good lusty razz at the sanctimonious endings of those Sal Mineo j.d. [juvenile delinquent] movies ( Somebody Up There Likes Me , remember?) wherein the tough punk is about The Issues with saved for in sunni, society at the end. Everybody knew you didn’t go to those films to see that part. After only three and a half weeks of rehearsal (again, in an effort to keep it from looking too polished), Grease opened off Broadway at Essay the Eden Theatre on Valentine’s Day 1972. The reviews were negative to mixed. One hapless television reviewer said, The worst thing I’ve ever seen opened tonight at the Eden Theatre. It ran 128 performances anyway. And then the show moved uptown in June 1972 to that was used up the Broadhurst Theatre. In December 1979, Grease broke Broadway’s long-run record. It made several moves during its Broadway run and finally closed April 13, 1980, after a total run of 3,388 performances. It was nominated for Essay with, seven Tony Awards but won none. The original production paid back its investors four thousand percent.
The show also ran for over two years in behaviour Mexico under the Essay The Issues Bullying title Vaselina, becoming the longest-running musical there. The watered-down 1978 film version starring John Travolta, Olivia Newton-John, and Stockard Channing became one of the most successful movie musicals of all time. After fifteen years of declining numbers, the teenage population in America began to grow again in behaviour the early 1990s – They’re Back, said one Business Week cover – and so a glitzy, brainless, neon-scorched revival of Grease opened on Broadway in May 1994, painfully misdirected and misunderstood by Essay about The Issues with Bullying Tommy Tune’s protg, director-choreographer Jeff Calhoun (who would years later direct a brilliant revival of Big River for Deaf West Theatre). Poetic Techniques Examples? Completely ignoring (or just missing) Grease ’s agenda as social commentary, this terrible revival decked out its set in bright, neon colors, making it into a simple-minded cartoon, and it added an Essay The Issues Bullying, actual 50s song, Since I Don’t Have You, a song completely without the poetic examples irony of the rest of the score and therefore completely out of synch with the rest of the show. Essay The Issues Bullying? The revival’s logo was a picture of Danny from that was used behind, his leather jacket bedazzled with rhinestones that spell Grease . Could they have misunderstood the Burger Palace Boys any more? But despite the lack of Essay about with Bullying taste or honesty, it was apparently perfect for the theme park Broadway had become by that point and china 1949, it ran 1,503 performances. It was not, however, Grease . Over its life, Grease gave starts to many now well-known actors, including John Travolta (who had begun as Doody in with Bullying the first national tour), Richard Gere, Treat Williams, Patrick Swayze, Adrienne Barbeau, Barry Bostwick, Jeff Conaway, Greg Evigan, Marilu Henner, and Judy Kaye, among others.
In 2003 the British television network Channel 4 held a poll to determine the greatest musicals of all time. About? Grease won the top honor. In 2007, NBC created a reality show through which to choose the about The Issues with Bullying two leads for a new Broadway revival helmed by Kathleen Marshall, though any hopes of authenticity from techniques a new Broadway Grease were slight. But perhaps it’s time for Grease in its original form to return at last, in with this new Age of Ironic Detachment. In 2005, Norman Lebrecht wrote about the new postmodern musicals ( Urinetown, Bat Boy, Hedwig and techniques, the Angry Inch, Spelling Bee ) in his online column: The music in each of Essay about these shows amplifies this element of separation, licensing us to and shia stand apart from what we are seeing and Essay about The Issues Bullying, enter a third dimension where each of us can individually decide whether to define promiscuity take the plot literally or sardonically, whether to take offense or simply collapse in giggles. This degree of Ironic Detachment is the very making of the postmodern hit musical. Essay About The Issues Bullying? Ironic Detachment would be unattainable in about a Tom Stoppard play because I.D. requires musical inflexion; it is impossible in opera and ballet, which are stiffened by tradition against self-mockery. Its application is unique to Essay The Issues the musical comedy, an ephemeral entertainment which has found new relevance through its philosophical engagement with 21st century concepts of irony and alienation. Still, Ironic Detachment isn’t entirely new in musical theatre – we’ve seen it before, periodically over was used the twentieth century, in The Threepenny Opera (1928), Of Thee I Sing (1931), The Cradle Will Rock (1937), Guys and Dolls (1950), The Fantasticks (1959) , How To Succeed in Business Without Really Trying (1961) , Promenade (1965), Cabaret (1966), Promises, Promises (1969), Company (1970), The Rocky Horror Show (1973), The Robber Bridegroom (1974), and Essay with Bullying, yes, Grease.
Sock Hop Baby, Roll Up Your Crazy Jeans! Almost every American musical sets up the same challenge for the protagonist – assimilate or be removed. These central characters must make a choice to either change in certain ways in order to join the that up existing community or they must be removed from that community either by leaving or by dying. In The Music Man , Harold Hill turns legit in order to join the River City community. In Sweeney Todd, Jesus Christ Superstar, Bat Boy, and Evita , the main characters will not (or cannot) change so they must be removed by death. In Brigadoon , Tommy decides he must reject his previous life and change everything in order to stay in Brigadoon and become part of the Essay about The Issues with Bullying community. In Show Boat , Julie and poetic techniques examples, Steve will not play by mainstream society’s rules, so they must be removed, and they leave the Cotton Blossom. In Man of La Mancha , Quixote/Quijana refuses to about with Bullying live by conventional rules of behavior, so he must die. In Grease , Sandy ultimately assimilates into the greaser community, rejecting her parents’ world view. Many people are uncomfortable with the show’s ending because they miss the in sunni and shia fact that Sandy doesn’t actually become a slut in the finale; she just learns how to dress like one, finally letting go of the tendency of too many Americans to stigmatize sexuality as dirty and shameful.
She gives up the The Issues with desexualizing poodle skirt that hid away her female form and replaces it with clothing that reveals and celebrates – and takes ownership of – her body and poetic, its adult curves. This is The Issues not a descent into decadence for define behaviour, Sandy; it is a throwing open of the doors of her moral prison. The authors’ intentions are clear in a stage direction in the final scene. After describing Sandy’s new hypersexual look – the The Issues with tight pants, leather jacket, earrings, wild new hair – the script says, Yet she actually looks prettier and about the sun and moon, more alive than she ever has. Teenagers’ clothing was a major source of contention at Essay about The Issues with the time. Grace Palladino writes in her fascinating history Teenagers : School authorities solved the define immediate problem (teenage delinquency) with dress and behavior codes. Tight blue jeans, ducktail haircuts, and excessive makeup were prohibited in school.
Dress Right campaigns set appropriate high school styles that drew national attention in the late 1950s. Boys were required to wear shirts and ties, standard trousers (or neatly pressed khakis), and polished shoes (or clean white bucks). Girls were required to wear dresses or shirts and forgo pincurls, dungarees, and slacks. As an article in about The Issues Bullying Newsweek explained the theory: Bejeaned girls behave better when they’re in china 1949 ladylike dress. Sandy’s clothing in All Choked Up is extraordinarily subversive. The end of Grease suggests that a lasting, healthy relationship is about The Issues with Bullying only possible when both partners are openly and china 1949, completely themselves, without regard for other people’s opinions, social conventions, or personal insecurities – and with, also when neither of them are afraid of their sexuality. This was not the message of the conforming adult world; this was a uniquely teen perspective. Poems And Moon? Both Sandy and Danny have to learn to be themselves, to shake off the masks of cool and Essay The Issues with Bullying, respectable. If there is any question about who the protagonist of the show is, Sandy is primary; she’s the one who has changed, who has learned something significant. The same may be true of the man that was used up Danny, but to a much lesser extent.
But the ending of Grease isn’t a moral and shouldn’t be read that way. It doesn’t declare what we should or shouldn't do; it's an objective and with Bullying, accurate description of poetic techniques examples America in 1959. Essay The Issues? Sandy is America in its progression from puritanical repression in the 50s to sexual freedom in the Sexual Revolution of the 60s. (And yet, as her lyric in All Choked Up tells us quite explicitly, she isn’t ready to give up her virginity quite yet.) In 1959 America was about to grow up sexually, into poems about the sun and moon, adolescence in the 60s ( Hair ), and into full sexual adulthood in about the 70s ( Rocky Horror ). Too many people believe that the message of Grease is define promiscuity that to win the man you love, you have to be a slut. But there's not a single line or lyric anywhere in Essay about The Issues the show to suggest Sandy has changed anything but her looks. Like Eliza Dolittle in My Fair Lady , Sandy learns The Secret, that anyone can Fit In just by talking and looking the right way (and don’t we all do that to some extent?), and her overnight transformation proves that it’s all just play-acting – and china 1949, that they all know it ! She has learned what Rizzo and the girls have known all along. Sandy has become one of them just by changing her clothes! She throws off the weight and triviality of 1950s conformity and allows herself the freedom of the coming 1960s, a refusal to fear her own sexuality, to see sex as dirty, the freedom to be able to talk and laugh openly about sex. But behind all the rest, there’s a simpler, more subversive message. Sandy isn’t just saved by how she dresses; she’s saved by singing rock and roll. It isn’t until she can achieve the about The Issues Bullying authenticity and sexual frankness of rock and roll, that she can be healed.
Grease doesn’t moralize; it just reports. Grease is set in 1958 and 1959 for a good reason – it’s not just about the changing of decades but also the changing of eras . Sandy’s triumphant line late in define promiscuity the show, Goodbye to Sandra Dee, puts away not only Sandy’s false good-girl persona, but also the 1950s as a whole, a world in The Issues which the goody-goody Sandra Dee can be a role model, in the man that up which facades were cracking. Essay About With? We were moving on… The Fabulous Fractious Fifties. The Fabulous Fifties. The Decade Deluxe. In Sunni And Shia? The Ike Age. These were the good old days, the happy days, the source of many an American’s earliest, fondest memories and many of Essay our postwar institutions. For the past two decades Americans had lived in define the grip of Essay The Issues with poverty and war. Now they were ready for some giddy, goofy fun. The country was swept up in frivolous fads – baton twirling, hula hoops, paint-by-number art kits, Davy Crockett hats, 3-D movies.
Life seemed a wide-screen, stereophonic special effect. Culture popped – in shades of turquoise, pink, salmon, and, if one color wasn’t enough, delicious two-tones. Madison Avenue created an unlikely world of china 1949 perfect appliances and perfect families, of highballs and hi-fis, Bermuda shorts and backyard barbecues. In the ads, the wives are beautiful (mowing the Essay about The Issues with Bullying lawn in peasant blouses and a hint of lingerie); the children above average (exuberantly joining in poetic the Saturday morning car wash). Over the clink of ice cubes, Americans mingled and misbehaved. That’s how James Petersen’s book The Century of Sex describes 1950s America and the false, repressed world from about Bullying which Sandy must escape.
There were three distinct cultures in America during the 1950s – mainstream middle-America, New York City (including the Beat writers), and teenagers – and they rarely intersected each other, so none of poems the sun them spoke the others’ languages or shared their morality. Essay With? Most of mainstream adult America lived a life of complete ignorance, happily watching safely artificial television sitcoms and china 1949, carefully censored studio films, having little or no idea what was going on in teen America, in teen music, movies, magazines, social life, and most significantly, teen sexuality. After World War II, most adult women had been expected to leave behind the independence of their lives on the home front during the war and return to a life of near complete dependence again – no more job, no more money, no more sexual control or choice. Betty Friedan wrote of the times, It was fun at Bullying first, shopping in define promiscuity those new supermarkets. And we bought barbecue grills and made dips out of sour cream and dried onion soup to serve with potato chips, while our husbands made the martinis as dry as in about with Bullying the city and cooked hamburgers on the charcoal, and that, we sat in canvas chairs on our terrace and thought how beautiful our children looked, playing in the twilight, and how lucky we all were, and that it would last forever. These were the real people behind the metaphor of the about The Issues 1956 film Invasion of the Body Snatchers. As The Century of Sex says, Conformity became a national passion, part of a return to sexual and political conservatism. The Battle Over Sex has always been waged between the poems Haves and the Have-Nots in The Issues Bullying America. Throughout history, there has been great sexual freedom and little shame among the Have-Nots, since they have nothing which can be imperiled. But the Haves are always terrified of any kind of cultural change, especially sexual, because the fallout could always endanger their position as Haves. Sandy is a Have, Danny is difference and shia a Have-Not.
The sparks are bound to fly. All in all, the 1950s was one of the most interesting decades of the twentieth century – so much wealth, so much repression, so many massive changes in the culture, perhaps most significantly the invention of the suburbs, in which middle-class wives would be forever isolated and tranquilized. The characters in about The Issues Bullying Grease were born around 1942, the last generation born before the Baby Boomers, and they went to high school from fall 1955 to in sunni summer 1959. The cultural influences on them during this period were some of the fiercest America had yet seen. In 1951, J.D. Salinger’s controversial Catcher in the Rye had been published and became an instant, lasting hit among teenagers, with its profanity and frank discussions of Essay with Bullying teenage angst and sexuality. Promiscuity? Then, just as these kids were hitting puberty, America was hit with The Wild One in Essay The Issues Bullying 1953, starring Marlon Brando, the movie that started the whole leather jacket greaser thing as well as the teen exploitation film genre. The central relationship in Grease between Danny and Sandy is difference a goofier imitation of the central relationship in The Wild One between Johnny and Kathie. Exactly like the teen market they were targeting, teen exploitation films were full of sex and sin and booze and cars, but many of them also had a sanctimonious moral laid out about explicitly, at poetic the beginning or end of the Essay about The Issues with film, often by a nameless authority figure behind a desk or podium, sometimes by a survivor of the tragedy.
These fake morals gave the define promiscuity raunchy stories the patina of respectability to placate parents and would-be censors. Essay Bullying? But for the kids, these movies mirrored the real world, in which teenagers were discovering they had a certain kind of power, a kind of power that just might be able to poems the sun challenge the power of their parents. And the teen rebel was born. About Bullying? In 1954, just a year before the poetic techniques Grease kids would start high school, Elvis Presley burst upon the American scene with his first hit, forever changing notions of gender and sexuality, rebelling against the strong, silent type model of previous generations of men like John Wayne and about, Gary Cooper, in favor of a remarkably sexual, nakedly emotional new model of maleness embodied by difference in sunni the likes of Marlon Brando and James Dean. John Waters documented this cultural shift in his film Cry-Baby , set just a few years before Grease. While the Grease kids – and the show’s authors – were in high school, the movies Rock Around the Essay about The Issues with Bullying Clock and Rock, Rock, Rock were released in poems about and moon 1956 (the same year the mayor of Essay with Jersey City, New Jersey, banned all rock and roll within the was used up city limits), giving some teens their first chance to actually see Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Bill Haley and the Comets, The Platters, and many others performing their songs.
That same year the teen exploitation flick Hot Rod Girls was also released. In 1957, Roger Corman’s daring Teenage Doll (which still holds up pretty well) and Eighteen and about with, Anxious were released. Teenage Doll was about a girl gang out for revenge after one of their members is murdered by a rival gang. The film ended with a giant rumble with girl and the man was used, boy gangs fighting in an auto salvage yard. This was not their parents’ kind of movie.
That same year saw Michael Landon in Bullying I Was a Teenage Werewolf , a much more serious film than it sounds, about poems about the sun, a damaged, misunderstood teen and about American teenagers’ feelings (reinforced by rock and roll) of Essay about The Issues Bullying us vs. them. Jack Kerouac’s groundbreaking, anti-authoritarian On the Road was published that year too, the inevitable follow-up to Catcher in the Rye . In 1958, two more teen movies were released that showed us the underbelly of American teenage life (real or imagined), High School Confidential and the girl-gang High School Hellcats . In 1959, T-Bird Gang was released, one of the great teen gang drive-in movies, as well as A Summer Place , one of the great make-out movies. The 1928 sexually charged novel Lady Chatterley’s Lover was finally released in America in 1959 and sold six million copies the first year. Just after these kids graduated, in 1960, The Wild Ride was released, starring Jack Nicholson as the kind of cocky, smartass rebel that the define behaviour Burger Palace Boys in Grease wish they could be. But 1960 also brought us that moment toward which everything had been leading and from which everything would flow. Dick Clark saw some kids doing a sexually suggestive dance called The Twist in his studio, inspired by a year-old record. Clark called the about with Bullying record label and asked for a new recording of The Twist.
It caught on like wildfire and convinced the techniques adult population of America that the world was coming to about with Bullying an end. China 1949? Sex was no longer subtle or implied. Sex had broken free of the bedroom and the 1960s were coming. These kids in about The Issues Bullying Grease are on the cusp of that moment, just as they are on the cusp of adulthood. Michael Feingold wrote: Grease does not discourse about our presence in Saigon. Nor does it contain in-depth study of such other 50s developments as the define growth of about with Bullying mega-corporations and conglomerates, the suburban building boom that broke the backs of that was used our cities, the Essay about Bullying separation of labor’s political power from the workers by union leaders and organization men.
Although set in define and around an urban high school, it does not even discuss one of the decade’s dominant news stories, the massive expansion of the university system, and the directing of a whole generation of war babies toward the pursuit of college degrees. Grease is an about with, escape, a musical designed to define entertain, not to concern itself with serious political and social matters. But because it is truthful, because it spares neither the details nor the about The Issues larger shapes of the narrow experience on which it focuses so tightly, Grease implies the topics I have raised, and many others. So I think it is a work of art, a firm image that projects, by means of what it does contain, everything it has chosen to leave out. And between the throbs of its ebullience, charm, and comedy, it conveys a feeling, about where we have been and how we got to where we are… During the Greasers’ senior year at Rydell High, in February 1959, another epoch changing event took place, the difference in sunni plane crash that killed Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and The Big Bopper – the Essay The Issues Bullying day the promiscuity music died.
The 1950s were coming to Essay a close, and a decade full of define behaviour chaos and controversy was coming fast, with a whole new kind of rock and a whole new kind of American sexuality. Grease is a prequel to Essay about with Hair , every bit as well crafted, every bit as authentic, every bit as insightful, and just as truth about an examples, incredibly volatile, fascinating moment in American history. Rock and Roll Party Queen. In the book Fever: How Rock’n’Roll Transformed Gender in with America , author Tim Riley writes, The boomers born after World War II, both men and women – the characters in Grease were all born around 1942 – learned much of difference what they know about with, how to be young, how to seek and earn love, and how to struggle toward adulthood from the define promiscuity popular music they listened to. As it would be for decades to come, rock music was more of an about The Issues with Bullying, authority figure than any adult could ever be.
Rock stars helped their young fans grow from boys to the man men and girls to about The Issues Bullying women, Riley writes, by exploring and celebrating the nature of that struggle – the full range of sexual bewilderment, frustration, and define, longing. Essay With? Grease chronicles exactly that phenomenon. Behaviour? The kids in Essay The Issues with Grease may well have seen their rock heroes in person, since DJs like Alan Freed (a likely inspiration for Vince Fontaine) frequently hosted live rock and roll concerts in Cleveland, Chicago and in sunni and shia, elsewhere. Howard Miller, known as Uncle Moo Moo, was the number one morning DJ in Chicago from Essay about The Issues 1947-1968, on WIND, where the Grease kids would no doubt listen to him every morning before school. In 1957, Miller produced the first live rock show in Chicago, featuring Tab Hunter, Charlie Gracie, Chuck Berry, Eddie Cochran, and examples, the Everly Brothers. That same year Alan Freed got his own TV show, and The Issues with, it was such a success, the next month ABC picked up Dick Clark’s American Bandstand as well. In The Century of poetic Sex, Petersen writes, Previously, teenagers had shared their parents’ world – watching the Essay same movies, listening to the same songs on techniques examples the radio. Now they had their own teenage idols, their own films, music, fads, and fashions.
In retrospect we know that the well-behaved youngsters of about with Bullying yesteryear weren’t well-behaved because they were morally superior, but because they rarely had the opportunity to the man was used up mis behave. In the 1950s – and even more so in the decades to come – those opportunities would be almost without limit. Adults were no longer sources of wisdom; adults were now outsiders. Teenagers had power and, more important, they had their own culture. Palladino writes in Teenagers : By the mid-1950s, however, Seventeen [magazine]’s respectable brand of adolescent culture had real competition – white, middle-class teenagers were not the Essay about Bullying only high school students with money to spend! Postwar prosperity had opened the door to poetic examples an entirely different teenage world, one that was populated by working-class and The Issues, black teenagers who had never participated in examples high school social life before.
This demographic shift changed the nature – and Essay The Issues Bullying, the appeal – of the china 1949 teenage market. These two worlds are represented in Grease by Sandy and Essay about with Bullying, Danny. Rock and roll was the first music ever created specifically for behaviour, teenagers, and many adults literally predicted the apocalypse when they heard it. Now all American teens would lose their moral compass, they wailed, they would abandon all ambition and drive, and about with Bullying, drown in a morass of juvenile delinquency. (These were the same arguments against swing music in the 40s and drugs in the 60s, yet America kept plugging along.) Sure, there were occasionally riots at rock concerts, but there had also been a riot at a Guy Lombardo concert in 1944. In The Century of techniques Sex , Petersen writes: The ethic, if that’s what it could be called, was simply: Don’t get in trouble. The sexually active lived in fear of pregnancy. The Kinsey Report had revealed that a large number of Essay Bullying women were having premarital sex. Define Behaviour? A third Kinsey Institute report on Essay about with Pregnancy, Birth and Abortion, which was published in 1958, would reveal that one out of every five women who had premarital sex became pregnant. Of those, one in five would be forced into marriage. The other four women had their pregnancies terminated by behaviour abortion.
Grease ’s subplot with Rizzo and her fear of pregnancy was a real part of life in the 50s for many unmarried, sexually active women. Unlike their parents, rock and Essay The Issues, roll took teenagers seriously . It took teenage sex and teenage love seriously. It put teenage emotions on a level with adult emotions, and about the sun and moon, it made teenagers feel like adults. And the best part for The Issues with Bullying, the kids was that parents hated rock and define, roll. (A 1957 article in Cosmopolitan asked Are You Afraid of Your Teenager?) Much of the Essay with Bullying authenticity of Grease lies in its songs, a virtual catalog of 1950s styles, structures, chord progressions, lyrical themes, distinctive bass lines, and unforgettable guitar licks, all as authentic as a 1954 Fender Stratocaster. By opening the show with the old-fashioned Alma Mater, followed by the explosion of the hard rocking Alma Mater Parody, the kids of difference in sunni Grease literally rebel against their older selves (at the reunion), the past assaulting the The Issues with Bullying present, reminding the adults in the audience that most of them have become what they once hated most: The Establishment. Define Promiscuity? The Alma Mater Parody, blasts off with one of the Essay about most famous guitar licks of all time, created by Chuck Berry for define, the hit Johnny B. Goode. About With? Berry was one of the fathers of that up rock and roll, and so in Essay with Bullying this first scene, Grease instantly establishes its authenticity and its street cred as a rock and roll document. The third song in the show Those Magic Changes comments on china 1949 rock’s most important characteristic – aside from the beat – the treatment of teenage love and emotion as serious and legitimate. The lyric starts off as a classic 50s teen lament, but it quickly becomes self-referential, a postmodern 50s song. It’s a song about falling in love but also about chord changes, about the about The Issues with Bullying comfort and familiarity of techniques examples those four simple chords that undergirded the majority of early rock and roll. Essay The Issues? And those four chords open Magic Changes—C, A minor, F, and G7 ,or I, vi, IV, V 7 . The singer here is a boy lamenting lost love but finding safety and happy memories in in sunni and shia those same four chords that he hears in every song:
I have never heard that song before, But if I don’t hear it anymore, It’s still familiar to about The Issues Bullying me, Sends a thrill right through me, ‘Cause those chords remind me of. The night that I first feel in love. To those magic changes. (And notice the china 1949 internal rhyming that gives the song such momentum: before/anymore, to me/through me, of/love …) But Doody goes even further with the metaphor, now suggesting that it’s actually teenage emotion that creates, that incarnates rock and roll. He sings: My heart arranges. A melody that’s never the same, A melody that’s calling your name.
And begs you, please, come back to me . Rock gives him those four never-changing chords, and The Issues, his heart supplies the always-changing melody. This ever-present chord progression wasn’t simple because songwriters were untalented; it was simple to get out of the way of the emotions of the songs, just like the china 1949 best of Essay with rhythm and blues did. Unlike other musical forms – and this was something the adults just couldn’t get – chords weren’t the point here. The point is the emotion. This boy has been jilted, but he’s not in love with her anymore; now the object of his love is rock and china 1949, roll itself. Rock and roll understood teenagers.
It wanted what they wanted. The fact that Doody plays the guitar is very significant. About The Issues With Bullying? The guitar was the symbol of rock and roll, and by extension, of teenage rebellion. An electric guitar was a weapon (just watch how rock Chuck Berry physically used his guitar). The guitar represented freedom, teen culture, emotion, romance, angst – and define behaviour, quite often, a penis! The guitar instilled confidence ! That also explains Johnny Casino and the Gamblers in Grease ’s prom scene – every boy wanted to The Issues Bullying be a rock and define, roll star.
1959 was a pivotal moment for rock and roll. About With? Up to that time, rock and roll addressed teen angst and the man that up, misfired romance; but once the sixties arrived, rock songs would tackle war, injustice, sexual oppression, drugs, hypocrisy and The Issues with Bullying, authority, religion, and politics. The songs in Grease straddle those two worlds, posing as the simpler songs of the china 1949 fifties while subtextually delivering potent social commentary and satire. Feingold wrote in his Grease introduction: Grease is in possession of about with a truth, one of its strongest, about the media and how they worked on us. This is of course best seen in its superb, sharp-eared songs. The musical basis of 50s rock is fractured by define promiscuity comedy quite early in the enumeration of Those Magic Changes. After that it is a matter of Bullying astonishment how many delicate subforms there were to the songs of the period, and how many different comic approaches Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey use to in sunni and shia pin them down: Imitative homage (Rock ‘n Roll Party Queen), outright burlesque (Sandra Dee) ironic, look-the-other-way dirty joke (Mooning), character satire (Freddy, My Love), improbable-situation parody (Beauty School Dropout), and, best of all to my taste, the quiet revelation of fact as an antidote to the sentimentality of the originals.
Take It’s Raining on Prom Night – truthful, admittedly, but pretty squalid. Small. Petty. Not the deep sentimental tragedy you will find in a prototypical serious song like Tell Tommy I Miss Him or Teen Angel. This song is easier to about with laugh at than some of the others because it is more firmly distanced – not a report of something that actually happens to our heroine, just a convenient index to her momentary emotions. Jazz was made for the brain. It was about detachment, bemusement, coolness . But rock and roll came straight for the heart and the groin. It was about about the sun and moon, primal feelings and about with Bullying, desires.
It stripped its sound of precision, elegance, finesse, training (just like Punk). China 1949? Real rock and roll was animal, outlaw. Essay About With? It was sweaty. It didn’t float like jazz. It exploded. It pounded. Rock and china 1949, roll was banned in major cities across America. It terrified white adult America. The Issues? Listening to china 1949 rock became the ultimate rebellion for white kids especially. Their parents saw it as the biggest danger to all that’s decent since ragtime in the 1910s… or alcohol in the 1920s… or marijuana in the 1930s… or swing in the 1940s… Rock and roll was responsible for Essay about The Issues, an emotional revolution in behaviour America.
It began as race music (in other words, black music) and was initially declared unacceptable for young white ears. But it fast became the first truly racially integrated American art form, coming from equal parts black rhythm blues and white country music. (And the kids in Grease know RB; Rizzo even references Bull Moose Jackson’s 1948 RB song Sneaky Pete in the pajama party scene.) This was the first time in America that blacks and whites shared in the same culture, both consuming and creating it. Essay With Bullying? And once Elvis appeared, rock and china 1949, roll finally became (marginally) acceptable for white kids. For the first time in American history, white (young) people were being open and honest – even inappropriate – about with Bullying, their emotions. This was the most nakedly emotional music most white Americans had ever heard. And it changed everything. Soon after, in the 1960s, rock and roll would morph into the man that was used, Pop and Top 40, and it would no longer be the exclusive domain of the young. The adult world could finally got a grip on it. Elvis had been sent overseas. Chuck Berry was sent to prison for sexual misconduct. Congress held payola hearings to ruin DJs like Alan Freed, who broadcast his last live radio show in November 1957.
Now, rock and about with Bullying, roll would become commercialized and difference in sunni and shia, forget its roots. Essay About? This would continue to happen to rock every decade or so. But Grease is about the beginning, when rock and in sunni and shia, roll was still pure, still naked, still dangerous, and America was still terrified of it. The Stacks of Wax. The score of Grease is remarkable in its craft and authenticity, even referencing actual songs of the period. Many of the actual period songs that influenced the Grease score were not chart toppers, because the Grease kids didn’t always listen to the most popular music; they were more musically and about The Issues with, culturally adventurous than that. They listened to songs you could only hear late night on Alan Freed’s radio show, race songs, dirty songs, songs that scared adults.
But it’s important to note that the songs of Grease differ from real rock and difference in sunni and shia, roll songs in one significant way. The lyrics to real 50s rock and roll songs were the least important element of the song, often just dummy lyrics used as a vehicle for the artists’ personal vocal stylings, or for sophisticated harmonies or melodic ornaments. As in rhythm and blues, one of Essay about The Issues Bullying rock and roll’s parents, a song didn’t have to convey information, just style and china 1949, emotion, most of which was delivered through the abstract language of music. Essay About The Issues? But theatre songs have to define convey a lot of information or the with show won’t work (which is why it was such a mistake to put a real 50s song into the 1994 revival). China 1949? Because sung lyrics take more time than spoken dialogue, musicals have to do a lot of Essay The Issues storytelling in fewer words than a play. So in Grease , Summer Nights lays out the in sunni central backstory, as well as characterizing most of the two gangs through their pointed questions. Magic Changes and Rock and Roll Party Queen lay out and explore the show’s central themes. Most of the Essay with Bullying girls’ songs provide psychological character details – Marty and Rizzo’s cynical view of love in define promiscuity Freddy My Love and Worse Things; the friction between Rizzo and Sandy in Sandra Dee – but we also find commentary on 50s sexuality in Greased Lightning, Mooning, Drive-In Movie, and Essay with Bullying, of course Worse Things. Every lyric contributes to the agenda of this deceptively sophisticated concept musical.
Grease opens with an authentically bland and properly pious Alma Mater, the sound of the china 1949 adult world, of authority, complete with archaic language (like foretell, hovel, and thou shalt ) which then is ripped apart, deconstructed, unexpectedly exploding into Essay The Issues with Bullying, (a close facsimile of) that famous Chuck Berry electric guitar riff, invoking Johnny B. Goode, as well as that audacious rejection of adult culture, Roll Over Beethoven. Like Berry’s School Day (Ring, Ring Goes the Bell), this parody Alma Mater is an assault, a declaration of culture war, a defiant fuck you to the adult world, as they literally steal away the adult’s anthem, give it a driving beat, and twist it to suit their own purposes. And so Grease is off and running. This will not be a nice show, a tame show, a traditional show, the music tells us. This will be aggressive, even obnoxious. This will be rock and china 1949, roll theatre. We move into the second scene and Summer Nights, the introduction of two of the leads and their central plotline, inspired by real rock songs like Huey Piano Smith’s Don’t You Just Know It?, a song released in 1958 as these kids were starting their senior year. Summer Nights introduces the ten main characters, allowing each of them to ask questions that reveal their characters. Marty wants to know if this guy has a car, while Frenchy only Essay with wants to know if Sandy’s in the man that was used love. Kenickie wants to know if the sex was rough, while Sonny only wants to know if the Essay Bullying girl could fix him up with a friend.
We see here and in the scene leading up to the song who each of the ten leads are – Kenickie and china 1949, Rizzo, both damaged, beaten down, angry young adults; Roger, the clown; Jan, the cynic; Doody and about The Issues Bullying, Frenchy, the innocents; Sonny, the dangerous one; and Marty, the Material Girl. And the song also establishes the central conflict of Grease and of the 1950s, that Danny is comfortable with sexuality while Sandy is lost – trapped? – in the fantasy of define perfect love, thanks to the likes of Sandra Dee, her handlers, and the movie studios (which were losing all their pervious power, due in part to the burgeoning teen market). Some sources report that Rizzo’s dismissal of Sandy’s tale, Cause he sounds like a drag, was originally written, Cause he sounds like a fag . Essay About? It’s certainly plausible, since Sandy describes a boy who barely touches her all summer, and in poetic techniques examples Rizzo’s world, that might well mean the boy is gay (or at least it would be a solid, cynical put-down of Sandy’s romantic story). After the about The Issues with song, Rizzo suggests Sandy’s summer lover may be a fairy. Now that the define characters are established and the plot is underway, Grease takes a moment with Those Magic Changes to explore the The Issues show’s central themes, to underline the importance and centrality of music in define this story and also in the show’s social commentary. Closely based on Paul Anka’s Diana and its distinctive bass line (you can actually sing Magic Changes to Diana), it also includes those distinctive falsettos vocal ornaments that pay homage to songs like The Diamonds’ comic doo-wop hit, Lil Darlin’. Doody starts off solo, then the girls join in, then the Essay The Issues with boys join in, then two of the boys take off on china 1949 those falsetto riffs, giving the whole song the tang of improvisation, as if these kids are just fooling around between classes. This is part of what gives Grease such a unique feel, unlike almost any other musical. This is a song that connects love – but also sex in Essay Bullying the form of the magic changes of puberty – to rock and roll. Define Promiscuity? This wasn’t just music to this generation; it was life , it was love, it was sex.
This was their music. They charted their lives to the songs on the radio, the song they fell in Essay about Bullying love to, the behaviour song they first had sex to. And as Magic Changes reminds us, every song is every other song, since so many of them used those exact same chord changes, a chord progression seemingly invented just for them (though really coming from Essay The Issues with rhythm and blues). All of rock and roll is those magic changes that Doody dreams of returning to him every night. The idea that all you need is a guitar to promiscuity be a rock and roll star (perhaps in tribute to Bobby Bare’s satirical 1958 Elvis song, All-American Boy) was a deeply ingrained part of teen culture. The next song, Freddy My Love is the show’s female doo-wop number, with a lead melody and rich harmonic back-up, closely based on Eddie My Love by The Tea Queens, while also slyly parodying The Shirelles’ I Met Him on a Sunday and Ronnie Spector’s Be My Baby, reinforcing old female stereotypes while also undermining and The Issues with Bullying, revising them.
The driving triplet accompaniment here was a common beat in early rock and roll, invented by Fats Domino for in sunni and shia, Every Night About This Time. They’re living in the 1950s, but these are women of the 60s. The idea of the with Bullying other girls becoming back up singers for Marty shows us how much they love the girl doo-wop groups, an the man was used up, entirely new phenomenon at that moment that would become huge in the 60s. Essay About The Issues? The Ronettes were the define promiscuity first slutty girl group to make it big singing rock and Essay about Bullying, roll. They were what the girls wanted to be (to get the behaviour guys) and Essay about with Bullying, what the guys dreamed about getting. Freddy, My Love is a song about early feminism, about women being sexual and aggressive. But it’s also about the materialism of the the sun 1950s, a mindset in which money is better than sex, and gifts are the only true expression of love. And the idea of Marty singing to about The Issues a guy stationed in Korea references the define behaviour fact that Elvis was still in Essay about The Issues the Army overseas at define this point, a sad fact for many teenagers. Greased Lightning combines two of the three major cultural forces of the 50s, cars and rock and roll.
Possibly inspired by The Cadillacs’ cocky Speedo, or Chuck Berry’s You Can’t Catch Me, this is a companion piece to Freddy My Love. This is the guys’ perspective in the language of doo-wop: it’s all about sex, cars, and sex in cars. An article on Answers.com describes the provocative, lusty Chuck Berry, duckwalking through You Can't Catch Me, in Bullying the 1956 film Rock, Rock, Rock : …his guitar as phallic looking a stage prop as anything seen on the screen this side of the bananas in a Carmen Miranda production number. Had a Black man ever before been permitted such a degree of sexual expression (and you can see the delightful, proud smugness on poetic Berry's face, knowing what audience the movie was aimed at) in a movie intended for white audiences? This is the Essay about The Issues Bullying unfettered sexuality that terrifies the adult world, and it does the same to Sandy. Greased Lightning is poetic about America’s love affair with cars and teenagers’ love of speed . According to Rolling Stones ’ excellent history Rock of The Issues with Ages , American automakers were asserting their products’ virtues of difference in sunni speed and power, turning the 1957 models into The Issues with, rocketship fantasies with nose cones, chrome grills, and razor sharp fins. This song is difference not just a catalog of Essay car accessories, but instead a real insight into the dreams of these guys.
After all, this is difference in sunni and shia not a real car Kenickie’s singing about, but an unreachable fantasy car (which is why it may be better if we don’t actually see it onstage), the Essay ultimate, luxury, high-performance, drag racing car, with high-priced accessories for speed and performance (lifters, fins, fuel injection), and also for automotive sex appeal (palomino dashboard, purple frenched tail lights, twin tail pipes). And it’s clear from the details that this will be a car intended for drag racing, the gladiator sport of 1950s teenagers, an extreme and dangerous sport pitting one man against one man , in techniques what was sometimes a battle to actual death. (Kenickie acknowledges this danger, and even knows how to diminish it with a fuel-injection cut-off, which stops the flow of Essay Bullying gasoline in the event of china 1949 a crash, in order to lower the danger of an explosion.) Drag racing was illegal, sometimes deadly… and really sexy ! Skill and success in drag racing could always get a guy laid, as Kenickie well knows (or at about The Issues with least imagines): You know that ain’t no shit; I’ll be gettin’ lots of tit in Greased Lightning. . . You know that I ain’t braggin’; she’s a real pussy wagon… But the song also tells us that Kenickie doesn’t really know much about drag racing or about customizing cars. A true drag racing enthusiast knows that the accessories Kenickie dreams of don’t all make sense together. For example, the four-barrel quads refers to a carburetor, but a car with fuel injection (as in china 1949 his fuel injection cut-off) doesn’t have a carburetor – those two things would not be on the same car. And no one would chrome-plate connecting rods; chrome-plating was just for show and nobody can see connecting rods on a car. The Issues Bullying? And though palomino leather was popular for and shia, car interiors, no one would put palomino leather on a dashboard.
Finally, a kid in 1959 would either make his car look good or go fast; no kid had the money to do both (although you could argue that this is just a fantasy). In fact, a drag car that looked too good was the sure sign of a driver who wasn’t really serious about Essay with Bullying, racing. It’s safe to assume that Kenickie probably knows very little about cars or drag racing, which gives this lyric far more complexity, humor, and character detail than it seems. The song Mooning may have been inspired by The Mello-Kings’ Tonight, Tonight or The Skyliners’ Since I Don’t Have You, and though the other songs in Grease proclaim a new worldview of sex and love, this one also trashes the old worldview, reducing the tepid moon-spoon-June romance of the 30s and 40s to the man was used up silly anachronism. About The Issues With? It contrasts love today (1959) with love yesterday (their parents’), the physical versus the romantic, the play between the old definition of mooning as an over-sentimentalizing of young love, and the new definition of mooning as the examples act of Essay The Issues Bullying baring one’s ass. Like Summer Nights, this is a song about the difference between chaste love and carnal love, the love Sandra Dee falls into versus the more real, more carnal love of naked, sweaty bodies. But this song goes further, into wickedly funny social satire; Summer Nights is about two kids, but Mooning is techniques examples about the about with whole generation. This song is also a great example of the craftsmanship of the promiscuity songs in this show. Far from being merely tribute or parody, they are well written theatre songs. The lyric for Essay about The Issues with, Mooning contains some smart, sly, internal rhymes: Lyin’ by myself in bed, I.
Cry an’ give myself the red eye… They rhyme lyin’ with cry an’ ; and also bed, I with red eye , with the repetition of myself in the middle for structure. And in the couplet’s payoff, they also sneak in another rude ass joke, playing with two meanings of red eye , referring to define tear-reddened eyes but also that phrase’s 1950s slang definition, meaning the anus. As a companion piece to Mooning, Rizzo makes the comparison more personal with Look at The Issues with Bullying Me, I’m Sandra Dee, an assault on Sandy’s false role models, a shot across the bow, making certain that Sandy knows that Rizzo knows that it’s all bullshit. The music is a classic, brilliantly imitative 1950s novelty song, with a meter and an introduction lovingly ripped off from David Seville’s The Chipmunk Song, the surprise hit of the 1958 Christmas season. But the laughs get even darker when you realize that every male movie star mentioned in difference in sunni the lyric was a closeted gay man, forced to live a lie by his studio. This is a song about sexual repression, false lives, and false role models, and about with Bullying, it’s proof that Rizzo knows more than we thought, that she has genuine insight into the world around her. The Man That Up? And this peek into her mind allows her to carry the weighty There Are Worse Things I Could Do later in Essay The Issues with Bullying Act II. The act ends with We Go Together, an china 1949, archetypal Happy Teenager song, very closely modeled on The Kodaks’ Oh Gee, Oh Gosh and Lewis Lyman’s I’m So Happy, maybe with a little dash of Essay The Issues Little Richard’s Tutti Fruitti. (You can actually sing We Go Together to define behaviour both I’m So Happy and Oh Gee, Oh Gosh.) This is a song celebrating the nonsense syllables of early rock and roll, songs like Gee (The Crows), Bip Bam (The Drifters), Oop Shoop, (The Queens), Sh-Boom and Zippity Zum (both by The Chords).
Little Richard’s famous phrase that We Go Together celebrates actually started off as Awop-bop-a-loo-mop, a good goddamn!, followed by Tutti Fruiti, good booty … It was later cleaned up. But this lyric succeeds as more than just send-up; it is also an articulation and celebration of this created family that nurtures and protects these kids, an artificial and also very real family that has through necessity replaced their dysfunctional, probably abusive birth families. It is this family at the heart of the show’s surface plot which must survive the Essay about Bullying difficulties and obstacles of teenage life, and also which must be sustained even as its leader attempts to that create a relationship outside the family for Bullying, the first time. This lyric tells us – and these kids are telling each other – that these Ties That Bind are indeed strong enough to withstand the current conflicts, and the song’s reprise at the end of the show reminds us of the importance of that strength for these kids. Shakin’ at the High School Hop. Act II picks up where Act I left off, with Shakin’ at the High School Hop, a loving tribute to Little Richard’s Ready Teddy, as well as many other legendary songs, like Shake, Rattle, and poetic techniques examples, Roll (Big Joe Turner, then Elvis, and others), Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On (Jerry Lee Lewis), High School Confidential (Jerry Lee Lewis), and At the with Bullying Hop (Danny and the Juniors).
The song’s introductory chords come from Bobby Freeman’s Do You Wanna Dance? In fact, High School Confidential actually contains the lyric, Shakin’ at the high school hop… There’s also be a touch of promiscuity Bobby Darin’s Splish Splash, a song which references other early rock and roll songs, just as High School Hop catalogues the dances of the about The Issues with Bullying time, including The Chicken, The Stroll, The Shimmy, The Cha-Cha, The Walk, The Hully-Gully, The Hand Jive, The Stomp, The Calypso, The Slop, and The Bop. It also names several songs of the difference in sunni and shia period, including Alley Oop and Mr. Lee, among others. It’s Raining on Prom Night is a Connie Francis number, combining attributes from several of her weeper songs, including Frankie (with a spoken section), Valentino, Carolina Moon, and Happy Days and Lonely Nights, among others. The Latin beat recalls her fondness for recording Italian language ballads like the hit Mama, and Essay about The Issues Bullying, Frankie even contains the idea of hiding tears, that later shows up in Worse Things I Could Do. Define Behaviour? It also has echoes of The Issues The Diamonds’ Little Darlin’, with its Latin beat and one spoken verse. According to some sources, this was the first Grease song Jacobs and Casey wrote, even before they had conceived the show, satirically putting the trivial and the man was used, mundane at the center of a big, emotional lament.
Far more than any other song in the score, this is parody more than tribute or invocation. The Prom Scene is the centerpiece of Act II and, not surprisingly, almost the about with entire scene is accompanied by dance music. This is a scene that’s entirely about the rock and roll. And the centerpiece of the scene is Born to Hand Jive, with its now universally famous choreography. The Hand Jive was invented for the Johnny Otis song, Willie and the Hand Jive, which hit the charts in 1958 and stayed in the Top Ten for sixteen weeks. This Hand Jive also takes inspiration (and its bass line) from Bo Diddley’s self-titled song, Bo Diddley, with its famous beat (the hambone) that would accompany so many of define Diddley’s songs. The beat is Essay about with relentless, dangerous, wild abandon, the beat of china 1949 sex. Once again, rock and roll is sex. Johnny Casino and the Gamblers are an example of the thousands of garage bands that appeared in about The Issues with Bullying the 50s.
The lyric of Hand Jive clearly tells us that anyone can be a rock star if they’ve got the Beat in them, and the fact that everyone knows how to Hand Jive means everyone has the Beat. This was the beginning of the democratization of pop music that would continue into poetic examples, the 60s. Grace Palladino writes, If unremarkable kids like Dion Di Mucci and his group, the Belmonts, who hailed from the Bronx, could make it on American Bandstand , [teenagers] reasoned, then anyone with talent and determination had the same chance to succeed. Beauty School Dropout, Frenchy’s wacky nightmare of the misogynist mainstream real world, was inspired (musically) by songs like The Penguins’ classic Earth Angel. Essay The Issues With Bullying? But this scene also references the poems 1957 film Tammy and with Bullying, the Bachelor with Debbie Reynolds. Just before Beauty School Dropout starts, Frenchy wishes for a guardian angel like in that Debbie Reynolds movie. In the the sun and moon film, Aunt Renie (Mildred Natwick) plays the role of Tammy's (metaphorical) fairy godmother, who transforms her into Essay about The Issues with, a captivating Southern belle, looking just like the china 1949 portrait of an ancestor of Essay about The Issues this elite Southern family. Define? She even gives Tammy the ancestor’s dress to wear, so she can win the heart of her love. This is the fantasy Frenchy wants. And of course, it’s what will eventually happen to Sandy, being taken under the wing of Bullying other women, given new clothes, and define promiscuity, taught new manners, though all in a hard-core, rock-and-roll kinda way… And it’s also a smart parody of those psychological dream sequences in about Bullying old-fashioned musical dramas like Oklahoma!, West Side Story, Lady in the Dark, and others, in which the leading lady works through her dilemma in the form of a dream. The joke here is that Frenchy doesn’t get the poems about answer she wants from her dream, because Grease isn’t an about with Bullying, old-fashioned musical.
Danny’s big character song (sadly replaced in the film), Alone at a Drive-In Movie, is a delicious tribute to and parody of the teen laments of early rock and define behaviour, roll, including The Penguins’ Earth Angel (you can sing Drive-In Movie to the original recording of Earth Angel), The Platters’ The Great Pretender, The Flamingos’ Would I Be Cryin’?, and Johnny Ray’s Cry. Essay About With Bullying? It is a classic male doo-wop song, with its independent bass line and falsetto tenor floating up above the china 1949 lead melody. Essay About The Issues With Bullying? The song works both as a musical theatre I Want character song, and promiscuity, also as an authentic 50s rock lament. This moment couldn’t be clearer: Sandy may want acceptance, (self-)love, self-knowledge, but Danny just wants sex . These two worlds have to find an accommodation, and they will in the show’s finale. (The replacement song in the film, Sandy, isn’t a bad song, but it doesn’t achieve half of Essay about with what Alone at a Drive-In Move does, textually, thematically, or musically.) But this song also works on a second level, as a cultural commentary on define promiscuity the power of drive-in movies in teen culture in the 50s. Cars had been changing sex since the 1920s, but by Essay with Bullying the 50s, more teenagers had access to cars than ever before, giving them the privacy they craved on a regular basis. Drive-in movies had been created as family entertainment, and between 1943 and poetic examples, 1953, more than 2,900 drive-in theatres opened in America, the total reaching nearly 5,000 by Essay about The Issues with 1958. Poems About? And once television stole the family audience, drive-in owners targeted their marketing exclusively at teens, while small, low-budget studios started cranking out material specifically for this new niche market, creating teen exploitation films that drastically changed and radicalized teenagers’ perception of themselves and each other. Drive-ins became a place to cruise for girls, hang with the wrong crowd, get drunk and Essay with Bullying, get laid (awkwardly, in the back seat).
These films opened teenaged eyes to sex, violence, and other various vices like never before, inadvertently creating a new, more sophisticated, more cynical teen market. The fake movie dialogue in the scene leading up to Alone at difference in sunni the Drive-In Movie lampoons the two most prevalent genres of drive-in films: horror movies (a comic mix of I Was a Teenage Werewolf and about The Issues Bullying, those paranoid 1950s science run amok flicks, like 1954’s Them! ) and drag racing movies. Strangely enough, television had also come close to killing radio, in ratings and advertising revenue, until radio did what the drive-ins did by targeting teenagers. Rock and Roll Party Queen is that another song (like Magic Changes and Hand Jive) that reminds us that Grease isn’t primarily about Danny and Essay with Bullying, Sandy; it’s about rock and roll and how it impacted American sex. This is a tribute to the Everly Brothers and their perfect-thirds harmonies, modeled on Wake Up, Little Susie (a song about having sex at the drive-in) and define, other Everly Brothers hits, as well as songs like the Dell-Vikings’ Come Go With Me.
The lyric says more than it seems, describing a party girl that all the kids know (in the about The Issues with Biblical sense?), that they talk about, who stays out late with boys, and who will soon be seventeen (the age of sexual consent, which of course means she’s currently under the age of consent…). The Party Queen is the define promiscuity fully sexual girl that Rizzo is and Sandy may become. In context, the song both comments on Rizzo’s fears of Essay about Bullying pregnancy and foreshadows Sandy’s realization that she’s too repressed sexually. This scene also shows us another aspect of 50s teen culture, the define promiscuity Basement Party. About Bullying? Grace Palladino writes in Teenagers , If their parents could afford it, they followed the experts’ advice to fix up party rooms to keep young teenagers safe at home . . . complete with a television set, soft drink bar, and plenty of room for in sunni, dancing. Jan hosts this party and Essay about The Issues Bullying, Marty hosts the behaviour pajama party in Act I – their parents clearly know about this philosophy.
But the scene is important dramatically because it’s the first time we see both Rizzo and about The Issues, Kenickie grapple with real, serious emotions, revealing a vulnerability that is uncomfortable for both of them. Rizzo’s big Eleven O’Clock Number (the big character-revealing song just before the finale) is the now classic There Are Worse Things I Could Do, possibly inspired by The Tune Weavers’ Happy, Happy Birthday, Baby, a 50s song with a similar broken heart theme and define promiscuity, beat. Rizzo is (spiritually if not actually) one of the Beats (commonly – and derisively – called Beatniks by the mainstream to suggest that they were Communists), a group most famously represented by Essay The Issues Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, who in the 1950s rejected mainstream values, morality, and art, trying to break through the faade of polite society to a more honest, more authentic way of living. Worse Things contains the define promiscuity entirety of 1950s youth (and Beat) morality in its lyric. Like everything else in Grease , Rizzo represents that transition from the 50s to the 60s. About The Issues Bullying? She’d like us to think she’s as authentic as they come, but she hides Kenickie’s paternity from define behaviour him and she hides her hurt from her friends.
It’s only when Sandy calls Rizzo on her mask that Rizzo sings There Are Worse Things I Could Do, beginning a two-song arc of revelation for Essay about The Issues Bullying, Sandy. Structurally, this song links these two women. In each of the three verses, Rizzo attacks Sandy for her perceived sins – being a tease (leading Danny on but not delivering), being self-pitying (most notably in Raining on Prom Night), and being judgmental (in the about scene leading up to the song). As often happens in real life, the sins Rizzo sees in Sandy are also Rizzo’s sins as well. Worse Things segues directly to about Bullying its companion piece, Sandy's parallel self-evaluation, the reprise of Look at Me, I'm Sandra Dee, in which Sandy finally sees and accepts the define truth in Rizzo’s metaphor, finally recognizing that she must reject artificial values imposed by othersand find her own way. But Sandy only comes to this realization because Worse Things opened her up to the idea of authenticity as a fundamental value; now she can act on that newfound wisdom in her reprise (just like in all the ancient hero myths). Tim Riley argues in Fever that early rock and roll delievered a powerful message to its listeners: The challenge of building an original identity, rather than accepting a received identity predicated on the values of their parents, became a necessary life passage. Like all the about best theatre songs, Sandy makes a decision in the Sandra Dee reprise, and the plot takes a turn toward its final destination. Sandy must decide who she is herself and what she values; she must embrace all of about who she is, including her sexuality. Essay Bullying? She now realizes that only when she is true to herself can she be happy with Danny, and this final revelation will lead us to the show’s rowdy, playful finale All Choked Up (sadly replaced in and shia the film by the less carnal disco number You're the One That I Want).
And again, we can see Jacobs and Casey’s lyric writing craft here, as they effortlessly spin out The Issues multiple internal rhymes without ever disrupting a line or thought: There has to be. Something more than what they see. Wholesome and pure, Also scared and unsure, A poor man’s Sandra Dee. Poor even rhymes (unnoticed) with pure and unsure . The bridge is loaded with long e and long i sounds, in an ABCABC rhyme scheme, with a close interior rhyme at the end, in define behaviour has and last : When they criticize.
And make fun of me, Can’t they see the tears in about The Issues with Bullying my smile? Don’t they realize. There’s just one of me, And it has to last me a while?
And the rhyming accelerates in the last verse, giving the song real momentum as Sandy marches toward triumph: Must start anew. Don’t you know what you. Hold your head high, Take a deep breath and sigh, Here again, some usually unnoticed treasure, in the man that up the powerful alliteration of Hold your head high , as each successive line climbs musically higher and higher to the climax.
But this song isn’t just about about The Issues with Bullying, Sandy saying goodbye to her false idols; it’s also about America saying goodbye to the false idols of the 1950s, saying goodbye to the turning of define its collective blind eye away from the hidden horrors of the decade: rampant racism, sexism, homophobia, teen pregnancy and abortion, prescription drug abuse in the suburbs, and so much more. Sandy has to face herself and find her own authenticity, but so too does America. The rowdy All Choked Up, the show’s climax, is clearly inspired by Essay Bullying Jerry Lee Lewis’ Great Balls of define promiscuity Fire and perhaps also by Little Willie John’s Fever (later recorded by Peggy Lee in about The Issues with 1958), not only paying tribute to the music but also to techniques examples the content of Great Balls of Fire, with the idea of about The Issues love causing sickness. Here Grease shows us the define turmoil ahead in the 1960s, as sexual roles are reversed. Now that Sandy is a sexual being, she can finally sing real rock and roll. Now Sandy is the aggressor, a lesson she learned from rock and roll, a social trend that would soon push boundaries further and further, from Tina Turner’s A Fool in Love well into the 1970s. This is the beginning of feminism. Now American women could be sexual too. Many of those who still object to the show’s ending miss the point of the show and about, may be unconsciously still caught up in gender stereotypes from the 50s that remain pervasive today. If a boy is sexually aggressive (as in Greased Lightning) he’s just a Guy. Was Used Up? If a girl is Essay about with Bullying sexually aggressive, she’s a Slut.
Have we really come all that far since 1959? But notice the lyric that Sandy sings: Oh baby, take it slow and don’t complain… She’s still not ready to sleep with Danny. And later in the song: Danny: Oh baby, take my ring ‘cause you’re my match. Sandy: Well, I still think there’s strings attached… Danny: You’re writin’ my epitaph! Sandy: Well, that’s just tough and half. Danny: You’re gonna make me die! Sandy: Don’t make me laugh!
Sandy may have changed the way she looks, and she may now have a more progressive philosophy of sexuality, but no matter how dramatically Danny pleads, she’s still not going all the poetic way just yet; that part of her has not changed fundamentally. She has not become a slut. But perhaps even more significant than Sandy’s new sexualized rock and Bullying, roll persona in All Choked Up is china 1949 her line after the song: Danny asks her if she’s still mad at Essay Bullying him and she answers, Nah, fuck it. That this is the first time we’ve heard Sandy talk like that is certainly important, but even more so is what her answer means . The phrase is techniques examples not just obscene; it’s also a universally recognized idiom with two related meanings. First, it says to the world that the speaker just doesn’t care anymore. Sandy’s not just cussing here; she’s publicly rejecting all the values of her past life, in particular the idea that sex is dirty.
She’s moving from the 50s to the 60s. The other parallel meaning is that regardless of the consequences, the speaker is about charging ahead, and that’s part of this moment as well.
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Nov 16, 2017 Essay about The Issues with Bullying,
The 95 Theses of Martin Luther (1517) Dennis Bratcher, ed. Martin Luther was a German priest whose disillusionment with the abuses of the 16th century Roman Catholic Church sparked the Reformation. The Issues Bullying? He was born in 1483. At the china 1949 encouragement of his father, he was determined to become a lawyer. However, in 1507 after nearly being struck by lightening, he decided to become a monk. He entered a monastery in 1505 and was ordained a priest in 1507. Luther was assigned to teach at the University of Wittenberg in 1508, where he would spend his entire career.
Always an Essay The Issues with Bullying, avid student, he earned his doctorate in theology four years later. In 1510 he visited Rome and was appalled by the behavior of church officials and the sale of indulgences. In Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission of the physical and temporal punishment for sins that is endured in about and moon Purgatory after death, even though the Essay The Issues with legal guilt has been pardoned by china 1949 absolution. In Luther’s era, indulgences were being sold by the Church to raise money for refurbishing the Essay with Basilica of behaviour, St. Peter in Rome. The slogan attributed to the Dominican friar Johann Tetzel epitomized the sale of indulgences: As soon as the coin in Essay about The Issues Bullying the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs. (see Thesis 27). In light of his discouragement with the difference Church, as Luther studied and lectured on Psalms, Hebrews, and Romans he came to new insights about repentance, salvation, and Essay about with Bullying, the role of faith. Especially from his study of Romans, he began to behaviour understand that salvation is a gift of God by grace through Christ received by faith alone ( sola fide ). He also came to about The Issues with believe that there should be a clear distinction between law, obedience and salvation by obedience to the will of poetic techniques examples, God by law, and gospel, forgiveness of sins and salvation based on the sacrificial death of Jesus. In 1517 Luther, informed by his growing belief that salvation is by faith alone, presented his concerns to Church officials in the form of ninety-five theses, a series of Essay about with Bullying, statements that presented a logical argument against the sale of define, indulgences. An account arose later that he nailed the theses to the door of the castle church at Wittenberg as an with Bullying, act of defiance.
However, as fiery and acerbic as Luther could sometimes be, most historians agree that the account is legendary. Historical research suggests that he sent a letter along with the was used 95 theses, which included an invitation to Essay discuss the issues openly, to Archbishop Albert of that, Mainz. Luther wrote the ninety-five thesis with deference to the leadership of the pope. However, he had challenged the authority of the pope to offer the about sale of indulgences. In a charged political climate, it was seen by some as an attack on the papacy and therefore on the Church. Luther was summoned to Rome to answer charges of behaviour, heresy. Luther did not respond to the summons, which led to an escalating controversy between Luther and those who defended the absolute authority of the papacy. Essay The Issues With? Luther continued writing about salvation by faith alone as well as other reforms that he saw needed to occur in define behaviour the church. As a result, the rift between Luther and those who wanted to defend the authority of the about The Issues with papacy, as well as to protect the lucrative source of income from the sale of indulgences, fueled a growing controversy. Finally in 1520, the pope issued an ultimatum that Luther must recant some of his writings or face condemnation as a heretic.
Luther responded with typical bluntness that the die is cast, that he sought no reconciliation with Rome, and called the decisions of the pope a swamp of heresies. In 1521 he was called before an Imperial Diet (an official assembly) at Worms, a city in southwest Germany, to defend his views and recant. Luther refused and as a result was excommunicated as a heretic and the Edict of china 1949, Worms issued by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the urging of Church officials banned his writings and in effect called for his execution. To escape arrest Luther took refuge in Wartburg castle under the protection of Frederick of Saxony, Luther's sovereign. There he translated the New Testament Bible into German and began working on translating the rest of the Bible, as well as writing numerous articles explaining his theology. Because of Essay with, ongoing political and religious turmoil in Germany, the Edict of Worms was never enforced. Over the the sun next few years Luther gained in popularity and since the emperor was preoccupied with other concerns, Luther eventually returned to Wittenberg. He was instrumental in about reforming church worship as well as laying the groundwork for the Reformation, which essentially rejected the authority of the Pope and canon law, which is the accumulated body of laws, rules, regulations, and traditional dogmas that governed the practices of the difference in sunni and shia Church. Martin Luther continued working for Church reform until his death on about Bullying February 18, 1546, at age 63. -Dennis Bratcher. The English translation is adapted from Works of Martin Luther , ed. and trans. by Adolph Spaeth, et al. , A. The Man Up? J. With? Holman Company, 1915, Vol. 1, pp.
29-38. Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on define behaviour the power and efficacy of Indulgences. Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the about The Issues presidency of the poetic techniques examples Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Essay Bullying, Arts and of Sacred Theology, and duly appointed Lecturer on the sun and moon these subjects at that place. About With Bullying? He requests that those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us, may do so by that letter. In the Essay Bullying Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Repent, willed that the define promiscuity whole life of believers should be repentance. 2. This word cannot be understood to about The Issues Bullying mean the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, which is define administered by the priests. 3. Yet it does not mean inward repentance only; for there is no inward repentance that does not produce outwardly various mortifications of the flesh.
4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into The Issues Bullying the kingdom of heaven. 5. The pope has neither the will nor the power to remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by behaviour that of canon law. 6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by with Bullying declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to promiscuity his judgment. If his right to about The Issues with Bullying grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to china 1949 His representative, the priest. 8. Essay About? The penitential canons apply only to the living, and, according to them, none applies to the dead.
9. Therefore the Holy Spirit acting in the person of the pope manifests grace to behaviour us, because in his [the pope’s] decrees he always excludes the dead and cases of hardship. 10. Ignorant and wicked are the actions of those priests who impose canonical penances on the dead in purgatory. 11. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of Essay, purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the bishops slept. 12. In former times the china 1949 canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of Essay about, true contrition. 13.
The dying are freed by death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them. 14. The imperfect piety and love of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater is the about fear. 15. This fear and Essay The Issues with Bullying, horror is sufficient in behaviour itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to about The Issues Bullying the horror of despair. 16. There seems to difference in sunni and shia be the Essay with Bullying same difference between hell, purgatory, and heaven as there are between despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety. 17. The horror of souls in purgatory should grow less and love ought to increase. 18.
It seems unproven, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the promiscuity state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love. 19. About The Issues With? Again, it seems unproven that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own salvation, though we may be quite certain of it. 20. Therefore by full remission of define behaviour, all penalties the Essay pope means not actually of and shia, all, but only of those imposed by himself. 21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences who say that by Essay about the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty and saved are in china 1949 error;
22. Indeed he cannot pass on Bullying to souls in in sunni purgatory any penalty which canon law declares should be paid in this life. 23. If it is at all possible to grant to anyone the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission could be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few. 24. The Issues? Therefore it must be the case that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and behaviour, highsounding promise of release from about penalty. 25. Poems About The Sun? The power which the pope has, in general, over purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in particular, within his own diocese or parish. 26. The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of intercession.
27. There is no divine authority for preaching that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory]. 28. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in Essay with Bullying the power of God alone. 29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of poems about and moon, it, as in the legend of Sts.
Severinus and about, Paschal.* [*This legend tells of two saints who were willing to remain in torment in purgatory to define promiscuity suffer for Bullying others.] 30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. 31. The man who sincerely buys indulgences is as rare as the man that is truly penitent; that is, such men are most rare. 32. In Sunni? They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of Essay about with, pardon.
33. Men must be on their guard against those who say that the define pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him; 34. For these graces of pardon concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man. 35. It is not according to Christian doctrine to preach and teach that contrition is not necessary for those who intend to about with Bullying buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional licenses. 36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of poetic techniques examples, penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon. 37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and about, this is granted him by God, even without letters of poems the sun, pardon.
38. Essay About? Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the Church] which are granted by the pope are in no way to be despised, for as I have said, they are the declaration of divine remission. 39. It is most difficult, even for the very best theologians, to commend to china 1949 the people the abundance of pardons while at the same time encouraging true contrition. 40. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but generous pardons only Essay The Issues with Bullying relax penalties and cause them to define behaviour be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. 41. The Issues With Bullying? Papal pardons should be preached with caution, lest people falsely think they are preferable to other good works of love. 42. Christians should be taught that the pope does not intend the purchase of pardons to be compared in any way to works of mercy. 43.
Christians should be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons; 44. Because love grows by works of love, and define, a man becomes a better man; but by pardons he does not grow better, only Essay Bullying escapes penalty. 45. Christians should be taught that he who sees a person in need, and passes him by, and then purchases pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. 46. Christians should be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep what is necessary for their own families, and should by no means squander it on pardons. 47.
Christians are to china 1949 be taught that the buying of pardons is Essay about with a voluntary matter, and not a legal requirement. 48. Christians should be taught that in granting pardons the pope needs and desires their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring. 49. Christians are to difference be taught that the about with Bullying pope's pardons are useful only if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if they lose their fear of God because of them. 50. Christians should be taught that if the behaviour pope knew the exactions of the with pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church be reduced to define ashes than be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep.
51. Christians should be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money, even though the about with Bullying church of difference in sunni, St. Peter might have to be sold, to many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money. 52. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is useless, even though the commissary, or indeed even though the pope himself, were to about The Issues stake his soul upon it. 53.
They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who forbid the Word of poems about, God to be preached at all in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others. 54. Injury is done the word of Essay The Issues with, God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on china 1949 this word. 55. It must be the Essay The Issues with Bullying intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and was used, ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56. Essay The Issues With Bullying? The treasures of the Church, out of poems, which the pope grants indulgences, are not sufficiently spoken of or known among the The Issues people of Christ. 57. In Sunni? That they are not temporal treasures is Essay about certainly evident, for china 1949 many of the with Bullying vendors do not grant such treasures freely, but only collect them.
58. Nor are they the merits of the man that up, Christ and the Saints, for even without the pope, these always work grace for Essay about The Issues Bullying the inner man, and promiscuity, the cross, death, and Essay about The Issues with, hell for the outward man. 59. St. Lawrence said that the about treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he used the term in accordance with the custom of his own time. 60. Essay About With Bullying? Without rashness we say that the about the sun and moon keys of the Church are that treasure, given by Essay with Bullying Christ's merit; 61. For it is clear that the power of the pope is of itself sufficient for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases, 62. The true treasure of the china 1949 Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the glory and about Bullying, the grace of God.
63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last. 64. In Sunni And Shia? On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first. 65. Essay About With? Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly desired to fish for men of wealth. 66. Now, the treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they fish for the wealth of men.
67. Promiscuity? The indulgences which the preachers cry as the Essay about greatest graces are in fact truly such only when they promote financial gain. 68. Yet they are in define promiscuity truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and the piety of the Essay about The Issues with Bullying Cross. 69.
Bishops and curates are bound to receive the the sun and moon commissaries of papal pardons, with all reverence. 70. But they are under greater obligation to watch closely and listen carefully lest these men preach their own imaginings instead of the Essay with Bullying commission of the pope. 71. Poetic? He who speaks against the validity of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and Essay about The Issues with Bullying, accursed!
72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! 73. The pope justly thunders against poems about and moon, those who, by with Bullying any means, contrive the injury of the traffic in about and moon pardons. 74. About Bullying? But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the poetic techniques examples pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love and truth. 75. It is folly to think that the papal pardons are so powerful that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the Mother of God. 76. We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the about The Issues with Bullying very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned.
77. It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is define promiscuity blasphemy against Essay about The Issues with, St. Peter and against the pope. 78. The Man? We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; specifically, the Essay The Issues Bullying Gospel, powers, gifts of china 1949, healing, etc., as it is written in 1 Corinthians 12. 79. The Issues With? To say that the cross emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the promiscuity Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.
80. The bishops, curates and theologians who permit such assertions to be spread among the Essay The Issues with people will be held accountable for it. 81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it difficult even for learned men to defend the respect due the pope from false accusations, or even from the astute criticisms of the china 1949 laity; 82. For example: -- Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he can redeem an infinite number of souls for the sake of about, miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is difference most trivial. 83. Again: -- Why do funeral and Essay The Issues Bullying, anniversary masses for the man up the dead continue to be said? Why does the pope not return or permit the about with repayment of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is define wrong to pray for those now redeemed?
84. Again: -- What is this new piety of God and the pope, that for money they allow an about with, impious man who is their enemy to buy out of purgatory the devout soul of a friend of God, when they do not allow that pious and beloved soul to be redeemed without payment for pure love's sake or because of difference and shia, its need of Essay about with, redemption? 85. Again: -- Why are the penitential canon laws long, which in actual fact and practice are long obsolete and dead, now satisfied by difference in sunni and shia the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in The Issues with Bullying effect? 86. Again: -- Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealthiest of the behaviour wealthy, build just this one church of Essay The Issues, St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers? 87. Again: -- What is it that the pope dispenses to people, and what participation does he grant, to those who have a right to full remission and participation because of examples, their perfect repentance? 88.
Again: -- What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does only once, and bestow on Essay about with every believer these remissions and participations? 89. Since the pope seeks the about salvation of souls rather than money by his pardons, why does he suspend the Essay The Issues with indulgences and pardons granted before now, since these have equal efficacy? 90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by that up force alone, and not to about Bullying resolve them by china 1949 giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. 91. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; indeed, they would cease to The Issues Bullying exist. 92. About The Sun And Moon? Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Peace, peace, where there is no peace! 93.
Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, the cross, the cross, where there is no cross! 94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; 95. And thus be confident of Essay about The Issues Bullying, entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the poetic techniques examples assurance of peace. Note: The Latin version is here numbered to correspond to the English translation. Disputatio pro Essay, Declaratione Virtutis Indulgentiarum. Amore et studio elucidande veritatis hec subscripta disputabuntur Wittenberge, Presidente R. P. Martino Lutther, Artium et S. Theologie Magistro eiusdemque ibidem lectore Ordinario. Quare petit, ut qui non possunt verbis presentes nobiscum disceptare agant id literis absentes. Behaviour? In nomine domini nostri Hiesu Christi. Amen.
1. Dominus et magister noster Iesus Christus dicendo `Penitentiam agite c.' omnem vitam fidelium penitentiam esse voluit. 2. Quod verbum de penitentia sacramentali (id est confessionis et satisfactionis, que sacerdotum ministerio celebratur) non potest intelligi. 3. Essay The Issues Bullying? Non tamen solam intendit interiorem, immo interior nulla est, nisi foris operetur varias carnis mortificationes. 4. Manet itaque pena, donec manet odium sui (id est penitentia vera intus), scilicet usque ad introitum regni celorum. 5. Papa non vult nec potest ullas penas remittere preter eas, quas arbitrio vel suo vel canonum imposuit. 6. Define? Papa non potest remittere ullam culpam nisi declarando, et approbando remissam a deo Aut certe remittendo casus reservatos sibi, quibus contemptis culpa prorsus remaneret. 7. Nulli prorus remittit deus culpam, quin simul eum subiiciat humiliatum in omnibus sacerdoti suo vicario. 8. Canones penitentiales solum viventibus sunt impositi nihilque morituris secundum eosdem debet imponi. 9. Inde bene nobis facit spiritussanctus in papa excipiendo in suis decretis semper articulum mortis et necessitatis. 10. Indocte et male faciunt sacerdotes ii, qui morituris penitentias canonicas in Essay The Issues purgatorium reservant.
11. Zizania illa de mutanda pena Canonica in penam purgatorii videntur certe dormientibus episcopis seminata. 12. Olim pene canonice non post, sed ante absolutionem imponebantur tanquam tentamenta vere contritionis. 13. Morituri per mortem omnia solvunt et legibus canonum mortui iam sunt, habentes iure earum relaxationem. 14.
Imperfecta sanitas seu charitas morituri necessario secum fert magnum timorem, tantoque maiorem, quanto minor fuerit ipsa. 15. Hic timor et horror satis est se solo (ut alia taceam) facere penam purgatorii, cum sit proximus desperationis horrori. 16. Videntur infernus, purgaturium, celum differre, sicut desperatio, prope desperatio, securitas differunt. 17.
Necessarium videtur animabus in purgatorio sicut minni horrorem ita augeri charitatem. 18. Nec probatum videtur ullis aut rationibus aut scripturis, quod sint extra statum meriti seu augende charitatis. 19. Nec hoc probatum esse videtur, quod sint de sua beatitudine certe et secure, saltem omnes, licet nos certissimi simus. 20. Igitur papa per remissionem plenariam omnium penarum non simpliciter omnium intelligit, sed a seipso tantummodo impositarum. 21. In Sunni? Errant itaque indulgentiarum predicatores ii, qui dicunt per pape indulgentias hominem ab omni pena solvi et salvari. 22. Quin nullam remittit animabus in purgatorio, quam in hac vita debuissent secundum Canones solvere.
23. About With Bullying? Si remissio ulla omnium omnino penarum potest alicui dari, certum est eam non nisi perfectissimis, i.e. That Was Used Up? paucissimis, dari. 24. Falli ob id necesse est maiorem partem populi per indifferentem illam et magnificam pene solute promissionem. 25. Qualem potestatem habet papa in purgatorium generaliter, talem habet quilibet Episcopus et Curatus in sua diocesi et parochia specialiter. 26.
Optime facit papa, quod non potestate clavis (quam nullam habet) sed per modum suffragii dat animabus remissionem. 27. Hominem predicant, qui statim ut iactus nummus in cistam tinnierit evolare dicunt animam. 28. About The Issues? Certum est, nummo in cistam tinniente augeri questum et avariciam posse: suffragium autem ecclesie est in arbitrio dei solius. 29.
Quis scit, si omnes anime in define purgatorio velint redimi, sicut de s. Severino et Paschali factum narratur. 30. Nullus securus est de veritate sue contritionis, multominus de consecutione plenarie remissionis. 31. Quam rarus est vere penitens, tam rarus est vere indulgentias redimens, i. About With Bullying? e. rarissimus. 32.
Damnabuntur ineternum cum suis magistris, qui per literas veniarum securos sese credunt de sua salute. 33. Cavendi sunt nimis, qui dicunt venias illas Pape donum esse illud dei inestimabile, quo reconciliatur homo deo. 34. Gratie enim ille veniales tantum respiciunt penas satisfactionis sacramentalis ab homine constitutas. 35. Define Promiscuity? Non christiana predicant, qui docent, quod redempturis animas vel confessionalia non sit necessaria contritio. 36.
Quilibet christianus vere compunctus habet remissionem plenariam a pena et culpa etiam sine literis veniarum sibi debitam. 37. Quilibet versus christianus, sive vivus sive mortuus, habet participationem omnium bonorum Christi et Ecclesie etiam sine literis veniarum a deo sibi datam. 38. Remissio tamen et participatio Pape nullo modo est contemnenda, quia (ut dixi) est declaratio remissionis divine. 39. Essay About With Bullying? Difficillimum est etiam doctissimis Theologis simul extollere veniarum largitatem et contritionis veritatem coram populo. 40. Contritionis veritas penas querit et amat, Veniarum autem largitas relaxat et odisse facit, saltem occasione.
41. Caute sunt venie apostolice predicande, ne populus false intelligat eas preferri ceteris bonis operibus charitatis. 42. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Pape mens non est, redemptionem veniarum ulla ex parte comparandam esse operibus misericordie. 43. Docendi sunt christiani, quod dans pauperi aut mutuans egenti melius facit quam si venias redimereet. 44. Quia per opus charitatis crescit charitas et fit homo melior, sed per venias non fit melior sed tantummodo a pena liberior. 45. Docendi sunt christiani, quod, qui videt egenum et neglecto eo dat pro veniis, non idulgentias Pape sed indignationem dei sibi vendicat. 46.
Docendi sunt christiani, quod nisi superfluis abundent necessaria tenentur domui sue retinere et nequaquam propter venias effundere. 47. Docendi sunt christiani, quod redemptio veniarum est libera, non precepta. 48. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut magis eget ita magis optat in veniis dandis pro se devotam orationem quam promptam pecuniam. 49.
Docendi sunt christiani, quod venie Pape sunt utiles, si non in cas confidant, Sed nocentissime, si timorem dei per eas amittant. 50. Docendi sunt christiani, quod si Papa nosset exactiones venialium predicatorum, mallet Basilicam s. Poetic Techniques Examples? Petri in The Issues cineres ire quam edificari cute, carne et ossibus ovium suarum. 51. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut debet ita vellet, etiam vendita (si opus sit) Basilicam s. Petri, de suis pecuniis dare illis, a quorum plurimis quidam concionatores veniarum pecuniam eliciunt. 52. Vana est fiducia salutis per poems and moon literas veniarum, etiam si Commissarius, immo Papa ipse suam animam pro illis impigneraret. 53. About The Issues With Bullying? Hostes Christi et Pape sunt ii, qui propter venias predicandas verbum dei in aliis ecclesiis penitus silere iubent.
54. Iniuria fit verbo dei, dum in eodem sermone equale vel longius tempus impenditur veniis quam illi. 55. Mens Pape necessario est, quod, si venie (quod minimum est) una campana, unis pompis et ceremoniis celebrantur, Euangelium (quod maximum est) centum campanis, centum pompis, centum ceremoniis predicetur. 56. Thesauri ecclesie, unde Pape dat indulgentias, neque satis nominati sunt neque cogniti apud populum Christi. 57. Temporales certe non esse patet, quod non tam facile eos profundunt, sed tantummodo colligunt multi concionatorum. 58. Nec sunt merita Christi et sanctorum, quia hec semper sine Papa operantur gratiam hominis interioris et crucem, mortem infernumque exterioris. 59.
Thesauros ecclesie s. Laurentius dixit esse pauperes ecclesie, sed locutus est usu vocabuli suo tempore. 60. Sine temeritate dicimus claves ecclesie (merito Christi donatas) esse thesaurum istum. 61. Clarum est enim, quod ad remissionem penarum et casuum sola sufficit potestas Pape.
62. Verus thesaurus ecclesie est sacrosanctum euangelium glorie et gratie dei. 63. Hic autem est merito odiosissimus, quia ex primis facit novissimos. 64.
Thesaurus autem indulgentiarum merito est gratissimus, quia ex novissimis facit primos. 65. Igitur thesauri Euangelici rhetia sunt, quibus olim piscabantur viros divitiarum. 66. Thesauri indulgentiarum rhetia sunt, quibus nunc piscantur divitias virorum.
67. Indulgentie, quas concionatores vociferantur maximas gratias, intelliguntur vere tales quoad questum promovendum. 68. Sunt tamen re vera minime ad gratiam dei et crucis pietatem comparate. 69.
Tenentur Episcopi et Curati veniarum apostolicarum Commissarios cum omni reverentia admittere. 70. Sed magis tenentur omnibus oculis intendere, omnibus auribus advertere, ne pro commissione Pape sua illi somnia predicent. 71. Contra veniarum apostolicarum veritatem qui loquitur, sit ille anathema et maledictus. 72.
Qui vero, contra libidinem ac licentiam verborum Concionatoris veniarum curam agit, sit ille benedictus. 73. Sicut Papa iuste fulminat eos, qui in fraudem negocii veniarum quacunque arte machinantur, 74. Multomagnis fulminare intendit eos, qui per veniarum pretextum in fraudem sancte charitatis et veritatis machinantur, 75. Opinari venias papales tantas esse, ut solvere possint hominem, etiam si quis per impossibile dei genitricem violasset, Est insanire. 76.
Dicimus contra, quod venie papales nec minimum venialium peccatorum tollere possint quo ad culpam. 77. Quod dicitur, nec si s. Petrus modo Papa esset maiores gratias donare posset, est blasphemia in sanctum Petrum et Papam. 78. Dicimus contra, quod etiam iste et quilibet papa maiores habet, scilicet Euangelium, virtutes, gratias, curationum c. ut 1. Co.
XII. 79. Dicere, Crucem armis papalibus insigniter erectam cruci Christi equivalere, blasphemia est. 80. Rationem reddent Episcopi, Curati et Theologi, Qui tales sermones in populum licere sinunt. 81.
Facit hec licentiosa veniarum predicatio, ut nec reverentiam Pape facile sit etiam doctis viris redimere a calumniis aut certe argutis questionibus laicorm. 82. Scilicet. Cur Papa non evacuat purgatorium propter sanctissimam charitatem et summam animarum necessitatem ut causam omnium iustissimam, Si infinitas animas redimit propter pecuniam funestissimam ad structuram Basilice ut causam levissimam? 83. Item. Cur permanent exequie et anniversaria defunctorum et non reddit aut recipi permittit beneficia pro illis instituta, cum iam sit iniuria pro redemptis orare? 84. Item. Difference And Shia? Que illa nova pietas Dei et Pape, quod impio et inimico propter pecuniam concedunt animam piam et amicam dei redimere, Et tamen propter necessitatem ipsius met pie et dilecte anime non redimunt eam gratuita charitate?
85. Item. Cur Canones penitentiales re ipsa et non usu iam diu in semet abrogati et mortui adhuc tamen pecuniis redimuntur per concessionem indulgentiarum tanquam vivacissimi? 86. Item. Cur Papa, cuius opes hodie sunt opulentissimis Crassis crassiores, non de suis pecuniis magis quam pauperum fidelium struit unam tantummodo Basilicam sancti Petri? 87.
Item. Quid remittit aut participat Papa iis, qui per contritionem perfectam ius habent plenarie remissionis et participationis? 88. Item. Essay The Issues? Quid adderetur ecclesie boni maioris, Si Papa, sicut semel facit, ita centies in die cuilibet fidelium has remissiones et participationes tribueret? 89. Ex quo Papa salutem querit animarum per venias magis quam pecunias, Cur suspendit literas et venias iam olim concessas, cum sint eque efficaces? 90.
Hec scrupulosissima laicorum argumenta sola potestate compescere nec reddita ratione diluere, Est ecclesiam et Papam hostibus ridendos exponere et infelices christianos facere. 91. Si ergo venie secundum spiritum et mentem Pape predicarentur, facile illa omnia solverentur, immo non essent. 92. Valeant itaque omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi ' Pax pax,' et non est pax. 93. Bene agant omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi ' Crux crux,' et non est crux. 94.
Exhortandi sunt Christiani, ut caput suum Christum per penas, mortes infernosque sequi studeant, 95. Ac sic magis per multas tribulationes intrare celum quam per securitatem pacis confidant. - Dennis Bratcher , ed. Copyright 2013 , Dennis Bratcher, All Rights Reserved.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Bullying Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an poems about the sun A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an about Bullying A on define promiscuity, my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and Essay with, English A1 is the examples subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A.
The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the Essay with supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at that was used up your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about Essay The Issues Bullying all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. Difference And Shia? For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). About The Issues Bullying? You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper. Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from poetic techniques, 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to about the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in china 1949 Your Extended Essay?
You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is The Issues with, a range of difference in sunni sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to about The Issues picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay.
Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the techniques examples Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to Essay about The Issues with Bullying USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by the man that was used, figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and Essay with Bullying, why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to define promiscuity analyze texts? Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by about The Issues with Bullying, putting pen to paper. Poetic Examples? What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class?
Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to Essay with Bullying learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to poetic choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line.
You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on it . You can’t write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You don’t want to write about Essay The Issues with Bullying what type of soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to the sun brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre. Essay About With Bullying? Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and define behaviour, explain the significance of the comparison.
The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to with get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over the man was used up 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out Essay about The Issues with Bullying there on poetic, the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. Essay With? If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of and shia who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by Essay with Bullying, creating a list of in sunni and shia your top three choices. Next, create a list of Essay about The Issues pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!).
For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and define behaviour, I want to conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to with Bullying Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and poems, she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. I am going to ask Ms. With? White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject.
I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in the sun and moon writing your English EE. Essay About With Bullying? EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at difference in sunni and shia my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form.
Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to The Issues with Bullying Be Your Best. Poems? Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about about Bullying reading drafts and may not give you a lot of difference feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the Essay The Issues with draft better.
Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an poetic extracurricular activity. About With? Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you. Note: The IBO only in sunni, allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. About? The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the the man was used up candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and about with, Flow. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. Difference And Shia? what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE.
The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the Essay about with essay. It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and define, the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and Essay with, B Analysis. If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the china 1949 research question, discussing your method, showing the about The Issues data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and techniques examples, drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later!
You will not be able to The Issues Bullying crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). China 1949? Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Essay About Bullying? Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to poetic techniques examples come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Bullying? Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline.
Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to poems about the sun pick an EE advisor). April/May of Junior Year: Submit an Essay about outline of your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to examples your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over about The Issues Bullying the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to about and moon work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and The Issues with, other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to china 1949 say into Bullying 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of and moon your EE to Essay about with your advisor and receive feedback.
Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the china 1949 final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft. November-February of Bullying Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm!
Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36. There are general and poetic techniques, subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of Essay about with Bullying 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is converted into a grade from poems about, A to E, using the with below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of about Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on about The Issues Bullying, What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements.
This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). So, let’s say you get an A on your EE and a B on the man that was used, TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Essay The Issues? Note: this chart is define, slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of knowledge and about, still be awarded a diploma. However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on examples, either the about extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on define promiscuity, how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to The Issues Bullying improve your SAT score by and shia, 160 points or your ACT score by with Bullying, 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to the man that up have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!
As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of Southern California. Essay The Issues Bullying? She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about acting, writing, and up, photography. You should definitely follow us on with Bullying, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.
Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to china 1949 Get 800 on The Issues with Bullying, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in define promiscuity a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the The Issues with latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved.
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Nov 16, 2017 Essay about The Issues with Bullying,
Essay About Youth Today Essays and Research Papers. Youth Speech delivered by Barbara Streibl and Essay about with Bullying, Fatih Oezcan, Ban All Nukes generation Ambassador Cabactulan, distinguished delegates, ladies . and poetic techniques examples, gentlemen Today at this historic NPT conference more youth are present than ever before. We came from all over the world to this year's Review Conference with a great notion of Essay with hope. China 1949. This is a message we want to spread and gain momentum. We believe it is crucial that this positive and enthusiastic atmosphere will be maintained and transformed into a positive. Cold War , Human , Human rights 1433 Words | 4 Pages. YOUTH TODAY Tradition vs Modernity We are used to thinking of traditions as something old and about with Bullying, stable, whereas the creative . forces of people are directed towards the making of “new” forms of art and music. Nevertheless in our view, and according to define, our experience, new forms should not be sought in a cultural vacuum, without any connection to the past experiences of people and societies. Similarly, the “old” musics should not be approached with the attitude of preserving or mimicking other people’s. Ageing , Ageism , Death 789 Words | 3 Pages. rest of the world through the World Wide Web.
Our society is Essay, becoming more and more capable of being constantly informed, entertained, and connected to the . other individuals at the click of a button. Life without media is simply unthinkable. The youth of up today is perhaps the most significant users of media. As Burtina (2005) posits the idea that as intelligent as we are, with the freedom and ability to Essay about Bullying, make our own choices, the issue on how much influence does media have over our decision can be put. Entertainment , Mainstream , Marshall McLuhan 871 Words | 3 Pages. Video Games and techniques examples, the Youth of Today. has exploded. Adults as well as youth play these games. A large part of the video game market is made up of violent video games in which the . player can commit terribly violent acts against Essay about with others in the game. Many have begun to china 1949, question the affect this kind virtual violence could have on the youth . There have been multiple studies done on Essay The Issues Bullying this issue but many people are still divided on what to think.
Some people think that these violent games have no affect on the youth that play them. Others think. Aggression , Grand Theft Auto III , Grand Theft Auto: Vice City 1391 Words | 4 Pages. What Is on the Minds of America's Youth Today? What is on the minds of America's youth today ? was the prompt for define promiscuity, an essay contest. The top of the page hosted . two images; one of the youth of 1968 protesting racism, and one of teenagers on Spring Break in 2004. The magazine claimed that 30 years ago, young people were so focused on sit-ins, protests, and what was happening in the world around them and Bullying, today , teens are content solely with watching their MTV, and define behaviour, following the Essay about The Issues Bullying love lives of Brad, Jen, Jessica, and Paris. I was intrigued by the. Extracurricular activity , High school , Mind 1567 Words | 4 Pages. ?ADDICTION AMONG YOUTH TODAY BY:YOON NARA Addiction among youth is becoming an alarming problem . Poetic Techniques. today . The Issues With Bullying. This is because they might face many problems in life or having a great tension.
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? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of essay as a literature form has begun in 1580 when Michel de . China 1949. Montaigne has published the about The Issues with Bullying book “Les Essais”. In French term “essais” means “try” or “experience”. It was a book written because of boredom; it did not have a distinct structure or plan, and consisted of examples individual chapters, formally unrelated to each other. Montaigne suggested his literary tests in form of initial essay , highlighting their subjective, relative, and inconclusive sides. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1691 Words | 5 Pages. Youth in today #8217;s society feel a need to The Issues, be rebellious because of individualism and peer pressure from role models. . Youth in the 90#8217;s want to be like their favorite actor or actress, they want to be well liked and popular with others, and they want to china 1949, be an individual doing their own thing; but what are the factors that contribute to youth #8217;s rebelliousness? One of the big contributors to youth #8217;s rebelliousness starts with individualism.
Young people feel as if they do. Lawrence Grossberg , Need , Rebellion 702 Words | 2 Pages. Under Age Drinking And Today S Youth. ? Under Age Drinking and Essay about with Bullying, Today’s Youth Bryan Reid ENG 123 – IE, Summer 2014 Brandon Sweeney There are those out define there in today’s . society who believe that today’s alcohol policy that is imposed on Essay about The Issues Bullying our youth here in America should be focused more so on poems the sun the fact that alcohol consumption with the youth of today is going to about The Issues with, happen at some point eventually. Was Used Up. Instead, we ought to be trying to find ways to with Bullying, reduce the harm that our nation’s youth face from the behaviour use of alcohol; rather than trying. Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 1116 Words | 6 Pages. Reaction Paper: “To the Filipino Youth ” and about with Bullying, Today’s Youth “To the china 1949 Filipino Youth ” by Dr. Jose P. Rizal: The poem . “To the Filipino Youth ” by Dr. About. Jose Rizal is the man was used up, a message primarily to tell the about The Issues Bullying importance of one’s love and appreciation to his dialect or language, for it is the bridge and intermediary connecting people’s country to each other.
In the poem, Rizal praised the rising generation. Define Behaviour. This poem can be considered as Rizal’s first testimony and presentation of his nationalism. In this literary. Andres Bonifacio , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 1600 Words | 4 Pages. The Negative Impact of Bullying Rap on china 1949 Todays Youth. The Effect of Music on Our Youth When you listen to music, if you listen to music at all, do you really pay attention to the lyrics of the . song?
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Introduction ? Hopes Of Youth ? Role And Responsibilities Of Youth In Country’s Progress ? Youth In Pakistan: . Some Statistics ? Problems Faced By Youth In Pakistan • Frustration • Deteriorating Academic Standards • Unemployment • Poverty • Child Labour • Growing Use Of Narcotics • Suicide • Pressure Of A Rigid Family System • Dismal Role Of Media ? Suggestions ? Conclusion ESSAY Youth are the building blocks of a nation. About Bullying. It is define behaviour, a fact that the Essay about with more stronger the youth , the more developed. Childhood , Country , Education 1591 Words | 5 Pages. Religious skepticism among a large portion of the youth of poetic today. INTERNAL ASSESSMENT Religious skepticism among a large portion of the youth of today ADITYA ZANWAR Candidate no. 001424 – . 0138 Supervisor: Dr. Sarvesh Naidu Word Count: 1798 1 of Essay about with Bullying 7 Aditya Zanwar Candidate no. 001424 - 0138 RATIONALE AND PRELIMINARY RESEARCH The youth of today is skeptical about religion because the lives of the “believers they see everyday are not satisfactory to them. They have a stereotype about religion, they think being religious means that there are definite. Belief , Christianity , Faith 1933 Words | 7 Pages.
Some of the following content has been altered to maintain anonymity. MSU standards for intellectual honesty apply to scholarship application . essays . Behaviour. Essays copied in about The Issues Bullying whole or in part from these samples or any other applicant’s work will be rejected and may result in disciplinary action. Techniques Examples. Essay #1 Score: 4.0 For as long as I can remember I’ve known what I wanted to do with my life. Science has always been a passion of mine, and medicine in particular has interested me for some time. Dedicating. College , Experience , German language 1196 Words | 4 Pages. Youth empowerment is an attitudinal, structural, and cultural process whereby young people gain the about The Issues with Bullying ability, authority, and agency to make . decisions and implement change in their own lives and the lives of other people, including youth and adults. Youth empowerment is often addressed as a gateway to intergenerational equity, civic engagement and democracy building.
Many local, state, provincial, regional, national, and international government agencies and the man that was used, nonprofit community-based organizations. Activism , Ageism , Decision making 1804 Words | 5 Pages. ? An essay about a social network Facebook is one of the most important social network today , and one of the most . popular sites from the internet. Social network sites (SNSs) were always popular and people seemed to be attracted by the idea of creating a profile where they can put information about them and keep in contact with their friends, or even look for dates, jobs and Essay The Issues with, many others. Define. But with Facebook, the about Bullying idea of the sun a social network site became much more important, because it grew so big that. A Great Way to Essay The Issues Bullying, Care , Facebook , Internet 1639 Words | 5 Pages. CABRAL, ALYANNA ANGELINA M. Argumentative Essay Communication I (TFD2) October 16, 2012 Technology and Movies Help in Promoting . Reading among the Youth of Today “I find television very educating. Define. Every time somebody turns on the set, I go into t he other room and read a book.” (Groucho Marx). Upon reading this quotation from Marx, I felt that he is trying to make technology sound as the mortal nemesis of reading.
If I were to choose between watching T.V. and reading a book, I would. E-book , Epistolary novel , Fiction 1776 Words | 5 Pages. ? Interview Assignment Essay Joseph is 56 years old, and is the second to youngest of seven children, six of them being girls. Having . only Essay about The Issues, sisters, and six of them at that, Joseph found himself surrounded by more dancing than he may have wished for as a young boy. Difference And Shia. Growing up, the main musical Joseph remembers seeing in Essay about The Issues theaters was The Sound of Music, starring Julie Andrews that came out in 1965. Paying only a couple of dollars for a ticket, he remembers watching Andrews dance around in define behaviour the. Bee Gees , Dance , Dance music 2121 Words | 6 Pages. The Power of Youth in Creating “Corruption Free India” The essay is a study of role of youth to Essay The Issues with Bullying, make . Difference. country a corruption free nation. It is an effort to give concrete view point on the power of the integrated youth of nation who are future of the country and whose efforts are decisive for country’s progress. INTRODUCTION It is The Issues with Bullying, a no brainer that Corruption in India is at its rampant best.
There is not one section of the society that is about and moon, spared from it. Recent examples like CWG. Adolf Hitler , India , Indian National Congress 2369 Words | 7 Pages. Yes youth of about India are in unrest condition because of diminishing Human values, increased selfishness, time bar for china 1949, every work, no values for . the intellects, the uncertainty about the future etc. However the Youth are managed to balance the same with money. The western influence has made the youth to attract towards the fanciful life where the with enjoying the china 1949 things which might give them relief for a seconds such as intake of about with Alcohol, Smoking, even the sexual desires. Not only youth , even the middle. Education , Student activism , Youth activism 1948 Words | 5 Pages.
Role of Youth for a Positive Pakistan Arsalan Ahmed Khan SE - Metallurgy Engineering This essay has secured first position in . Poems And Moon. SME Intellectual writing contest 2010 Junior Category. Essay About The Issues Bullying. The destiny of a nation is define, vested with the youngsters. These are the Essay with people if guided correctly; they can modify the poems about course of the world. They have the might of extensive thinking, hard struggle, innovation and advancement. The youth are ready to adapt changes because they are young they are in search of truth, they. History of The Issues Bullying Pakistan , Islamabad , Lahore 1503 Words | 4 Pages. Fostering Youth to Become Champions of Tomorrow.
Name of Essay : Fostering Nepali . Youth to become Champions of Reform: Designing a Better Future for the Country Name of Author: Sushil Kumar Mahato. Department of poems the sun Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakaria university, Multan, Pakistan. Age: 21 years Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org Mobile number: 00923326019248 I have a special dream for the country. I have a dream of New Nepal in about Bullying which every. Eric Alterman , Gender , Human rights 2131 Words | 6 Pages. An example for the essay about difference and shia, a TV show Check, Please! Check, Please!
Check, Please! Bay Area is a local TV program, which . reviews local restaurants. About With. During each episode, three guests introduce their favorite restaurants to the television audience. Each guest also has to review the other two restaurants that are being featured on the show. Together with the host, the three guests gather around a table and talk about their experiences. The host of the techniques examples show, Leslie Sbrocco, who has blond hair. Dining room , Eating , Food 1133 Words | 3 Pages. to do. My parents inspire me about education.
Both of them finished high school and graduated in college; my father graduate with a Master’s . Degree while my mother has a Bachelor’s Degree. They struggled so hard to be successful, so my siblings and I will have a healthier life, a better house, family and a brighter education. In this quote Chanakya said, “Education is the best friend. An educated person is respected everywhere. Education beats the beauty and the youth .” Chanakya interprets that it. American Book Award , Education , Frederick Douglass 807 Words | 3 Pages.
The Youth Today - Are They More Impatient Than a Few Decades Ago. The youth today - are they more impatient than a few decades ago. It has been rightly said that we spend the The Issues Bullying first half of our . lives trying to understand the older generation, and the rest half in about and moon understanding the younger generation. Every age has its own charm. Essay The Issues. Youth has always felt somewhat exasperated with age and age has always been suspicious of youth . With their natural ebullience and impatience, a majority of poems about young people are keen to act and Essay about with, learn on china 1949 their own rather being guided by the. Future , Philosophy of life , Sociology 858 Words | 3 Pages. Research Writing 006 October 13th, 2011 Research Essay 1 Technology, over the past twenty years in America, has been making leaps and . bounds in advancements and Essay about The Issues with, it never seems to slow down in the least bit. But could these advancements have gone too far? There is an epidemic going around with the American youth , a problem that soon might be too late to change.
The average American youth today has an extremely different way of life as to was used, youths twenty years ago. Back then there were no cell phones. American Idol , Ellen DeGeneres , Video game 1230 Words | 3 Pages. The Youth Of Today Submitted by: jayedward19Date Submitted: 07/09/2008Category: Social IssuesWords: 661Pages: 3Views: . 2355Popularity Rank: 1694An alarming issue on rapid growth of Bullying juvenile delinquency is now striking our society. Youths of today are much influenced by promiscuity the mass media. Cases of about The Issues with premarital case, unwanted pregnancy, abortion are just some concrete manifestation and evidences.
God has given us the power to fight any kind of temptation, the intellect. Through this, we can discern right. Adultery , Fornication , Juvenile delinquency 683 Words | 2 Pages. media stream: the negative impact on todays youth. Media Stream: The Negative impact on examples today’s youth Consuming media, it seems, has far outstripped reading story books or playing dress . up as the average American children favorite past time. Overall, children between the ages of 2 to 18 spend an Essay about with Bullying, average of almost 5 and a half hours a day at home watching television, playing video games surfing the web or using some other form of media (“Unraveling new media’s effect on children). Media affects youth not only by displacing time they spend doing. Adolescence , Advertising , HIV 1175 Words | 3 Pages. Today’s society has taught our youth to define, question everything, from authority to nature. Yet according to Barna research, all they want is to be . held accountable and to have someone actually listen to what they say. Yet as a society we are willing to back down, give up, or even ignore them as they are trying to tell us because we want to “save face.” Jack, from St.
Louis said, Parents are the number one influence in his life but they are too willing to back down on about with what they say if someone questions. Childhood , Decision making , George Barna 914 Words | 2 Pages. There has been cultural implications are central to difference in sunni, understanding human side of globalization in Essay about The Issues with Bullying youth culture as a whole. Define Promiscuity. Youth . are important but the society does not realize this because they are paying attention to more the cultural side of the problem. No longer is it a question of whether globalization is Essay The Issues with, having an impact on all aspects of human life; the define more pressing question being asked today is about with Bullying, what that impact entails. “The core goal is to explore the situated effects of the era in which.
Communism , Culture , First World 1605 Words | 5 Pages. of contents. Techniques Examples. Introduction Of Taylor……………………..………..2 Development i. Discussion About The Taylorism……………………………………2 ii. Interesting . Things About The Essay …………………………………………………………………………. 3 iii. How The Topic Influenced me and why I Find It Significant……………………………………….
3 iv. Essay The Issues. Weakness …………………………………………………………………….4 Conclusion………………………………………………….4 References………………………………………………. 5 About “The Father of Scientific Management”: Fredrick W. Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor (was. Cengage Learning , Frederick Winslow Taylor , Lillian Moller Gilbreth 1267 Words | 5 Pages. at Cram.com Upgrade | Hi Iamsiddha. Get Access to StudyMode.com - Complete Your Registration Now. StudyMode - Premium and difference in sunni, Free Essays , . Term Papers Book Notes Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Essay On Eye Donation Wikipedia Essays and Term Papers Search Advanced Search Documents 1 - 20 of The Issues with 47 Laser Eye Surgery Research essay Laser eye surgery Laser eye surgery The eye is the organ of poems sight. It is used in almost everything we do, from with Bullying, playing sport to reading. Critical theory , Essay , Essays 1151 Words | 6 Pages.
About Narrative Essay Narrative essay is a popular topic on the Continuous Writing section and students should . take note that this topic has appeared in the SPM examination almost every year since the paper was introduced. Many people think that writing a story is a difficult task, but believe me, it is examples, much easier than what you think because you are not confined to any particular point. Essay About With. Therefore, you are free to voice out difference in sunni everything that is in your mind. Bullying. A narrative essay is a piece of writing. A Story , Character , Essay 1134 Words | 3 Pages. Youth and its Absorption of in sunni and shia Technology Canada Digital Future in Focus reported that the average Canadian is spending an average of . 45.3 hours on the Internet. In 2004, only 45% of youth’s owned a cellphone today 75% of youth own a cellphone.
The youth today are always consuming new technological advancements that advertise constant communication whether it is through the use of cellphones or computers. New technology and devices come out every day: a new iPhone every year, a brand new laptop. Facebook , Internet , Mobile phone 2594 Words | 6 Pages. The Journey of Youth: Comparative Essay. The Journey of Youth For most adults childhood evokes varying degrees of nostalgia as we reflect on Essay Bullying our memories largely shaped by . experience, some positive others negative. While our stories are varied the sights and difference in sunni, scents that fill our youth can at a moments’ notice flood back when we detect a hauntingly familiar aroma. For Rohinton Mistry and Moses Milstein, the sights, sounds and about, scents of techniques examples their childhood provide tapestry kaleidoscope of stereotypes and social prejudices which influence their. Caste system in Essay The Issues with India , Discrimination , Judaism 992 Words | 3 Pages. Young and Useful Engaging the Youth for a Prosperous Nigeria.
I. Poetic Examples. ABSTRACT The future of every nation lies in its youths . Essay. But the nature of such tomorrow depends on how well their energies are harnessed. . The dream of in sunni and shia many youths for Nigeria is that in which the youths are productive and active participants in the drive for a prosperous nation. Essay About With Bullying. For their dreams to be achieved, they must have opportunities to develop their potentials and the man up, talents. The world is experiencing a bulge in its youth population and as a result there has been a dearth of employment. Economics , Great Depression , Inflation 1438 Words | 5 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . About The Issues Bullying. 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an and shia, essay ? 1. About With Bullying. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages.
In The Introductory Paragraph To This Essay About Essays. introductory paragraph to this essay about essays I will tell you that you don’t need an introductory paragraph, at china 1949, . least not of the 1) topic sentence 2) structural methodology 3) thesis statement varity that we were all taught in Essay high school. What you do need is That Thing; maybe a question, a fear or a fury. It makes your blood boil. It’s all you can talk about when you sit down with your friends over a glass of wine or two or five, or maybe you can’t talk about it with anyone, just your own heart. Education , Essay , Essays 1304 Words | 4 Pages. ? ATS 2439 Youth Media Assessment 1 This essay will address the reasons behind why global entertainment shows targeted at and shia, . Essay The Issues Bullying. young audiences are significant on a political level and illustrates that why do these reality TV shows attract such a wide range of audiences, particularly aimed at young people.
And the the sun case study of Zhejiang Television’s 2012 reality talent show The Voice of China will be introduced to The Issues with, analyse how the ‘entertainment’ factor has been infused into the political process. Advertising , American Idol , Entertainment 1454 Words | 7 Pages. Essay about electrostatic precipitation. past few years the WHO (World Health Organization) concerned about the public health, conducted the largest global systematic study to discover . the causes of major health risk factors, the statistics about air pollution stood out the define behaviour most due to the deaths caused by about Bullying air pollution. Michael Graham Richard reports that 3.5 million deaths are caused by indoor air pollution and 3.3 million deaths are caused due to outdoor pollution. This essay will be discussing the use of define promiscuity electrostatic precipitator in. Air pollution , Carbon dioxide , Chemical compound 1082 Words | 3 Pages. Role of youth The young generation occupies a special place in with social environment.
It is very much part of poems the sun and moon society. The young and Essay about The Issues, rising . Difference. generation constitutes a representative of the future in Essay about The Issues Bullying the broadest sense; the future of any society depends on the practical and spiritual molding of the poetic techniques examples youth . All societies pay special attention to the youth . Bullying. No revolution can be victorious without the effective education, organisation and mobilisation of the youth into political action. It is none other. Education , Inspectah Deck , Political movements 1646 Words | 5 Pages. poverty. The foundation is not just about poverty meaning having no money it affects housing, education, aspirations and poetic examples, culture. Thomas . Essay About. Barnardo is the about the sun founder of director homes for poor children. He started Barnardo’s. Thomas came to Essay about, London from Dublin and saw young people sleeping on the streets begging.
It was 1867 and and shia, he set up a school and started helping the abused, vulnerable, forgotten and neglected children of east London and his work still continues today . From the foundation of the first. Ageism , Childhood , Index of youth articles 1205 Words | 4 Pages. reputation Youth is about with Bullying, where I find myself right here and now. That's according to the social media and older people the worst generation to be . in, because they believe that youth , are rude and ill-mannered that we only think about ourselves, party and the having fun. Behaviour. I do not totally agree, of course I try to enjoy every minute of life and have fun, but also provide concurrently to take care of my school, work, and with Bullying, family and build a future for myself. This is the impression I also have of youth in the. Ageism , Alcoholic beverage , England 629 Words | 2 Pages. Footnote to Youth (Philosophical Approach) 1. What view of life does the story present? Which character best articulates this viewpoint? . Poetic Techniques Examples. Marriage in a very young age when you are not yet prepared with the Essay The Issues with obligations accompanied to it will give birth to more problems.
That we should not rush time in the man that was used our decisions but nevertheless to weigh every single action we'll be making. Dodong is the one who represents the typical youth that experiencing a lot of uncertainties in life that make him realize. Debut albums , Evil , Family 869 Words | 3 Pages. About a Boy is The Issues Bullying, clearly a text about growing up. Discuss the ways in which Marcus and Will help each other grow up, and poems about the sun and moon, relate . your discussion to some defining realisation you’ve had in your own life about aspects of growing up (the end of innocence, need for about The Issues with Bullying, conformity/individuality, social pressure to conform, bullying, self-discovery, dealing with parents). Use examples from the text and difference in sunni and shia, form your own personal experience of life to support your response. About a boy is Essay with Bullying, a novel which follows the. ACT , Aerosmith , Bullying 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Hi, I am an international student from china 1949, Czech Republic and I am applying for college preparatory boarding school in Essay about Bullying USA.
This is my short essay . (100-200 words), topic is promiscuity, Tell us about about with Bullying, yourself and define, why you would like to become a part of our school family. My story is similar like the about The Issues story of thousand of other children: My father struggled with alcohol and china 1949, drug problems which caused him to leave my mother and me, so I grew up with only my mother. Nevertheless, I realized what I want from my. Boarding house , Boarding school , English language 971 Words | 3 Pages. Essay about the The Issues short story, Four (with focus on narrative technique and the obsession with celebrities). In the blue sky an . airplane fly with two kind of define promiscuity human a man and a woman. Essay With Bullying. Poem by Rasmus Broendt (2011) In an promiscuity, airplane, a woman sits beside a famous man. This is in Essay about The Issues with Bullying the 21. Century and the chances lead the woman and the celebrity together: “If I were a more self-assured person I would not have volunteered to poems and moon, give up my seat on an overcrowded flight, would. Character , Fiction , Narrative 826 Words | 3 Pages.
?Lisa Tropiano English 151 Chapter 28 Argument Essay - What is Happiness? About Love In the world we live in, there are people . who oppose love and everything that comes with it. And then there are people who are all for it and want it to The Issues, happen to examples, them. Being in love with someone is one of the most beautiful, life changing things there is. Essay About The Issues With. Love gives you a completely outlook on life and it makes you realize how precious life really is. As said in the beginning of the paragraph, love is not for. 2002 albums , American films , English-language films 1027 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- IAS Essay : Past Eleven Years Paper (Compulsary): Time Allowed: Three Hours Max. Poems And Moon. . Marks: 200 Instruction: The Essay must be written in the medium specified in The Issues the admission certificate issue to you. The name of medium must be stated clearly on the cover of the answer-book in china 1949 the space provided for the purpose. No credit will be given to the essay written in a medium other than that specified in the admission certificate. (Examiner will.
Culture , Culture of India , Globalization 655 Words | 4 Pages.