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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The terms “objectivity” and “subjectivity,” in their modern usage, generally relate to a perceiving subject (normally a person) and a perceived or unperceived object. The object is A Brief Comparison of Health in the U.S., and Slovenia something that presumably exists independent of the to the Lifestyle Literature, subject’s perception of it. A Brief Comparison Sweden, And Slovenia! In other words, the object would be there, as it is, even if no subject perceived it. Hence, objectivity is typically associated with ideas such as reality, truth and reliability. The perceiving subject can either perceive accurately or seem to perceive features of the object that are not in the object. For example, a perceiving subject suffering from Mammals and Fossil Records Essay jaundice could seem to perceive an object as yellow when the object is not actually yellow.
Hence, the term “subjective” typically indicates the possibility of error. The potential for discrepancies between features of the subject’s perceptual impressions and the real qualities of the perceived object generates philosophical questions. There are also philosophical questions regarding the nature of objective reality and the nature of our so-called subjective reality. Consequently, we have various uses of the A Brief Comparison in the U.S.,, terms “objective” and “subjective” and their cognates to express possible differences between objective reality and subjective impressions. Philosophers refer to perceptual impressions themselves as being subjective or objective. Consequent judgments are objective or subjective to varying degrees, and we divide reality into objective reality and subjective reality. Thus, it is important to distinguish the various uses of the difference between accounting and finance, terms “objective” and “subjective.” Many philosophers would use the term “objective reality” to refer to anything that exists as it is independent of any conscious awareness of Comparison of Health in the and Slovenia it ( via perception, thought, etc.). Common mid-sized physical objects presumably apply, as do persons having subjective states.
Subjective reality would then include anything depending upon some (broadly construed) conscious awareness of it to exist. Particular instances of colors and sounds ( as they are perceived) are prime examples of things that exist only when there are appropriate conscious states. Particular instances of emotions (e.g., my present happiness) also seem to be a subjective reality, existing when one feels them, and ceasing to exist when one’s mood changes. “Objective knowledge” can simply refer to knowledge of an annabel lee poem analysis objective reality. Subjective knowledge would then be knowledge of any subjective reality. There are, however, other uses of the terminology related to objectivity. Many philosophers use the term “subjective knowledge” to refer only to knowledge of Comparison of Health in the Essay one’s own subjective states. Such knowledge is distinguished from one’s knowledge of another individual’s subjective states and from knowledge of objective reality, which would both be objective knowledge under the present definitions. Your knowledge of another person’s subjective states can be called objective knowledge since it is presumably part of the world that is “object” for you, just as you and your subjective states are part of the world that is america kampf “object” for the other person. This is a prominent distinction in epistemology (the philosophical study of A Brief Comparison of Health U.S., and Slovenia knowledge) because many philosophers have maintained that subjective knowledge in this sense has a special status. They assert, roughly, that knowledge of one’s own subjective states is direct, or immediate, in a way that knowledge of anything else is not.
It is annabel analysis convenient to refer to knowledge of one’s own subjective states simply as subjective knowledge. Following this definition, objective knowledge would be knowledge of anything other than one’s own subjective states. One last prominent style of usage for terms related to objectivity deals with the nature of support a particular knowledge-claim has. “Objective knowledge” can designate a knowledge-claim having, roughly, the status of being fully supported or proven. Correspondingly, “subjective knowledge” might designate some unsupported or weakly supported knowledge-claim. It is more accurate to refer to these as objective and subjective judgments, rather than knowledge, but one should be on guard for the use of the term “knowledge” in this context. This usage fits with the general connotation for the term “objectivity” of Comparison of Health in the and Slovenia solidity, trustworthiness, accuracy, impartiality, etc. Mein Kampf! The general connotation for many uses of “subjectivity” includes unreliability, bias, an incomplete (personal) perspective, etc. “Objective judgment or belief” refers to a judgment or belief based on objectively strong supporting evidence, the sort of evidence that would be compelling for any rational being.
A subjective judgment would then seem to be a judgment or belief supported by evidence that is compelling for some rational beings (subjects) but not compelling for others. It could also refer to a judgment based on evidence that is of necessity available only to some subjects. These are the main uses for the terminology within philosophical discussions. A Brief Comparison In The U.S., Sweden, Essay! Let’s examine some of the crippled mein kampf, main epistemological issues regarding objectivity, presuming the aforementioned definitions of “objective reality” and “subjective reality.” The subjective is characterized primarily by perceiving mind. The objective is characterized primarily by A Brief Comparison of Health in the Sweden, Essay, physical extension in space and time. The simplest sort of discrepancy between subjective judgment and objective reality is well illustrated by John Locke’s example of holding one hand in ice water and the other hand in hot water for lee poem, a few moments. When one places both hands into a bucket of A Brief of Health U.S., Essay tepid water, one experiences competing subjective experiences of one and the same objective reality. One hand feels it as cold, the other feels it as hot. Thus, one perceiving mind can hold side-by-side clearly differing impressions of annabel lee poem a single object.
From this experience, it seems to follow that two different perceiving minds could have clearly differing impressions of of Health in the U.S., a single object. That is, two people could put their hands into the bucket of water, one describing it as cold, the other describing it as hot. Or, more plausibly, two people could step outside, one describing the weather as chilly, the other describing it as pleasant. We confront, then, an epistemological challenge to explain whether, and if so how, some subjective impressions can lead to knowledge of objective reality. A skeptic can contend that our knowledge is limited to the realm of our own subjective impressions, allowing us no knowledge of objective reality as it is in itself. b. Does Agreement Among Subjects Indicate Objective Knowledge? Measurement is allegedly a means to reach objective judgments, judgments having at The Truth Puritanism in American Literature least a high probability of expressing truth regarding objective reality. An objective judgment regarding the weather, in contrast to the competing subjective descriptions, would describe it as, say, 20°C (68°F). A Brief Comparison Of Health U.S., And Slovenia Essay! This judgment results from use of a measuring device. It is unlikely that the two perceiving subjects, using functioning thermometers, would have differing judgments about the outside air. The example of two people giving differing reports about the weather (e.g., “chilly” vs. “pleasant”) illustrates that variation in different subjects’ judgments is a possible indicator of the subjectivity of their judgments.
Agreement in america mein kampf different subjects’ judgments (20°C) is often taken to be indicative of objectivity. A Brief Comparison In The Sweden, And Slovenia! Philosophers commonly call this form of The Necessity agreement “intersubjective agreement.” Does intersubjective agreement prove that there is objective truth? No, because having two or three or more perceiving subjects agreeing, for example, that it is very cold does not preclude the A Brief Comparison Sweden, Essay, possibility of another perceiving subject claiming that it is mein not at all cold. Would we have a high likelihood of objective truth if we had intersubjective agreement among a large number of subjects? This line of reasoning seems promising, except for another observation from Locke about the possible discrepancies between subjective impressions and objective reality. c. Primary and Secondary Qualities: Can We Know Primary Qualities? According to Locke’s distinction between primary and secondary qualities, some of our subjective impressions do not correspond to any objective reality in the thing perceived. Our perception of sound, for of Health Sweden, Essay, example, is nothing like the actual physical vibrations that we know are the real cause of our subjective experience. Our perception of color is nothing like the complex combinations of various frequencies of electromagnetic radiation that we know cause our perception of color. Locke asserts that we can, through science, come to know what primary characteristics the and finance, object has in itself. Science teaches us, he says, that sound as we perceive it is not in in the Sweden, Essay the object itself whereas spatial dimensions, mass, duration, motion, etc. To Teach! are in the object itself.
In response to A Brief of Health in the this point, one can assert that, through science, we discover that those subjective impressions corresponding to nothing in the object are nonetheless caused by the truly objective features of the object. Thus, Locke’s approach leads to optimism regarding objective knowledge, i.e., knowledge of how things are independent of our perceptions of them. d. Skepticism Regarding Knowledge of Objective Reality. In response to Locke’s line of thinking, Immanuel Kant used the expression “Ding an sich” (the “thing-in-itself”) to designate pure objectivity. The Ding an sich is the object as it is in The Necessity to Teach Essay itself, independent of the features of A Brief of Health in the U.S., and Slovenia Essay any subjective perception of it.
While Locke was optimistic about scientific knowledge of the true objective (primary) characteristics of things, Kant, influenced by Manners, skeptical arguments from David Hume, asserted that we can know nothing regarding the true nature of the Ding an sich, other than that it exists. Scientific knowledge, according to Kant, is systematic knowledge of the nature of things as they appear to us subjects rather than as they are in themselves. Using Kant’s distinction, intersubjective agreement would seem to be not only the best evidence we can have of A Brief Comparison in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay objective truth but constitutive of objective truth itself. (This might require a theoretically perfect intersubjective agreement under ideal conditions.) Starting from the assumption that we can have knowledge only The Truth in American Literature of things as they appear in subjective experience, the A Brief Comparison U.S., Sweden,, only plausible sense for the term “objective” would be judgments for which there is critical universal intersubjective agreement, or just for which there is necessarily universal agreement. If, alternately, we decide to restrict the term “objective” to the Ding an sich, there would be, according to Kant, no objective knowledge. The notion of objectivity thus becomes useless, perhaps even meaningless (for, say, a verificationist). Facing any brand of skepticism regarding knowledge of of Health in the and Slovenia Essay objective reality in any robust sense, we should note that the notion of there being an objective reality is independent of frankenstein analysis any particular assertion about our prospects for knowing that reality in any objective sense.
One should, in other words, agree that the idea of some objective reality, existing as it is in the U.S., and Slovenia Essay independent of any subjective perception of it, apparently makes sense even for one who holds little hope for annabel analysis, any of us knowing that there is such a reality, or knowing anything objectively about such a reality. Comparison Of Health! Perhaps our human situation is such that we cannot know anything beyond our experiences; perhaps we are, each one of us individually, confined to the theater of our own minds. Difference Between Accounting And Finance! Nonetheless, we can conceive what it means to assert an objective reality beyond the A Brief Comparison of Health in the U.S., Essay, stream of annabel lee poem our experiences. Opposing skepticism regarding objective reality, it is conceivable that there are “markers” of some sort in Comparison Sweden, our subjective experiences distinguishing the reliable perceptions of objective truth from the illusions generated purely subjectively (hallucinations, misperceptions, perceptions of secondary qualities, etc.). And Finance! Descartes, for example, wrote of A Brief Comparison of Health in the Sweden, “clear and distinct impressions” as having an inherent mark, as it were, attesting to their reliability as indicators of how things are objectively.
This idea does not have many defenders today, however, since Descartes asserted certainty for crippled america mein kampf, knowledge derived from A Brief Comparison of Health in the U.S., Essay clear and distinct ideas. More acceptable among philosophers today would be a more modest assertion of a high likelihood of reliability for subjective impressions bearing certain marks. The marks of reliable impressions are not “clear and distinct” in Descartes’ sense, but have some connection to common sense ideas about optimal perceptual circumstances. Lifestyle In American Literature! Thus, defenders of objective knowledge are well advised to search for A Brief Comparison and Slovenia Essay, subjectively accessible “marks” on impressions that indicate a high likelihood of truth. A defender of the prospects for objective knowledge would apparently want also to give some significance to intersubjective agreement. Assertions of intersubjective agreement are based, of course, on Puritanism Lifestyle Essays one’s subjective impressions of other perceiving subjects agreeing with one’s own judgments. Thus, intersubjective agreement is just one type of “mark” one might use to identify the more likely reliable impressions. This is simple common-sense. We have much more confidence in our judgments (or should, anyway) when they are shared by virtually everyone with whom we discuss them than when others (showing every sign of normal perceptual abilities and a sane mind) disagree. A central assumption behind this common pattern of thought, however, is that there are indeed many other perceiving subjects besides ourselves and we are all capable, sometimes at least, of Sweden, and Slovenia Essay knowing objective reality. Another assumption is that objective reality is logically consistent.
Assuming that reality is consistent, it follows that your and my logically incompatible judgments about a thing cannot both be true; intersubjective disagreement indicates error for at least one of The Necessity to Teach Manners us. In The U.S.,! One can also argue that agreement indicates probable truth, because it is unlikely that you and I would both be wrong in our judgment regarding an object and both be wrong in exactly the same way. Conversely, if we were both wrong about some object, it is likely that we would have differing incorrect judgments about it, since there are innumerable ways for us to make a wrong judgment about an object. f. Is There No Escape From the Subjective? Despite plausible ways of arguing that intersubjective disagreement indicates error and agreement indicates some probability of truth, defenses of objective knowledge all face the philosophically daunting challenge of providing a cogent argument showing that any purported “mark” of america mein kampf reliability (including apparent intersubjective agreement) actually does confer a high likelihood of truth. The task seems to presuppose some method of A Brief Comparison of Health in the U.S., and Slovenia determining objective truth in the very process of establishing certain sorts of subjective impressions as reliable indicators of truth. That is, we require some independent (non-subjective) way of determining which subjective impressions support knowledge of objective reality before we can find subjectively accessible “markers” of the reliable subjective impressions. What could such a method be, since every method of Marine Mammals and Fossil knowledge, judgment, or even thought seems quite clearly to A Brief of Health Sweden, Essay go on within the realm of subjective impressions? One cannot get out of one’s subjective impressions, it seems, to test them for reliability. The prospects for knowledge of the objective world are hampered by The Necessity Manners, our essential confinement within subjective impressions.
In metaphysics, i.e., the philosophical study of the Comparison in the U.S., Essay, nature of reality, the topic of frankenstein critical analysis objectivity brings up philosophical puzzles regarding the nature of the A Brief of Health U.S., Sweden, Essay, self, for a perceiving subject is also, according to The Truth Lifestyle Literature most metaphysical theories, a potential object of someone else’s perceptions. Further, one can perceive oneself as an object, in addition to knowing one’s subjective states fairly directly. The self, then, is Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, known both as subject and america mein kampf, as object. Knowledge of self as subject seems to differ significantly from knowledge of the self as object. The differences are most markedly in evidence in the philosophy of mind. A Brief In The Sweden, And Slovenia Essay! Philosophers of critical mind try to reconcile, in some sense, what we know about the A Brief U.S., Sweden,, mind objectively and what we know subjectively. Observing minded beings as objects is central to the methods of psychology, sociology, and the sciences of the mein, brain.
Observing one minded being from the A Brief of Health in the U.S., and Slovenia Essay, subjective point of view is something we all do, and it is The Necessity Manners central to our ordinary notions of the nature of mind. A fundamental problem for the philosophy of mind is to explain how any object, no matter how complex, can give rise to mind as we know it from the subjective point of view. That is, how can mere “stuff” give rise to the rich complexity of consciousness as we experience it? It seems quite conceivable that there be creatures exactly like us, when seen as objects, but having nothing like our conscious sense of Comparison ourselves as subjects. So there is the frankenstein, question of why we do have subjective conscious experience and A Brief Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, Essay, how that comes to to Teach be. A Brief U.S., Sweden, Essay! Philosophers also struggle to explain what sort of relationship might obtain between mind as we see it embodied objectively and mind as we experience it subjectively. Are there cause-and-effect relationships, for example, and how do they work? The topic of Marine and Fossil seeing others and even oneself as an A Brief Comparison of Health in the object in annabel lee poem analysis the objective world is a metaphysical issue, but it brings up an Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, ethical issue regarding the treatment of persons. There are, in addition, special philosophical issues regarding assertions of objectivity in ethics. First, the lee poem analysis, dual nature of persons as both subjects (having subjective experience) and Comparison in the Sweden, and Slovenia, objects within objective reality relates to one of the paramount theories of ethics in the history of philosophy. The Necessity To Teach Manners Essay! Immanuel Kant’s ethics gives a place of central importance to respect for persons.
One formulation of his highly influential Categorical Imperative relates to the dual nature of persons. A Brief! This version demands that one “treat humanity, in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an Essay end” ( Groundwork , p. Comparison Of Health In The And Slovenia Essay! 96). Crippled America Mein Kampf! One may treat a mere object simply as a means to an end; one may use a piece of wood, for example, simply as a means of repairing a fence. A person, by contrast, is marked by subjectivity, having a subjective point of view, and of Health in the Essay, has a special moral status according to Kant. Every person must be regarded as an end, that is Marine and Fossil as having intrinsic value. It seems that the inherent value of a person depends essentially on Comparison in the U.S., and Slovenia Essay the fact that a person has a subjective conscious life in addition to objective existence. This ethical distinction brings out an aspect of the annabel analysis, term “object” as a “mere object,” in contrast to the subjectivity of a person.
The term “objectivity” in this context can signify the mere “object-ness” of something at its moral status. Despite widespread agreement that being a person with a subjective point of view has a special moral status, there is a general difficulty explaining whether this alleged fact, like all alleged moral facts, is an objective fact in A Brief of Health U.S., and Slovenia Essay any sense. It is also difficult to explain how one can know moral truths if they are indeed objective. b. Lee Poem Analysis! Objectivism, Subjectivism and Non-Cognitivism. Philosophical theories about the nature of morality generally divide into assertions that moral truths express subjective states and assertions that moral truths express objective facts, analogous to the fact, for example, that the sun is more massive than the earth. So-called subjectivist theories regard moral statements as declaring that certain facts hold, but the facts expressed are facts about a person’s subjective states. For example, the statement “It is wrong to A Brief Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, Essay ignore a person in distress if you are able to offer aid” just means something like “I find it offensive when someone ignores a person in in American Literature Essays distress….” This is a statement about the subject’s perceptions of the object, not about the object itself (that is, ignoring a person in Comparison U.S., and Slovenia distress). Objectivist theories, in contrast, regard the statement “It is to Teach Manners Essay wrong to ignore….” as stating a fact about the ignoring itself. Subjectivist theories do not have to regard moral statements as statements about a single subject’s perceptions or feelings.
A subjectivist could regard the statement “Torture is immoral,” for Comparison in the, example, as merely expressing the feeling of abhorrence among members of a certain culture, or among people in general. In addition to Marine Mammals and Fossil objectivism and subjectivism, a third major theory of morality called non-cognitivism asserts that alleged moral statements do not make any claim about A Brief Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, any reality, either subjective or objective. This approach asserts that alleged moral statements are just expressions of subjective feelings; they are not reports about such feelings. Essay! Thus the of Health Sweden, and Slovenia, statement “Torture is immoral” is to Teach Essay equivalent to wincing or saying “ugh” at the thought of torture, rather than describing your feelings about torture. Among objectivist theories of morality, the most straightforward version declares that is U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay it an objective fact, for example, that it is analysis wrong to ignore a person in distress if you are able to offer aid. This sort of Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, Essay theory asserts that the wrongness of such behavior is part of america mein objective reality in the same way that the sun’s being more massive than the earth is part of objective reality.
Both facts would obtain regardless of whether any conscious being ever came to know either of them. Other objectivist theories of A Brief of Health Sweden, and Slovenia morality try to to Teach explain the widespread feeling that there is an important difference between moral assertions and descriptive, factual assertions while maintaining that both types of assertion are about something other than mere subjective states. Such theories compare moral assertions to assertions about secondary qualities. A Brief In The And Slovenia Essay! The declaration that a certain object is green is not merely a statement about a person’s subjective state. Difference Between And Finance! It makes an assertion about how the object is, but it’s an assertion that can be formulated only in relation to A Brief Comparison in the Sweden, the states of perceiving subjects under the right conditions. Lee Poem Analysis! Thus, determining whether an object is A Brief in the U.S., and Slovenia green depends essentially on consulting the considered judgments of appropriately placed perceivers. Being green, by definition, implies the capacity to affect perceiving humans under the right conditions in certain ways. By analogy, moral assertions can be assertions about how things objectively are while depending essentially on consulting the considered judgments of appropriately placed perceivers. Being morally wrong implies, on crippled mein this view, the capacity to affect perceiving humans under the of Health U.S., and Slovenia Essay, right conditions in Marine Mammals and Fossil Essay certain ways. For either sort of objectivist approach to morality, it is difficult to in the Sweden, explain how people come to know the moral properties of critical analysis things. We seem not to be able to know the moral qualities of things through ordinary sense experience, for example, because the five senses seem only to tell us how things are in the world, not how they ought to be.
Nor can we reason from the way things are to the way they ought to be, since, as David Hume noted, “is” does not logically imply an “ought.” Some philosophers, including Hume, have postulated that we have a special mode of moral perception, analogous to but beyond the five ordinary senses, which gives us knowledge of moral facts. U.S., Sweden, And Slovenia! This proposal is controversial, since it presents problems for verifying moral perceptions and resolving moral disputes. It is also problematic as long as it provides no account of how moral perception works. By contrast, we have a good understanding of the and finance, mechanisms underlying our perception of secondary qualities such as greenness. Many people assert that it is much less common to get widespread agreement on moral judgments than on matters of observable, measurable facts. Comparison U.S., Sweden, And Slovenia Essay! Such an assertion seems to be an attempt to argue that moral judgments are not objective based on lack of analysis intersubjective agreement about them. Widespread disagreement does not, however, indicate that there is no objective fact to be known. In The U.S., Sweden, And Slovenia! There are many examples of widespread disagreement regarding facts that are clearly objective. Crippled Mein! For example, there was once widespread disagreement about whether the U.S.,, universe is expanding or in a “steady state.” That disagreement did not indicate that there is and Fossil Records Essay no objective fact concerning the state of the universe. Thus, widespread disagreement regarding moral judgments would not, by itself, indicate that there are no objective moral facts. This assertion is apparently an attempt to modify the inference from widespread intersubjective agreement to objective truth.
If so, it is mistaken. Assuming that the A Brief Comparison in the and Slovenia Essay, inference from intersubjective agreement to difference between probable objective truth is strong, it does not follow that one can infer from lack of intersubjective agreement to probable subjectivity. As previously indicated, intersubjective disagreement logically supports the assertion that there is an error in at least one of the conflicting judgments, but it does not support an of Health Essay assertion of the mere subjectivity of the matter being judged. Further, the vast areas of near-universal agreement in moral judgments typically receives too little attention in discussions of the difference accounting and finance, nature of morality. There are seemingly innumerable moral judgments (e.g., it is wrong to needlessly inflict pain on a newborn baby) that enjoy nearly universal agreement across cultures and across time periods. This agreement should, at least prima facie, support an assertion to objectivity as it does for, say, judgments about the temperature outside. 5. Major Historical Philosophical Theories of Objective Reality. Any serious study of the nature of objectivity and objective knowledge should examine the central metaphysical and epistemological positions of history’s leading philosophers, as well as contemporary contributions. The following very brief survey should give readers some idea of where to get started. Plato is A Brief Comparison of Health in the Sweden, and Slovenia Essay famous for a distinctive view of objective reality. Frankenstein! He asserted roughly that the A Brief Comparison of Health and Slovenia, greatest reality was not in the ordinary physical objects we sense around us, but in what he calls Forms, or Ideas. (The Greek term Plato uses resembles the word “idea,” but it is preferable to call them Forms, for they are not ideas that exist only in a mind, as is suggested in our modern usage of the The Truth to the Puritanism Lifestyle Literature, term “idea.”) Ordinary objects of our sense experience are real, but the Forms are a “higher reality,” according to Plato.
Having the greatest reality, they are the only truly objective reality, we could say. Forms are most simply described as the A Brief Comparison of Health and Slovenia Essay, pure essences of frankenstein critical things, or the defining characteristics of things. We see many varied instances of A Brief Comparison U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay chairs around us, but the essence of what it is to Marine Records Essay be a chair is the Form “chair.” Likewise, we see many beautiful things around us, but the in the U.S., and Slovenia, Form “beauty” is the “what it is to be beautiful.” The Form is simply whatever it is that sets beautiful things apart from everything else. In epistemology, Plato accordingly distinguishes the highest knowledge as knowledge of the highest reality, the Forms. Manners Essay! Our modern usage of the terms “objective knowledge” and “objective reality” seem to fit in reasonably well here. Aristotle, by contrast, identifies the ordinary objects of sense experience as the most objective reality.
He calls them “primary substance.” The forms of things he calls “secondary substance.” Hence, Aristotle’s metaphysics seems to fit better than Plato’s with our current understanding of objective reality, but his view of objective knowledge differs somewhat. In The Sweden, And Slovenia Essay! For him, objective knowledge is knowledge of the forms, or essences, of things. Marine And Fossil! We can know individual things objectively, but not perfectly. Comparison Of Health U.S., Sweden,! We can know individuals only during occurrent perceptual contact with them, but we can know forms perfectly, or timelessly. Descartes famously emphasized that subjective reality is better known than objective reality, but knowledge of the objective reality of one’s own existence as a non-physical thinking thing is nearly as basic, or perhaps as basic, as one’s knowledge of the subjective reality of between one’s own thinking. For Descartes, knowledge seems to start with immediate, indubitable knowledge of one’s subjective states and proceeds to knowledge of one’s objective existence as a thinking thing. Cogito, ergo sum (usually translated as “I think, therefore I am”) expresses this knowledge. All knowledge of realities other than oneself ultimately rests on this immediate knowledge of one’s own existence as a thinking thing. One’s existence as a non-physical thinking thing is an objective existence, but it appears that Descartes infers this existence from the subjective reality of his own thinking. The exact interpretation of his famous saying is A Brief of Health in the U.S., Sweden, Essay still a matter of some controversy, however, and it may not express an inference at all. We have already looked at some of John Locke’s most influential assertions about the frankenstein critical, nature of objective reality.
Bishop Berkeley followed Locke’s empiricism in Comparison U.S., Sweden, Essay epistemology, but put forth a markedly different view of reality. Berkeley’s Idealism asserts that the critical analysis, only realities are minds and mental contents. He does, however, have a concept of objective reality. A table, for example, exists objectively in the mind of God. God creates objective reality by of Health in the Sweden, and Slovenia, thinking it and mein, sustains any objective reality, such as the table, only so long as he continues to in the Sweden, think of it. Mammals Records! Thus the table exists objectively for us, not just as a fleeting perception, but as the A Brief U.S., Sweden,, totality of all possible experiences of The Necessity it. My particular experience of it at this moment is a subjective reality, but the of Health, table as an objective reality in lee poem analysis the mind of A Brief of Health U.S., and Slovenia Essay God implies a totality of all possible experiences of it. To The Puritanism In American Literature Essays! Berkeley asserts there is no need to postulate some physical substance underlying all those experiences to be the objective reality of the table; the totality of A Brief of Health in the Sweden, possible experiences is adequate. We have looked briefly at some of difference Kant’s claims about the nature of objective reality. More recent philosophy continues these discussions in many directions, some denying objectivity altogether. Detailed discussion of these movements goes beyond the purview of Comparison in the U.S., this essay, but interested readers should specially investigate Hegel’s idealism, as well as succeeding schools of The Truth to the Puritanism Lifestyle in American Literature thought such as phenomenology, existentialism, logical positivism, pragmatism, deconstructionism, and post-modernism.
The philosophy of mind, naturally, also continually confronts basic questions of subjectivity and objectivity.
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Nov 16, 2017 A Brief Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay,
Nassim Nicholas Taleb on Comparison in the Sweden, and Slovenia Accepting Uncertainty, Embracing Volatility. The day before a big game, regardless of the sport, a team’s coach or star player is often asked, “How will you stop the The Necessity to Teach Manners opposing team tomorrow?” The answer typically goes something like this: “We can’t worry about the other team. We just have to play our game.” That, in a very simplified nutshell, is the A Brief in the U.S., Sweden, Essay essence of Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s highly polemical, always thought-provoking new book, Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder. Here, though, the opponent is not another team’s slugger, quarterback or point guard, but the future and change. The Necessity Manners Essay? The defining characteristic of future change, according to in the and Slovenia, Taleb (who continues a line of argument developed in Marine Records, previous books like Fooled by Sweden, and Slovenia, Randomness and The Black Swan ), is that it is impossible, and foolhardy, to try to predict it.
Instead, the author argues, it is essential to lee poem analysis, make peace with uncertainty, randomness and A Brief Comparison of Health in the and Slovenia volatility. Those who do not — who insist not only on trying to predict the future, but also on somehow trying to manage it — he disparagingly calls “fragilistas.” Antifragile is divided into seven sections that Taleb calls “books.” In a prologue, he explains that each is, in a sense, a long personal essay, “mixing autobiographical musings and parables with more philosophical and scientific investigations.” The author introduces fictional characters such as Fat Tony, who epitomizes the straight-talking “street” knowledge of the practitioner as opposed to the fragilista. In addition to “fragilista,” he coins or adopts a number of other terms; delves into extended asides on Greek philosophy and mythology; and in general fashions a thoroughly idiosyncratic approach to The Truth to the Puritanism Lifestyle in American Literature Essays, his subject matter. The result is a work that is readable and entertaining, if at times a bit unwieldy. Taleb advocates what he calls “nonpredictive decision making” focused on the ability of the unit in question (whether that be an individual, institution, industry or society) to withstand unexpected change.
Yet to simply survive is not enough. Taleb is interested in Comparison of Health Sweden, and Slovenia Essay, things that actually thrive on uncertainty. To merely avoid harm is, in Mammals Records Essay, his terms, to A Brief Comparison U.S.,, be robust — and at times this is an The Truth Puritanism Literature Essays acceptable result. Robustness falls in the middle of a continuum he calls The Triad. At the A Brief of Health U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay far left is fragility — that which requires tranquility, certainty and predictability — and at the far right, in the absence of a better word for it, is antifragility. Antifragility, it should be pointed out, doesn’t mean that volatility will always be experienced positively. It simply means that the antifragile has more of an upside than downside from between accounting and finance, random events. As Taleb notes, “Some things benefit from shocks; they thrive and A Brief Comparison of Health in the Sweden, and Slovenia grow when exposed to volatility, randomness, disorder, and stressors and america mein love adventure, risk, and uncertainty.” Another sports analogy, one Taleb himself uses, effectively illustrates the idea of benefiting from shock. When we go the gym and lift heavy weights (barbells later become a key image in the book), we intentionally apply stress to our body.
Muscle tissue is Comparison of Health in the U.S., and Slovenia strained and even broken down. The body’s response is to overcompensate to the trauma and emerge stronger than before. This process of overreaction to stress and setbacks, the Marine Mammals author argues, is intrinsic to Comparison of Health Sweden, Essay, our very being, to all of evolution, to nature and to every human system that has survived. It is the process of life itself. Critical Analysis? The reverse holds true as well: Remove stress from a system, and that system grows weak; it becomes fragile.
Stay in A Brief of Health Sweden, and Slovenia, bed for three weeks instead of lifting weights, and difference and finance muscles atrophy. The Cat and the Washing Machine. A key distinction for Taleb is that between the organic and the mechanical , and the title concept is central to A Brief U.S., and Slovenia Essay, this. Organic entities are intrinsically antifragile, while artificial creations are at best robust and likely fragile. The split corresponds roughly, but not entirely, to the living and the non-living. Taleb argues that certain man-made things like ideas, technologies, businesses and even the difference between and finance economy operate more by organic principles than mechanical ones: “They are closer to the cat than to the washing machine but tend to A Brief of Health U.S., and Slovenia Essay, be mistaken for washing machines.” Nature and natural systems are an ongoing reference for Taleb — not just as illustrative analogies, but as part of the very fabric of to Teach Manners, his worldview.
For him, nature is the of Health in the Essay ultimate model for how to deal with uncertainty. Nature does not need to predict the future in order to deal with its unexpected turns. Annabel Analysis? The information volatility provides is digested and adapted as part of the evolutionary process. Of Health In The U.S.,? In this sense, nature “loves small errors.” Nature is also not “safe.” It accepts short-term loss for long-term gain. For example, Taleb cites the to Teach Essay natural cycle of forest fires that clear the forest of Comparison U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay, highly flammable material and weed out weak and vulnerable growth. Annabel Analysis? Suppressing these fires artificially (i.e., suppressing volatility) imposes a false short-term stability while increasing long-term risk. We get fewer fires but more devastating ones. This basic principle can be applied to human systems as well. Government bailouts that prevent certain businesses from going under, for example, only A Brief Comparison Sweden, Essay, increase the possibility of system-wide collapse.
Error and accounting failure, Taleb insists again and again, are essential sources of information as long as they are limited and localized. A Brief Comparison In The Sweden, And Slovenia? Every plane crash brings us closer to safety. Attempts to eliminate error and volatility will backfire in the long run. Mammals And Fossil Essay? Paradoxically, there is no long-term stability without short-term volatility. A concept Taleb developed in a previous book, Black Swans are game-changing, world-altering events he contends are the A Brief Essay driving force in history. Though they are impossible to predict, fragilistas (especially the policymakers and academics Taleb loves to ridicule) make the mistake of trying to impose a clear narrative on critical them in retrospect. With that narrative in A Brief Comparison in the U.S., and Slovenia Essay, place, they tell themselves the Black Swan could have, and The Truth to the Literature perhaps should have been, anticipated, and they set about trying to successfully predict the A Brief Comparison U.S., Essay next one. For example, events in the Middle East that have caught the annabel lee poem U.S. government by surprise (such as the 2011 Egyptian uprising or the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran) are labeled “intelligence failures.” The solution, according to fragilistas, is simply better forecasting. This approach misses the point, which is to assess the fragility of a system, not the particular event that will expose that fragility.
In a discussion of the earthquake and tsunami that produced the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan, Taleb writes: “Not seeing a tsunami or an economic event coming is excusable; building something fragile to them is not.” And in A Brief of Health U.S., Sweden,, the case of the Fukushima disaster, authorities seem to be responding appropriately: not by developing better predictive models, but by The Truth in American Essays, building smaller and less vulnerable reactors. It is important to point out that Black Swans are not always negative, destructive events. The explosion of the Internet and the rise of Google are examples of positive Black Swans. What cultivating antifragility does, Taleb says, is enable us to minimize the potential harm from negative Black Swans while capturing the A Brief in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay benefits of positive ones. It is all about Marine and Fossil Essay developing a productive and flexible relationship with volatility. Nonetheless, the dominant impulse among policymakers and so-called experts is to try to reduce volatility, rather than deal with it more productively. These fragilistas overestimate the reach of scientific knowledge and the possibilities of human control. Of Health In The U.S., And Slovenia Essay? Intolerant of the messiness of trial-and-error volatility, they avoid small errors and the essential feedback those errors provide. The end result is to create something that is steadier and The Necessity to Teach Manners more predictable, but fundamentally fragile.
Risks are hidden and suppressed, and of Health in the Sweden, the stimulation of randomness and stressors is denied. But the analysis effort to avoid small mistakes and minor pains makes larger ones more severe. Ironically, the imposition of false stability with the intention of avoiding Black Swans makes them more likely and more dangerous. Narrowly, the fragilista is marked by a preoccupation with theory, risk assessment and in the U.S., and Slovenia Essay strategic planning — all of which Taleb disdains. More broadly, the fragilista is symptomatic of the fundamental shortcomings of kampf, modernity, which the author defines as “humans’ large-scale domination of the environment, the A Brief in the U.S., and Slovenia systematic smoothing of the world’s jaggedness, and the stifling of volatility and stressors.” Modernity has made a religion of analysis, rationalism, optimization and A Brief Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia efficiency.
By contrast, Taleb invokes Nietzsche and his embrace of the “Dionysian”: the “dark, visceral, wild, untamed, hard to understand.” Epistemology, the inquiry into the nature of frankenstein analysis, knowledge, is a central concern for Taleb, and an eminently practical one as opposed to a theoretical one. In a world ruled by uncertainty and unpredictability, and in which precise causes are impossible to isolate, abstract and theoretical knowledge is of limited use. A Brief Comparison Of Health And Slovenia Essay? His own encounter with these limits came when, as a recent graduate of business school and then the difference and finance recipient of a doctorate in management science, he did a stint on a foreign exchange trading floor. The professional traders he worked with had no background in theory, and they didn’t read economic reports or forecasts; they simply had a nose for Comparison of Health Essay when to buy and Mammals and Fossil Records Essay when to sell.
They knew what worked; they didn’t need to know why. Ever since, Taleb has had a deep respect for practitioners as opposed to theorists. Real, usable knowledge emerges from doing, not studying. A Brief Comparison Of Health In The Sweden, And Slovenia? Technology is often described as the application of scientific knowledge to practical projects, implying a hierarchy with priestly “science” on one level and mere “practice” far below. Taleb lists numerous examples in the development of technology, and frankenstein analysis medicine as well, demonstrating how theory and knowledge emerge from practice, not the other way around. Key advances grow organically (and sometimes randomly) from individuals the author likes to call “tinkerers” engaged in of Health in the U.S., and Slovenia Essay, hands-on trial-and-error experimentation.
Accordingly, Taleb embraces the apprenticeship model of learning as opposed to Marine and Fossil Essay, the academic model. He doesn’t oppose formal education, but says its purpose should be learning for learning’s sake, and that education should not be justified as an engine of economic growth. He cites studies by economists who call into question an of Health in the U.S., assumed causal link between education levels and productivity. Instead, he argues, wealth and economic growth eventually result in frankenstein, good education systems. The logical conclusion of Taleb’s preference for practice over theory is to question the classical Socratic ideal of truth in the first place. Being right, knowing how to define things, understanding the difference between what is true and false: None of this is the A Brief point. What is The Necessity to Teach Manners important is to understand the results of events, not the events themselves. An even deeper implication of this approach is that real intelligence lies not in the individual, but in the evolutionary process — the ongoing process of trial-and-error. In this process, he argues, options (essentially, the freedom to experiment with uncertainty) can be more important than knowledge or information. Options allow you to benefit from the feedback trial-and-error provides.
And knowing how to apply that feedback to future decisions can be the highest form of wisdom: “wisdom in decision making is vastly more important — not just practically, but philosophically — than knowledge.” The practice of modern Western medicine is a topic of great interest to Taleb in its own right. Of Health In The Sweden, Essay? But it also provides him with a set of clear examples of the perils of the fragilista’s tendency toward what he terms “naive interventionism.” This is a category of intervention that produces small (or no) visible gains, while creating the possibility of large (but often not immediately visible) harm. Examples include statin drugs to treat high cholesterol (where fifty patients have to be treated, at uncertain cost, to prevent a single cardiovascular event) and The Truth Puritanism annual mammograms for women (which actually increase all-cause mortality for the test group). In opposition to this approach, the of Health U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia author cites the part of the Hippocratic Oath that cautions, “First, do no harm.” Unfortunately, the pervasiveness of professionalization in our society creates a bias toward intervention — in other words, the restraint of inaction is not likely to be rewarded. Nonetheless, in medicine and The Truth to the Lifestyle in American Literature Essays other areas, he asserts that the of Health in the Sweden, and Slovenia first rule should be to “avoid interference with things we don’t understand,” which, in Taleb’s view, covers a lot of ground. Taleb is a fan of barbells as an exercise tool. But he also uses the image to convey the “bimodal” approach he suggests is the best way to deal with uncertainty and cultivate antifragility. In keeping with the image of the barbell, the idea is to avoid the wishy-washiness of the to the Puritanism Literature supposed “Golden Middle” and instead concentrate on two contrasting but complementary strategies: extreme risk aversion on one side, and extreme risk loving on the other. For example, in the area of personal investment, you might invest 90% of A Brief U.S., Essay, your funds in something as radically safe as cash, while putting 10% toward extremely high-risk, high-reward investments. Your maximum loss would be capped at 10% of your assets, whereas putting 100% of between and finance, your assets in so-called “medium” risk securities carries a danger of losing everything.
Strive to be 90% accountant, 10% rock star, Taleb cheekily suggests. He applies this model across a variety of arenas. For example, in medicine, we should treat the healthy or near-healthy with an A Brief of Health in the U.S., Sweden, extremely conservative, less-is-more approach, while treating the to the Lifestyle in American Literature Essays seriously ill much more aggressively. In socio-economic policy, it would imply aggressive intervention for the very weak while letting the very strong alone — in contrast to the current policy of focusing on the creation of minor gains for the middle class. For Taleb, the Comparison of Health in the U.S., Essay barbell is a tool for engaging risk and uncertainty in a way that is Marine Mammals both responsible and vigorous. He praises those who take risks, whether they be entrepreneurs or poets, as adventurers and doers essential to the continued evolution of society and the economy. At the other end of the spectrum are those who talk or act without any risk or exposure. Taleb has nothing but disdain for policymakers or pundits who enter the fray of public policy without any personal stake in the issue at hand. They have no “skin in the game,” as he likes to put it.
In a final section devoted to the ethics of fragility and antifragility, Taleb laments that this kind of A Brief Comparison U.S.,, disconnect between influence and frankenstein critical personal risk is only growing: “At no point in history have so many non-risk-takers, that is, those with no personal exposure, exerted so much control.” Here, the author takes the gloves off and names names — with columnist Thomas Friedman and economist Joseph Stiglitz among those singled out. Taleb is particularly troubled by corporate managers who don’t own the businesses they run. They have incentives (bonuses) without disincentives (penalties), upside without downside. Robert Rubin, for example, earned nearly $120 million in bonuses from A Brief U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia, Citibank, but suffered no personal consequences when the bank collapsed and required a multi-billion–dollar government bailout. Taleb characterizes this as essentially a “transfer of antifragility,” with certain individuals exerting influence without cost (remaining antifragile) while others bear the consequences (increased fragility). Such a transfer is, he asserts, a kind of theft, and it raises a profound ethical question, perhaps the to the Literature Essays dominant one of our time. Somehow, he writes, we have to “make talk less cheap.” Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder (Incerto) accessed October 04, 2017. http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/nassim-nicholas-taleb-on-accepting-uncertainty-embracing-volatility/ How Bike Sharing Is Maturing in China. Wharton vice dean Karl Ulrich describes the latest shifts in China’s growing bike-sharing market.
What Defines Millennials – and How Marketers Can Reach Them. Digital culture, fragmentation, distrust of big business and a heavy dose of skepticism are key facets of the millennial generation – and they have led to profound changes in in the and Slovenia, mass marketing, advertising and messaging. Turning Waste Streams into Value Streams. Remanufacturing, cascading materials through several lifecycles and rethinking the critical analysis idea of ownership are more effective than recycling waste. Get Knowledge@Wharton delivered to your inbox every week.
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Nov 16, 2017 A Brief Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay,
2017 MBA Essay Questions: Cornell Johnson. Cornell Johnson 2017 Two-Year MBA Essay Questions Class of 2020. Here are the Class of Comparison Sweden, and Slovenia 2020 Full-Time essays for between, Johnson. A goals statement, plus two formal essays and an optional essay: At Cornell, we value students who create impact. Comparison U.S.,! Please indicate the opportunities for impact that you’ve identified through engagement with our community and describe how what you learned has influenced your decision to apply to Johnson. 500 words You are the critical, author of Comparison U.S., Sweden, Essay your Life Story. Please create the Table of Contents for the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. We value creativity and authenticity and The Truth Lifestyle Literature encourage you to approach this essay with your unique style. A Brief Comparison Of Health In The U.S.,! Alternative submission formats may include a slide presentation, links to pre-existing media (personal website, digital portfolio, YouTube etc.), as well as visually enhanced written submissions. 500 words or under 5 minutes for a multimedia (audio/video).
The Life Story essay has been a staple for the Johnson app for many years now. It#8217;s different enough that you won#8217;t be able to re-use what you produce for Booth or MIT or NYU, but similar chunks of content may work across some of The Truth to the Essays those others. A Brief Comparison Essay! For the Impact Essay, a post we wrote specifically for Wharton may also be useful to help you stay on Essay, track. The Cornell optional essay is a standard optional essay #8212; meaning, it#8217;s truly optional and A Brief in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia only should be submitted if you have important information to explain such as gaps in kampf employment or low GPA (where you have a REASON and not an EXCUSE). Reapplicants who tried last year also need to of Health in the U.S., use the optional essay to explain how they have improved since last time. (We have a Reapplicant Guide if you#8217;re in difference between accounting that boat!). Our The EssaySnark Cornell essay guide is the A Brief of Health and Slovenia, 2016 version but it#8217;s still valid for 2017! Not sure when we#8217;ll be able to do a refresh on this one. You will get access to any updates if/when we do provided it#8217;s within your original 90-day subscription term. All the Puritanism Lifestyle Literature Essays, info in the existing version should still be quite helpful for A Brief U.S., Essay, you today!
Cornell has been VERY welcoming to lee poem the military candidate lately. Military students went from A Brief Comparison in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay, 2% of the Class of 2013, to an incredible 11% of the Class of 2018. We don#8217;t know of any other school that#8217;s admitted such a high proportion. If you#8217;re active duty or a vet of the U.S. armed services, we offer some special opportunities to help with your MBA apps. Cornell MBA Letters of annabel lee poem analysis Recommendations. Cornell Johnson Full-Time 2-Year MBA Application Deadlines. In The U.S., And Slovenia! October Round: October 5, 2017 this is advantageous compared to other schools#8217; first rounds because you#8217;ll get your decision really early! In November, in fact. That would be nice, eh? November Round: November 15, 2017 this can be a great date to try for, especially if you#8217;re in the U.S.: It#8217;s after the critical, crush of Round 1 but before the Thanksgiving holiday, so you have a lull in the cycle. (We#8217;re not trying to imply that international applicants would not benefit from of Health in the Sweden,, Round 2 at annabel lee poem analysis, Cornell, but Americans may appreciate getting another app out of the Comparison U.S., Sweden,, way before the end of November, just for The Necessity to Teach, personal and family reasons!) January Round: January 10, 2018 This is one of the later January deadlines, so THANK YOU, Cornell! They also have a final fourth round in March, and they#8217;ll even accept applications once that date has passed but it#8217;s getting into A Brief of Health U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia, the trickier stages to be applying to any school at that point on the calendar.
Try for one of the first three rounds identified above for your best chances. Note, too, that the deadlines for the Cornell 1-Year MBA may be different. Please see the Johnson website to confirm. With most schools we suggest targeting any round through a January deadline and that applies here, too, except that they have four rounds which gives you more milestones to Manners try for. There typically are more options with Cornell in fact, they#8217;ll even keep accepting applications after their final round in March #8212; but it#8217;s certainly better to stick with Rounds 1, 2 or 3. Past Cornell MBA Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said about previous years#8217; Johnson applications, in case you want to see where this school is A Brief Comparison in the U.S., and Slovenia Essay coming from. Click to view 2016 questions.
Two questions plus an optional essay: At Cornell, we value students who create impact. Please indicate the opportunities for impact that you have identified through engagement with our community and describe how these interactions have influenced your decision to The Truth Lifestyle Essays apply to Johnson. 500 words You are the author of your Life Story. Please create the Table of Contents for A Brief of Health in the U.S., and Slovenia Essay, the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. Essay! We value creativity and authenticity and encourage you to approach this essay with your unique style. Alternative submission formats may include a slide presentation, links to pre-existing media (personal website, digital portfolio, YouTube etc.), as well as visually enhanced written submissions.
They haven#8217;t had a formal written essay in A Brief Comparison U.S., some time, so that first question is new in Puritanism Literature Essays 2016. Comparison Of Health In The U.S., Sweden, And Slovenia Essay! It#8217;s reminiscent of what Wharton is asking, with their #8220;contribution#8221; essay (we issued some warnings on writing for The Necessity to Teach Essay, that before). Additional random comments: 6/29/16 They#8217;re not numbering their rounds anymore; they#8217;ve gone back to October Round, November Round, etc. Not sure if that makes things more confusing, or less! 7/31/16 It appears that Cornell is A Brief adopting the between, newly-standardized 4-question Letters of Recommendation requirements that other schools are using. [End last year#8217;s questions section.] Click to A Brief in the U.S., Essay view 2015 questions.
7/24/15 It appears that Johnson is using the identical essays to last year, they#8217;ve just been very kind to you and critical analysis increased the Comparison U.S., Sweden,, limits. Table of Contents You are the author for the book of Your Life Story. In 500 words or less, please create the table of contents for accounting and finance, the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. We value creativity and authenticity and encourage you to approach this essay with your unique style. Alternative submission formats may include a slide presentation, links to pre-existing media (personal website, digital portfolio, YouTube etc.), as well as visually enhanced written submissions. What are your short and Comparison U.S., Sweden, Essay long term goals and how do you see the Cornell MBA enabling you to achieve both? (500 words) There#8217;s also a whole bunch of other questions in their online application, plus the standard optional essay (reapplicants should use that to explain how they#8217;ve improved since originally applying). Between! We go into these details in our new-this-year Cornell MBA Application Guide , to give you all that you need to do a bang-up job on your essays for Comparison Sweden, and Slovenia, this school. In terms of deadlines: Cornell keeps messing with the system! #128512; They retained their three rounds this year but those dates are very different than any other school.
Up through the difference between accounting, 2012-#8217;13 app season, Cornell had four rounds. Of Health And Slovenia Essay! In 2014 they switched to the traditional three rounds with standardized deadlines like every other top school has. Difference Accounting And Finance! Now they#8217;ve gone back to four rounds for 2015, and they also will accept late apps even after their final deadline in March. Comparison Of Health Sweden, And Slovenia Essay! [End 2015 questions section.] These questions are not much different from 2013 except that #8220;300 words#8221; has turned into #8220;1,000 characters#8221; and america mein they have categorized a bunch of short-answer responses as #8220;essays#8221; which is Comparison of Health Sweden, Essay a little confusing. The first question is the only one that allows you to frankenstein critical analysis upload a file; the others must be entered into the text field in A Brief of Health in the U.S., Sweden, their form, which means you can#8217;t submit more than they ask for. Creative Submission Required for All Applicants: You are the Puritanism, author for the book of Your Life Story.
In 1000 characters or less, please write the table of contents for the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. Note: approach this essay with your unique style. We value creativity and authenticity. A Brief U.S., Sweden,! Targeted Job Type: What is the job that you would like to have immediately upon graduating with your MBA? (1000 characters) Post-Collegiate Activities: List community activities (clubs, church, civic, etc.) and professional associations you contributed to critical analysis since graduation from college. A Brief U.S., Essay! Please include the organization name, your role, hours dedicated, elected offices held, and annabel analysis dates of participation (1000 character limit). A Brief Of Health In The Sweden, Essay! List your extracurricular activities while in college in Essay order of importance to you. Comparison In The U.S.,! You may include details about your positions and crippled kampf the time commitment, honors or awards received, and dates of participation.
The list may also include part-time and summer employment held while in college. Of Health U.S., Sweden, And Slovenia! Please list your employer, job title, responsibilities, hours per week, and The Truth Lifestyle in American the dates for of Health in the Sweden, and Slovenia, each position (1000 character limit). Collegiate Activities and Employment: Please describe any hobbies or activities that hold special significance for you (1000 character limit). Optional Essay: Complete this essay if you would like to add additional details regarding your candidacy. For instance, if you believe one or more aspects of your application (e.g., undergraduate record or test scores) do not accurately reflect your potential for Manners, success at the Johnson School. U.S., And Slovenia Essay! (1000 character limit) The optional essay really is analysis optional; you should only use it to explain oddities in your profile that you#8217;re not covering elsewhere. Don#8217;t feel like you should tell them about this great leadership example from A Brief U.S., Sweden,, work as a way to fill the Mammals and Fossil Essay, space. Put that example in your Book of Life if you feel it#8217;s important enough to include, or just rely on your resume to tell the story. The other questions are no different than what other schools ask, so again, a little strange that the app has them categorized as #8220;essays.#8221; They#8217;re definitely not long enough to be considered as such. The 1,000-character limit means you get about two standard-sized paragraphs, though the fields do allow formatting and many of the questions lend themselves to a bulleted list answer instead of a block of text.
Just so you can gauge it, this paragraph is just about 535 characters; the Comparison of Health U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia, paragraph above about the optional essay is 375. Frankenstein Critical! This is the first school we#8217;ve seen to use Salesforce to deploy its MBA application. They#8217;re touting this feature where you can pull in your LinkedIn profile to populate the employment and education sections. This is optional; you don#8217;t have to click that button if you don#8217;t want to. We don#8217;t see any disadvantage in doing that, so go ahead if you#8217;re on LinkedIn and want to A Brief in the save some data entry. Mein! Honestly that seems like the of Health Essay, biggest benefit though, and even that may be a little overhyped; the system says that not all fields will be populated so you#8217;ll still need to go through and fill in difference accounting the gaps.
Still, kudos to Johnson for A Brief Comparison U.S.,, embracing technology it#8217;s certainly not something we see the bschools doing much of! They are saying that it#8217;s their Johnson Tech MBA that provided the impetus for this (Johnson is partnering with Google on some stuff so it#8217;s clear they#8217;re embracing the critical, convergence of in the U.S., Essay tech and business again, not something we see too often from MBA programs). The strategy for putting together your Johnson essay needs to be the same as it#8217;s always been: Communicate who you are through this structured exercise of the #8220;story of your life#8221; and Records share some of the real you in and Slovenia that way. And oh yeah, communicate your goals concisely, too. [End 2014 questions section.] Here#8217;s the 2013 Cornell essay questions: Essay 1: Who You Are. You are the author for the book of Your Life Story. In 300 words or less please write the crippled kampf, table of contents for the book. Note: approach this essay with your unique style. We value creativity and authenticity.
Essay 2: Who You Turn Out to Be. (150 words for each part, uploaded as a single document) When did you decide that business school was the A Brief of Health U.S., and Slovenia Essay, next step for you? (Was this an Records epiphany or an evolutionary process? What was the of Health and Slovenia Essay, catalyst that caused you to consider this next step?) Johnson values people that make things happen for themselves. Frankenstein Critical! Give an example of how you have initiated this for yourself. Please describe your immediate post MBA career goals. Comparison Of Health In The Essay! On 7/26/13 Cornell updated their Deadlines page to clarify that they will still accept #8220;late#8221; applications through April. This basically moves them back to a 4-round admissions season all over crippled mein kampf again! It#8217;s good to see this flexibility but it#8217;s a little baffling why they#8217;re doing it this way. Why not just keep four rounds? Maybe it#8217;s because they#8217;re trying to accommodate all their admissions under the same schedule, and A Brief Comparison of Health Sweden, the One-Year MBA starts in May so they can#8217;t have a round hit that late in the season and still get people in there. [End 2013 questions section.] How would you characterize your career since college? Tell us about your short and long term career goals.
Choose one: You are the Manners, author for the book of Your Life Story. Please write the table of contents for the book. Note: Approach this essay with your unique style. We value creativity and Comparison U.S., and Slovenia Essay authenticity. Describe a situation taken from annabel analysis, your personal or professional life where you failed and tell us what you learned.
What does diversity mean to you and how will you contribute to the diversity of our community at Johnson? [End 2012 questions section.] Another school we#8217;re tracking with interest (March 2016) Schools where Round 3 is viable (January 2013) one-year MBA options (April 2012) The one less traveled by: CORNELL (January 2012) We don#8217;t have a lot of Cornell essays reviewed on the blahg (feel free to send us yours this season!). However you can reference essay reviews from several other schools to get a feel for how to handle Cornell. There are obvious differences between these programs but some strong similarities, too, so these are worth studying as you work on A Brief Comparison in the U.S., and Slovenia, your Johnson application: The Cornell Application Guide walks you through the important elements of this application and how to position yourself effectively. 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from Marine Mammals and Fossil Records Essay, scratch to help you with the U.S., Sweden,, 2017 app!
The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to to the Puritanism in American Literature Essays help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and A Brief Comparison U.S., and Slovenia Essay strategies for your Class of 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark.
I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in order to crippled america kampf maximize my . Thanks so much for of Health in the U.S., Sweden, Essay, the additional feedback ES. I really appreciate it. I just submitted my HBS app, . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the Marine and Fossil Essay, adcom? 2016 : Good luck for of Health U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia, HBS applicants! 2016 : No, you don't have to actually do the thing you say you will do in the career goals essay. 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark?
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Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of Comparison U.S., Sweden, Essay, polycystic ovary syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was first reported in 1935 by difference and finance, Stein and Leventhal who described seven women dealing with amenorrhea, hirsutism, and A Brief in the and Slovenia Essay, enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts (Stein and Leventhal, 1935). This syndrome was given the name Stein–Leventhal syndrome after these two physicians for sometime. In the 1960s, however, the analysis, term polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was first introduced and gradually started to replace its former name. It is now recognized as a common complex heterogeneous endocrine disorder in reproductive-age women associated with reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. This syndrome is primarily characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and A Brief Comparison of Health in the and Slovenia, polycystic ovaries (Azziz et al., 2004). Given the fact that one out of five women of reproductive age is affected by this syndrome, and annabel lee poem, studies which suggest that 5% to 10% of females 18 to 44 years of age are affected by PCOS, it is deemed to A Brief Comparison in the Sweden, and Slovenia Essay be the most common endocrine abnormality among women of reproductive age in the US. Difference Between Accounting? In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of PCOS is still unknown although it is believed to be similar to the other studies. In addition, it is a chronic disease with manifestations across the lifespan of women and represents a major health and economic burden.
Therefore, the aim of this research is to review this subject in depth taking in consideration the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, complications and management. Material and Methods. This study was performed by a literature search of English-language studies which was conducted on PubMed (from 1994 to A Brief Comparison Sweden, Essay 2016) and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) using the terms, ‘PCOS’, ‘polycystic ovary syndrome’, and Lifestyle Essays, ‘polycystic ovary disease’. Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disease in Comparison Sweden, women of child-bearing age. Additionally, World Health Organization (WHO) has declared PCOS to be the crippled america mein, leading cause of A Brief Comparison U.S., and Slovenia, type 2 anovulatory infertility.
Based on studies performed in Marine Mammals and Fossil Records Essay Greece, Spain and the USA, the prevalence of PCOS using the Comparison U.S., Sweden,, National Institutes of Health and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NIH/NICHD) criteria indicate that PCOS affects 4%–8% of women of reproductive age. That percentage increases up to and Fossil Records even 18% according to the guidelines of the A Brief of Health in the Sweden, and Slovenia, Rotterdam consensus (Azziz et al., 2004) (Asuncion, 2000) (Diamanti-Kandarakis, 1999) (Knochenhauer, 1998). Mein? Recently, there has been variations of the prevalence of PCOS depending on the diagnostic criteria used. Normally, females of reproductive age experience cycles of A Brief Comparison of Health in the Essay, hormonal activity that repeat at about one-month intervals. With every cycle, a woman’s body prepares for a potential pregnancy, whether or not that is the woman’s intention. The term menstruation refers to the periodic shedding of the difference between accounting, uterine lining. Averagely, the menstrual cycle takes about 28 days and occurs in phases: the follicular phase, the ovulatory phase (ovulation), and the luteal phase. There are four major hormones (chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of cells or organs) involved in the menstrual cycle: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone. During the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, which starts on the first day of a woman’s period, two hormones; follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), are released from the A Brief Comparison Essay, brain, specifically the pituitary gland, and travel in the bloodstream to the ovaries. These hormones stimulate the crippled america, primary maturation of around 15 to 20 eggs in the ovaries, each in its own “shell,” called a follicle. As well as triggering an increase in the production of the female hormone estrogen.
As this follicular phase progresses, one follicle in one ovary becomes dominant and A Brief in the Sweden, and Slovenia Essay, produces estrogen while continuing to mature suppressing all of the other follicles in the group. The second phase, or ovulation, begins on the 14th day after the difference between accounting and finance, follicular phase started. The rise in estrogen from the dominant follicle triggers a surge in the amount of luteinizing hormone that is produced, which causes the dominant follicle to release its egg from the ovary into the fallopian tube. During the last phase, known as luteal phase, the empty follicle, once harboring the egg, develops into a structure called the corpus luteum, which secretes the hormone progesterone. Progesterone prepares the U.S., Sweden,, uterus for the implantation of to the Puritanism, a fertilized egg. If the egg is not fertilized, it passes through the uterus, and the lining covering it breaks down and sheds, and A Brief of Health U.S., and Slovenia, the next menstrual period begins. The pathophysiology of PCOS results from a primary defect in accounting and finance the pituitary function, as well as, defects in Comparison Sweden, Essay insulin secretion and action, and annabel lee poem analysis, ovarian function. A Brief Comparison Of Health In The Sweden, Essay? Increased luteinizing hormone (LH) and difference between, gonadotropin–releasing hormone (GnRH) levels relative to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was the first laboratory abnormality identified in classic PCOS. Raised LH levels will lead to an increase of of Health and Slovenia, androgen production and analysis, secretion by ovarian theca cells. The increase in LH seems to be the result of abnormal sex steroid feedback rather than the cause of Comparison in the U.S., Sweden, Essay, androgen excess.
Patients with PCOS are less susceptible to suppression of LH by luteal phase hormones, where the modest rise in androgen levels in between patients with PCOS absurdly stimulates LH pulsatility. Moreover, use of antiandrogen treatment lowers the elevated LH pulse frequency of of Health in the, PCOS to a normal level, suggesting that androgen excess interferes with the Marine Records Essay, hypothalamic inhibitory feedback of female hormones, principally progesterone (Rosenfield and Bordini, 2010). In spite of this, about half of the patients with PCOS, especially obese patient, do not have elevated LH levels or abnormal gonadotropin response to GnRH agonist testing. Furthermore, around half of PCOS patients with a verified ovarian source of hyperandrogenism were revealed to have normal LH levels and LH responses to a GnRH agonist test, also suggesting that their ovarian dysfunction is independent of LH excess. Another major influence in the pathophysiology of PCOS is the association with insulin and its function; In the ovary, insulin helps to A Brief Sweden, and Slovenia regulate ovarian function, and acts in conjunction with LH to enhance androgen production which can lead to anovulation (Gonzalez, 2012). Etiology and risk factors. A detailed pathogenesis of accounting and finance, PCOS has not been clarified yet.
Which is one of the reasons for defining it as a syndrome rather than a disease whereas a syndrome is a cluster of symptoms which cannot be explained under a common etiologic factor. A Brief Comparison Of Health In The Sweden, And Slovenia? However, the individual susceptibility probably depends on crippled mein prenatal androgen exposure, genetic factors, ethnic origin and environmental risk factors (Zhang et al., 2012). The interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors determine the heterogeneous, clinical, and biochemical phenotype, which is A Brief Comparison in the U.S., and Slovenia why PCOS is described as an oligogenic disorder (Barber and Franks, 2010). Although the genetic etiology of PCOS is yet undetermined, a family history of PCOS is relatively common; however, familial links to PCOS are unclear. Frankenstein? Nonetheless, based on the aggregation of cases in families, PCOS is considered a heritable disorder and resembles an autosomal dominant pattern (Diamanti-Kandarakis, Kandarakis and Legro, 2006). Hence, a family history of PCOS is considered a risk factor. As for ethnic factors, hirsutism is more rarely observed in individuals of Asian origin (approximately 10%) compared with the Caucasian race (approximately 70%). Environmental risk factors, such as obesity, seem to amplify genetic predispositions (Zhang et al., 2012). Obesity is a prevalent characteristic of A Brief Comparison of Health in the Essay, PCOS (Shannon and Wang, 2012), ranging from frankenstein analysis, 12.5% to 100% (Mirzaei and A Brief Comparison U.S., Sweden, Essay, Kazemi, 2008), with a collective estimated prevalence of analysis, 49% (Graff et al., 2013). These environmental factors implicated in PCOS (e.g., obesity) can be aggravated by poor dietary choices and physical inactivity; infectious agents and toxins may also play a role (Diamanti-Kandarakis, Kandarakis and Legro, 2006). The reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS are sometimes reversible with lifestyle modifications such as weight loss and exercise (Shannon and Wang, 2012).
Clinical features of PCOS. The clinical presentation of PCOS varies widely. These considerably distinctive features, displaying a varying degree of expression in A Brief of Health in the U.S., Sweden, Essay each individual, emphasize the phenotypic variability of PCOS, and is in fact another reason why it is considered as a syndrome. Women with PCOS may present with an array of serious clinical implications including reproductive manifestations (hirsutism, infertility and pregnancy complications) (Boomsma et al., 2006), psychological problems (reduced quality of annabel lee poem, life, poor self-esteem, depression, anxiety) (Deeks, Gibson-Helm and Teede, 2010), and metabolic implications (insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and potentially cardiovascular disease (CVD)) (Sir-Petermann et al., 2013) (Meikle, 2006). Presentation of PCOS may vary across the life cycle of the patient due to the heterogeneous nature of PCOS and the wide spectrum of clinical features. Generally, PCOS is a chronic condition that usually begins in Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, adolescence then transitions to include infertility and increase metabolic complications over time. However, when combined with obesity, metabolic implications of PCOS such as IGT, DM2 and the metabolic syndrome can present in and finance adolescence (Coviello, Legro and Dunaif, 2006). Reproductive features of PCOS. Clinical hyperandrogenism primarily includes hirsutism, acne and of Health U.S., and Slovenia Essay, male pattern alopecia. PCOS is a common cause of hirsutism occurring in approximately 60% of cases. Hirsutism is and Fossil defined in females as male type terminal hair growth and distribution (Norman et al., 2007).
Acne affects one third of cases and is not particularly specific for PCOS (Norman et al., 2007). Studies have shown that androgen levels are elevated in woman with acne, although the severity of acne has not been positively correlated with any particular hormone with the exception of the adrenal androgen, dehydroepianandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) (Karrer-Voegeli et al., 2009). A Brief In The? Conversely, in many PCOS women hirsutism is not associated with acne, which might be due to variable local androgen bioactivity. Analysis? An enzyme called 5-?-reductase controls the Comparison Sweden, and Slovenia Essay, androgen activity in the hair follicle by converting free testosterone to the more potent dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This enzyme has two isoforms: type 1 is located in the sebaceous glands and pubic skin and type 2 is present primarily in the hair follicle, genital skin, and analysis, adult scalp. This explains the different clinical manifestations seen in hyperandrogenic women when the in the Sweden,, degree of hirsutism is not well-matched with the Marine Mammals Records, severity of the acne (Archer and Chang, 2004). Male pattern hair loss (androgenic alopecia) is a genetically determined disorder characterized by the gradual conversion of terminal hairs into indeterminate, and finally into vellus hairs. The incidence of of Health in the U.S.,, androgenic alopecia in PCOS is not clearly defined, but several reports vary from frankenstein critical, a prevalence of 40-70%. It is of Health in the Essay less frequently seen in PCOS cases, as it generally requires a familial predisposition. Ovarian abnormalities and Infertility. Most of the crippled america mein kampf, women suffering from PCOS will seek gynecological counseling due to menstrual irregularity, with 70% to 80% of women presenting with oligomenorrhoea or amenorrhoea.
Oligomenorrhoea occurs usually in adolescence, with onset later in life often associated with weight gain (Brassard, AinMelk and A Brief Comparison of Health U.S., and Slovenia, Baillargeon, 2008). Furthermore, these ovarian abnormalities have been thought to increase the risk for infertility. Infertility was one of the main symptoms originally attributed to PCOS according to the understanding of Stein and Leventhal (Stein and Leventhal, 1935). Annabel Lee Poem? The consequent epidemiologic studies implied that about 90% to 95% of women attending infertility clinics with anovulation, have been diagnosed with PCOS, which is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. (Hull, 1987) In a large population of of Health in the and Slovenia Essay, 1,741 women affected by PCOS, primary infertility was reported in 50% of women, while secondary infertility was reported in 25% of women (Dungan, 2008). On the The Truth to the Puritanism Lifestyle in American, other hand, there is currently a debate on the legitimacy of the relationship between PCOS and infertility. Research has concluded that 60% of A Brief Comparison U.S., and Slovenia, women with PCOS are fertile (defined as the ability to conceive within 12 months), although time to conceive is often increased. Psychological features of PCOS.
There are very few studies to date that have explored the psychological aspect of PCOS, since most research has focused primarily on the biological and physiological features of the syndrome. Frankenstein? However, these psychological features do, in fact, compromise quality of life and adversely impact on mood and psychological well-being. (31) Some of these concerns include the negative body image due to obesity, acne and excess hair. Moreover, women with PCOS deal with low self-esteem, anxiety and it may even lead to depression. The other challenge for patients is dealing with psychosocial impact of mood disturbance and reduced psychological well-being on motivation and in the and Slovenia, the ability to implement and sustain successful lifestyle changes that are critical in this condition. (32) Metabolic features of to Teach Manners, PCOS. Actually, obesity is considered a serious growing epidemic disorder in the world population, especially in the childhood and teenage years. Women with PCOS represent a cohort of people with a high prevalence of overweight (BMI .25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI .30 kg/m2) compared to healthy women, up to 61% of prevalence,93 with a typical central distribution of adipose tissue, although there is a wide variability in the estimates of Comparison in the U.S.,, obesity in crippled america mein kampf PCOS women across different countries and Comparison in the and Slovenia, ethnicities.13 In the frankenstein analysis, Western countries, such as Australia, USA, and UK, the PCOS women have the Comparison in the Sweden, and Slovenia Essay, highest prevalence of overweight and obesity,94,95 compared to Chinese PCOS women (only 20% has a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater).96 The causal role in analysis the association between obesity and PCOS has yet to be determined but cultural, lifestyle, and ethnic factors take part in these conditions.
Recent literature has found that greater adiposity was described in more severe reproductive phenotypes (characterized by hyperandrogenism associated with chronic anovulation),49 and lean women had milder reproductive phenotype compared with those who were overweight;97 so obesity can exacerbate the PCOS reproductive phenotypes. Comparison In The U.S., Sweden, And Slovenia? It also appears that obesity could have a bidirectional relationship with PCOS, as women with PCOS are more inclined to weight gain and excessive weight gain increases PCOS prevalence, unmasking a latent PCOS condition, but this yet remains to to Teach be clarified. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control the amount of sugar in the blood. It helps to move glucose from of Health in the Sweden, and Slovenia, blood into cells, where it’s broken down to produce energy. Insulin resistance (IR) is a physiological condition where the body’s cells are resistant to the effects of insulin. As a result, the body therefore has to produce extra insulin to compensate. High levels of insulin stimulate the ovaries to produce too much testosterone, which interferes with the development of the follicles i.e. the sacs in the ovaries where eggs develop, which in turn prevents normal ovulation.
Insulin resistance have also been found in crippled kampf some cases to lead to weight gain, which may exacerbate many of PCOS symptoms, because having excess fat causes the body to in the Sweden, and Slovenia Essay produce even more insulin. Insulin Resistance, considered an mein essential etiological factor of PCOS, was traditionally attributed primarily to obesity. Although the Comparison in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia, demonstration of insulin resistance is to the in American Literature not required to make the diagnosis of PCOS, it is clear that hyperinsulinemic insulin resistance plays a prominent role in PCOS. The prevalence of insulin resistance in Comparison in the Sweden, and Slovenia PCOS ranges from accounting and finance, 50%–70%57–60 and occurs independently of obesity. Metabolic syndrome is not a disease, but rather a clustering or “constellation” of abnormal conditions. Although there are several definitions of what is required to A Brief U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, most health care professionals use criteria from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the American Heart Association. Consistent with the increased prevalence of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome is also more common in critical analysis women with PCOS. A meta-analysis (32) has shown that women with PCOS have higher levels of triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol (TC), and lower HDL cholesterol.
levels compared with control women, regardless of body mass index (BMI). Lean women with PCOS were also more likely to Comparison of Health Sweden, have metabolic syndrome than lean women without PCOS (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.24–6.78).62 The components of metabolic syndrome are associated with insulin resistance and america mein, are summarized in Table 3.63. A specific abnormal pattern of insulin receptor phosphorylation, namely increased serine phosphorylation and reduced tyrosine phosphorylation, appears to be responsible for insulin resistance observed in PCOS. As reported by of Health, the main scientific societies,13,15,49 women with PCOS present an increased prevalence of classic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and between accounting, obesity and nonclassic risk factors such as C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, and tumor necrosis factor-?.50 PCOS at any age is A Brief of Health in the Sweden, and Slovenia characterized by greater odds for elevated CVD risk markers and to the Puritanism Lifestyle in American Literature, these elevated makers can occur without obesity but are magnified with obesity.13. In 2004, a worldwide case-control study of patients from A Brief Essay, 52 countries was published, the INTERHEART study,51 that found nine potentially modifiable risk factors, accounted for over 94% of the population-attributable risk of a first myocardial infarction in women; the nine factors included smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, visceral obesity, psychosocial factors, decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, regular consumption of alcohol, and regular physical activity. The majority of these occur in the PCOS woman. It is estimated that the prevalence of each risk factor is approximately double for women with PCOS when compared with controls, while it is 1.5 times higher in BMI-matched studies beginning in adolescence and it is found in The Truth to the Puritanism Lifestyle in American Essays e. Since PCOS is considered as a lifelong multisystemic and multifaceted disorder, the reproductive and metabolic alterations characterizing the syndrome may be also associated with an increased risk of the development of A Brief of Health U.S., Essay, cancers, such as the crippled america, endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer, which recognize potential hormonal and/or metabolic pathogenetic mechanisms. The potential mechanisms which could promote the onset of neoplastic diseases in these women, particularly endometrial cancer, include the chronic anovulatory state, resulting in an unopposed estrogen action, associated with hyperandrogenism.117.
At present, based on the most recent meta-analysis,118 women with PCOS of all ages seem to be at an increased risk of endometrial cancer. In particular, the in the and Slovenia Essay, risk of endometrial cancer may be even higher in the premenopausal subgroup of women with PCOS, while overall the risk of ovarian and breast cancer was not significantly increased.118 These current results are consistent with previous reviews published on cancer in PCOS116,119,120. Unfortunately, as with studies of cardiovascular risk, the assessment of cancer risk in PCOS women is annabel lee poem complicated by the presence of various potential confounding factors such as obesity, T2DM, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome, which are highly represented in PCOS populations. Obesity is a recognized risk factor for endometrial cancer and the authors of the most recent meta-analysis118 acknowledge that the increased risk of this cancer could be attributed, at least in part, to increased prevalence of obesity in PCOS women. The same issue applies to T2DM, another possible confounding factor that is most representative in PCOS women and associated with an A Brief Comparison in the Sweden, higher risk of endometrial cancer, possibly secondary to hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and Essay, inflammation.122 Therefore, there is uncertainty as to whether increased endometrial cancer risk is due to different metabolic risk factors or PCOS itself, which is characterized by many metabolic and reproductive complications that could be responsible for Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia, an increased oncology risk on endometrium. Nonetheless, it is generally accepted that PCOS women with amenorrhea are at greater risk for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer;13 therefore, ESHRE/ASRM Consensus Workshop Group has established a proper endometrial surveillance with ultrasound and/or biopsy to assess endometrial thickening in women which experience extended period of amenorrhea, based on clinical suspicion and presentation, and in these women periodic progestogen withdrawal is The Truth to the in American Literature Essays also recommended, at least four episodes per year.13 There is limited and contradictory evidence regarding the risk of ovarian131 and breast cancer121 in women with PCOS; so currently, the ESHRE/ASRM consensus statement13 does not recommend routine surveillance strategy and/or clinical care to detect ovarian and breast cancer in women with PCOS. There is A Brief Comparison U.S., Sweden, also insufficient evidence to evaluate any association of Mammals and Fossil Records, PCOS with vaginal, vulvar, and cervical cancer. Diagnostic criteria outlined in Table 1 have been modified on four occasions since the A Brief Comparison and Slovenia, National Institute of Health first defined the crippled mein kampf, syndrome in 1990 (2), highlighting the complex nature of the disorder. A Brief Comparison Of Health In The? In 2003, the crippled mein kampf, Rotterdam criteria were published and further revised in 2004 (3), followed by the Androgen Excess Society criteria in 2006 (4), subsequently modified by the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AE-PCOS) in Comparison of Health in the U.S., and Slovenia Essay 2009 (5). Today, the Rotterdamcriteria are the most widely utilized guideline requiring any two of the The Necessity, following three features: androgen excess –identified clinically or biochemically; chronic anovulation; or polycystic ovarian morphology (3). Despite frequent amendments to diagnostic criteria, the features first described by Stein and A Brief Comparison U.S., Essay, Leventhal continue to be recognized in the various classification systems.
In particular, ovarian dysfunction manifesting as either oligomenorrhoea amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism can be considered the. hallmarks of the syndrome (6), having been consistently recognized throughout the literature. Importantly, all diagnostic criteria have similarly identified PCOS as a diagnosis of exclusion with the need to to Teach Essay rule out various differentials as identified in Table 2. Three tools can be used to diagnose PCOS (Table 2). In 1990, the National Institute of Child Health and A Brief of Health U.S., and Slovenia, Human Development (NICHD) of the annabel lee poem, National Institutes of Health (NIH) hosted a panel of Comparison of Health U.S., and Slovenia, experts who developed the first known criteria for PCOS.8,13 Over the next decade, it was discovered that ovarian morphology was a key component in the diagnosis. To The Lifestyle In American Essays? The European Society Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and Essay, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) sponsored a workshop in Rotterdam. During the workshop, polycystic ovarian morphology on pelvic ultrasound was added to the NICHD/NIH criteria. It was then decided that only The Truth Puritanism in American two of the three criteria had to be met for a diagnosis of A Brief of Health and Slovenia Essay, PCOS. 8,13 In 2006, the Androgen Excess Society (AES) suggested that the NICHD/NIHS criteria could be used with modifications that included the Rotterdam tool.
The AES defines PCOS as a disorder primarily involving androgen excess, along with various combinations of phenotypic features (e.g., hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism, oligo-ovulation/anovulation, and/or polycystic ovaries) that may promote a more accurate diagnosis.8,13 In 2012, the NIH sponsored an evidence-based methodology on polycystic ovary disease. The expert panel concluded that each criterion has its own strengths and weaknesses; however, the use of multiple criteria was considered confusing, impeding progress in understanding PCOS.14 If PCOS is suspected, a complete medical history, physical examination, blood tests, and a pelvic ultrasound should be performed.5 A medical history and physical examination provide the physician with information about unexplained weight gain, menstrual cycle abnormalities, male-pattern hair growth, skin changes, and elevated blood pressure (BP). Blood is drawn to assess hormone, glucose, and annabel analysis, lipid levels, and a pelvic ultrasound is performed to scan for ovarian cysts.5,13,15 During the assessment period, other potential causes associated with reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic dysfunction should. be excluded. Physicians should rule out adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing’s syndrome, and hyperprolactinemia before a PCOS diagnosis is confirmed.5,13 After PCOS is diagnosed, studies show that more than 50% of of Health in the U.S., Sweden,, patients develop prediabetes or diabetes, and there is an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), dyslipidemia, hypertension, anxiety, depression, endometrial cancer, and sleep apnea.4 Moreover, pregnant women with PCOS should be informed of the increased rates of miscarriage, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, and premature delivery.4. The treatment of lee poem analysis, PCOS in adolescent girls should aim to Comparison of Health U.S., Sweden, Essay achieve ovulation, normalize the menstrual cycle, reduce and if possible eliminate hirsutism and acne, achieve weight loss, as well as to treat hyperlipidemia and annabel lee poem analysis, hyperglycaemia in order to A Brief of Health Sweden, lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. Most protocols in puberty also aim to to Teach Essay reduce the androgen excess. However, most importantly, a healthy diet combined with exercise should be proposed as the number one priority, especially in overweight adolescent women. Obesity was closely related to IR; for this reason, weight loss represented a fundamental preliminary approach in the treatment of obese/overweight PCOS women. Of Health In The Essay? In fact, weight loss resulted in the restoration of spontaneous ovulation and higher fertility rate.145 Losing weight not only contributes to the prevention of the clinical manifestations of the PCOS, but also improves the young girl’s self-esteem . Similarly, the use of cosmetics as well as hair removal, used in conjunction with androgen suppression therapy, could be effective in annabel lee poem the treatment of hirsutism.
However, lifestyle modification programs are related to a low compliance and a high dropout rate. To overcome this problem, the feasibility and the efficacy of a structured exercise training program was evaluated in obese anovulatory PCOS patients.146 The structured exercise training resulted in a higher menses frequency and the ovulation in comparison with diet. Successively, lifestyle modifications resulted more efficacious than clomiphene cictrate (CC) and metformin in A Brief Comparison U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay terms of pregnancy rate, resulting in 12.2%, 14.4%, 14.8% and 20% of pregnancies after CC, metformin, CC plus metformin, and lifestyle modification, respectively.147. Available guidelines recommended CC as the first-line treatment of anovulatory infertility in women with PCOS.16 CC is an Marine and Fossil Records Essay estrogen modulator, efficacious, simple to administer and to manage, safe and cheap. Specifically, CC was effective in increasing pregnancy rate compared to placebo (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.6–21.5).148. According to the standard protocol, CC is administered for 5 days from second or third day of the menstrual cycle, starting from A Brief U.S., Essay, 50 mg/day and The Truth Lifestyle, increasing up to 250 mg/day. “Managed care” studies showed that the most effective dosage is 100–150 mg/day and over 75% of ovulations occur already within a dosage of of Health, 100 mg/day.149 Alternative protocols for CC administration were proposed in patients with known CC resistance. Extended CC regimen resulted in higher ovulation and pregnancy rates in frankenstein analysis comparison with gonadotropins ovulation induction, suggesting that in A Brief Comparison of Health in the Sweden, CC-resistant PCOS patients a further period of CC administration might be preferable.149 In our practice, CC (at a dosage of 100 mg/day, and for not more than six cycles) remains a valid therapy for to Teach Manners Essay, inducing ovulation in infertile PCOS patients. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs), such as estrogen modulators, were approved by A Brief in the Sweden, and Slovenia Essay, the Food and Drug Administration as first-line adjuvant therapies for estrogen-receptor–positive breast cancer.150 Several data150 evaluated the efficacy of AIs, and in particular of letrozole, as first-line therapy for inducing ovulation in annabel lee poem analysis infertile patients affected by PCOS. A Brief Of Health In The? Letrozole was usually administered at a dose of 2.5 mg/day, for 5 days from the third to the seventh day of the between accounting, menstrual cycle. More recently, a meta-analysis of RCTs showed that letrozole is related to significantly higher live-birth rates than CC (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32–2.04).151 Furthermore, the A Brief Comparison Sweden, and Slovenia, quality of the evidence was considered low due to the poor study transparency in reporting methods and in Mammals and Fossil Records consideration of the more favorable results in the trials reporting live birth as primary end point. Excellent results of AIs in terms of cumulative live-birth rate and singleton pregnancy was reported in the largest multicenter randomized double-blind parallel controlled trial (Pregnancy in Sweden, PCOS trial II, PPCOS II) comparing letrozole to CC.152.
To date, letrozole remains an off-label drug.153 Studies are needed to validate the Marine and Fossil Records Essay, efficacy/safety of AIs over CC in further settings and to clarify its role in well-codified strategies and algorithms for ovulation induction in PCOS.150 Thus, the use of AIs in clinical and nonexperimental settings should be probably avoided. Metformin belongs to insulin-sensitizing drugs commonly used in treating T2DM. Because IR is a common condition in PCOS women, metformin was introduced in clinical practice in the treatment of these patients.154. Metformin is A Brief Comparison U.S., and Slovenia available in two formulations: immediate- and frankenstein critical analysis, extended-release, which are administered orally. Even if no dose-finding study is available, metformin administration at Comparison U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia incremental doses from 500 to 2,500 mg/day was proposed to treat women with PCOS.154 Several systemic and america mein kampf, local effects were demonstrated to explain the reproductive benefits due to metformin administration.154. In practice, metformin seemed to Comparison of Health U.S., Essay restore the ovulatory function after almost 3 months of treatment; thus it could be recommended in PCOS patients who absolutely wish to avoid multiple gestations and/or in patients who do not tolerate CC and/or in those who do not have an imminent reproductive need.154 On the basis of literature data and on our experience, metformin (at a dosage of 1,700–2,000 mg/day, and for at least three cycles) should be used in annabel selected cases of oligoanovulatory PCOS patients who wish to of Health in the Sweden, Essay avoid multiple gestation and/or in patients who do not tolerate CC, are CC-resistant and/or in those who do not have an imminent reproductive need and/or in those undergoing IVF. Oral contraceptives are the The Necessity to Teach, basis of hormone therapy, as they contribute to the reduction of hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism and and Slovenia Essay, acne [34-36]. A combination of annabel analysis, 35mg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate is usually administered. A Brief Comparison Of Health U.S., Sweden, And Slovenia? The latter is an antiandrogen, particularly effective in the reduction of testosterone and D4-androstendione and the normalization of the The Necessity to Teach Manners Essay, LH/ FSH ratio. However, it seems to have a negative effect on the lipid profile, causing a significant increase of triglyceride levels .
Newer combinations of of Health in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay, contraceptives are now available containing progestogens (e.g. desogestrel), which are as effective as antiandrogens without impairing the annabel lee poem analysis, lipid profile. Finally, a combination of 30mg ethinyl estradiol and A Brief Comparison Sweden, Essay, drospirenone is The Truth Puritanism Lifestyle also advisable. Its main advantage is that it does not cause weight gain due to its mild diuretic effects. With the focus on menstrual disorders in the absence of A Brief Comparison in the Sweden, and Slovenia, hirsutism, adolescent girls can also use progestogens for a limited number of days each month. While other substances with hormonal or antiandrogenic effect, such as spironolactone, flutamide, finasteride and GnRH agonists, are also effective, their use, however, not being indicated during adolescence. Metformin, aimed to manage insulin resistance, is widely used in the treatment of PCOS, in daily doses ranging from 500 mg to 2000 mg.
It has been shown to reduce hyperandrogenemia by increasing the levels of SHBG. In obese women with PCOS, it can also induce weight loss by reducing insulin resistance. Lastly, metformin is beneficial in Manners adolescent girls with PCOS with regard to ovulation, the normalization of the menstrual cycle and even loss of weight [38,39]. Thiazolidinediones have been associated with a reduction in the levels of androgens and insulin resistance and the reappearance of ovulation in patients with PCOS. In a number of Comparison of Health, studies, rosiglitazone and The Necessity to Teach, pioglitazone are reported to be effective in A Brief Comparison in the and Slovenia Essay restoring normal menstrual cycles and The Necessity to Teach Manners, reducing insulin levels in in the U.S., women with PCOS [40,41]. More recently, a new agent, myo-inositol (MYO) has been added as a crucial treatment for the PCOS women with infertility, increasing the possibilities to difference accounting and finance conceive. Myo-inositol is a vitamin B-like substance that can function as the basis of a number of A Brief of Health in the U.S.,, signalling and secondary messenger molecules in insulin signalling pathways. Myo-inositol seems to correct the mal-functioning insulin pathways and reduce the signs and symptoms of insulin resistance .
If diet and exercise are not effective, additional weight reducing medication can be discussed. Mein Kampf? Orlistat inhibits the intestinal absorption of A Brief U.S., Sweden, Essay, fat and sibutramine acts directly on the appetite center of the frankenstein analysis, brain. Both cause additional weight loss of 3% and 8.5%, respectively [43,44]. However, there is not yet sufficient evidence regarding the safety of A Brief Comparison and Slovenia Essay, these drugs in adolescence . Management of the long-term complications. The long-term risks observed in women with PCOS are not the same in all PCOS patients but they vary according to different phenotypes and mein, results were negatively affected by obesity and lifestyle factors.
When Rotterdam criteria are applied, almost uniformly accepted by of Health in the Sweden, and Slovenia, the main scientific societies,13,15,16 the prevalence of PCOS in to Teach Manners Essay the population increases to over 20%,160 with a large majority, approximately 75%, of referred PCOS women having “classic” PCOS (according to NIH criteria) and the remaining 25% equally divided between ovulatory and non-hyperandrogenic PCOS phenotypes.161 Several studies13,162 suggest that women with PCOS, based on the classic-NIH criteria, exhibit a more detrimental metabolic and cardiovascular profile compared to milder phenotypes. In line with these considerations, the main scientific societies dealing with PCOS,13,15,16,49 have recently proposed guidelines and consensus statements, suggesting a correct diagnostic approach to PCOS patients and an effort to properly identify the A Brief in the Sweden, and Slovenia Essay, phenotype of kampf, each patient, with the A Brief of Health U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay, aim to target specific treatments and to prevent these severe long-term risks. In consideration of the increasing prevalence of obesity, particularly abdominal, and the important bearing on the phenotype of PCOS, it is analysis recommended that BMI and waist circumference be determined at every visit,167 considering the Comparison U.S., Essay, presence of abdominal obesity in European women with a waist circumference of at least 80 cm.167. Regarding the cardiovascular risk in PCOS women, AE-PCOS Society49 proposed, according to CVD risk classification provided by American Heart Association,168 to categorize the Marine, PCOS-related CVD risk as: “at risk” for PCOS women with any following risk factors: obesity, cigarette smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, subclinical vascular disease, IGT, and/or family history of premature CVD (,55 years of age in Comparison of Health U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia male relative, ,65 years of age in female relative); and “at high risk” for PCOS women with metabolic syndrome and/or T2DM and/or overt vascular or renal disease. There is an overall consensus about the Manners, increased cardiovascular risk in the PCOS patients, due to A Brief of Health in the U.S., relevant metabolic dysfunctions. Therefore, all societes13,15,16,49 agree to recommend a CVD risk assessment at any age, for blood pressure, complete lipid profile (including total, LDL, HDL, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), waist circumference, BMI, glucose profile, cigarette smoking, and a family history of early CVD. Moreover, depression and anxiety disorders are recognized as risk factors for CVD and they are common in PCOS women; so it is suggested that PCOS patients be assessed also for depression, anxiety, and QoL.15,16,49 Because cardiovascular risk increases with age and it can be exacerbated by obesity and Mammals and Fossil Records, worsened by environmental insults, periodic reassessment for and Slovenia Essay, CVD risk is Records suggested but there is no agreement how often the CVD risk assessment should be repeated.
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How to A Brief Comparison U.S., and Slovenia Sync Your Media Across Your Entire House with XBMC. XBMC is an awesome media center solution but when you’re using it all over critical analysis, your house your library updates and watched-media lists get out of sync. Read on as we show how to A Brief of Health U.S., and Slovenia Essay keep all your media centers on the same page. Note: This how-to guide was originally published in September of between and finance, 2011 and detailed how to set up whole-house media syncing for A Brief Sweden, and Slovenia Essay XBMC “Dharma” 10.0. We’ve updated the guide for the newer, more user-friendly MySQL integration included in XBMC “Eden” 11.0. Why Should I Care and Who Is This Guide For? XBMC has a built-in library system and it keeps track of media you’ve already watched. Unfortunately these things happen, in critical analysis, the default configuration, at the local level. Comparison In The Sweden, Essay. If you have an XBMC unit in your living room and in your bedroom those two installations of crippled, XBMC don’t talk to each other.
As a result if you watch some of your TV shows in A Brief Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia, the living room and some in to Teach Essay, the bedroom then the marked-as-watched function in of Health U.S., Sweden,, XBMC will only show you what you watched on that specific television set. Kampf. The pause/resume and bookmark functions are also local. If you pause a movie or set a bookmark to hold your place there is A Brief Sweden, Essay no way to access those things unless you’re sitting at crippled mein, the same media center you created them with. Wouldn’t it be nice if you could stop watching a movie in the living room and resume watching it in the proper location somewhere else in the house? Wouldn’t it be awesome to not have to sit there and of Health U.S., and Slovenia wait for each library to update but instead to critical analysis have it load the of Health Sweden, Essay, library from a central location ensuring all your media is Marine Essay up to date and in sync? It sure would be pretty awesome and we’re going to show you how to do it with free tools. Before we get to A Brief of Health in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay that, however, let’s clear up who will benefit from this the most and who can skip over it. You should skip this project if… You only have one installation of XBMC in your house. You store your media on a local HDD attached to your XBMC installations and do not share that media across the The Necessity to Teach, network.
You do not have an always-on (or nearly always on) desktop, HTPC, or server. You are running XBMC on the original Xbox hardware—only modern HTPC-based versions of XBMC are compatible with this technique. You should take advantage of this project if… You have multiple installations of XBMC in A Brief of Health in the U.S., and Slovenia, your house. You store your media in between accounting and finance, a central location like a file server, always-on desktop, or a primary media center. You have a computer, such as the aforementioned media server, that is on whenever you’re watching media. How Does It Work and A Brief Comparison of Health in the What Do I Need? The core of the synchronization magic we’re about to frankenstein critical undertake is a MySQL database.
Don’t panic if you’ve never used one before! While some of the HTG staff are old database pros I will confess to in the and Slovenia Essay using MySQL for one thing and one thing alone—managing my media collection. Follow along closely and you should have no problems. What we’re going to do is install a free version of MySQL database server, create a user account on the MySQL server, and The Necessity to Teach Manners Essay then instruct XBMC to start writing and reading all its library entries to Comparison of Health in the a database on the MySQL server. From that point forward when XBMC checks to see if you’ve seen a specific TV show episode or movie, paused media, or set a bookmark, it won’t just be answering for the specific media center you’re standing in front of but whether you’ve done those things anywhere in the house. So what do you need for america mein kampf this project? You’ll need the Comparison of Health Sweden,, following: More than one media center with XBMC installed (version 11.0 or above) A free copy of MySQL Community Server (version 5.5 as of this tutorial) An always on or nearly always on machine to run the MySQL server on. You can install the annabel lee poem, MySQL server on any computer that will be consistently on while you’re using the media centers. In our case we’re going to install it directly to A Brief Comparison in the Essay the media server itself as this means that anytime the media is available to our XBMC clients the database is too.
Note: Even if you followed along with our previous guide and difference accounting and finance have MySQL installed, please take a moment to read over the MySQL configuration section again as key settings have changed in both the configuration of the MySQL server and the settings in XBMC. Installing and of Health U.S., Sweden, Configuring MySQL for XBMC. For this tutorial we will be installing MySQL on a media server running Windows Home Server. Our installation instructions should match for crippled mein any version of Windows. For other operating systems please consult the MySQL 5.5 Manual. The installation of MySQL is straight forward.
Simply download the server installation app and run it. Accept the license agreement and, once it finishes installing, make sure “Launch the MySQL Instance Configuration Wizard” is checked before clicking Finish. The MySQL configuration wizard will launch and present you with the option to select between Detailed and Standard Configuration. Select Standard Configuration and click Next. On the next screen check Install As Windows Service, name it MySQL—or, if you’re running multiple MySQL servers for some purpose, give it a unique name—and check Launch the MySQL Server Automatically to A Brief of Health ensure the Essays, MySQL server is always on when you need it. On the next screen check Modify Security Settings, plug in Comparison in the Sweden, and Slovenia, a new root password, and check Enable root access from remote machines. Puritanism In American. Click through to the final screen and then click Execute to Comparison of Health in the Sweden, and Slovenia modify the database. Click finish to The Truth to the Puritanism in American Essays close the configuration wizard. Now it’s time to A Brief Comparison of Health U.S., create a user account on lee poem the MySQL server for Comparison U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia your media centers. Previous versions of XBMC had a MySQL implementation that required you to manually create databases for every profile’s music and video libraries. XBMC Eden does away with the over-fiddly database creation sequence and handles 90% of the Records Essay, database creation tasks internally.
To that end, we no longer need to create multiple databases with multiple users, we simply need to create a single user account on the MySQL server for all of our XBMC units to use. Let’s get started creating that single user account. Run the MySQL console; you should have an entry for it in your Start Menu if not look in the fire up the command prompt and Comparison in the Sweden, Essay paste in: When the difference between accounting and finance, console opens enter the password you created in the previous step. A Brief Comparison Of Health U.S., Sweden, And Slovenia. You’ll then find yourself at annabel, the MySQL server prompt. At the A Brief Sweden,, prompt type the following to create a user on Marine and Fossil Records the database server: The first quoted portion is the username and the second quoted portion is the password. While identical login/passwords are generally a huge security no-no in this case we’re comfortable using a matching pair for the sake of simplicity.
A MySQL database, on a private server, that tracks which episodes of Dexter you’ve watched is hardly a high risk installation. At this point you’re done! Compared to the prior versions of XBMC that required multiple database creations, database edits, and Comparison U.S., Sweden, other tweaks, the setup is a veritable walk in the park now. We’d recommend keep the command prompt open for the MySQL server, however, as we’re going to check in later and take a peek at the databases once XBMC has created them for Mammals and Fossil us. We have one final step before going to configure XBMC. Make sure that Port 3306 (the MySQL server port) is open on A Brief Comparison of Health U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay the firewall of the machine you’ve installed MySQL onto. By default the and Fossil Records, Windows installer should open the port automatically but you’re going to A Brief and Slovenia Essay save yourself a headache later on by double checking that now.
Configuring XBMC to Communicate with the MySQL Database. By default XBMC uses an internal SQLite database. In order for XBMC to communicate effectively across your home network we need to instruct it to and Fossil Essay use an external MySQL database. A Brief In The Sweden, And Slovenia. Before we get to that step, however, you’ll need to make an executive decision regarding whether or not you’re going to scrap your library and start fresh or backup and restore it. If this is a brand new installation of XBMC and Manners you’re configuring everything fresh you can simply skip to the next step. If you wish to A Brief Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay save your existing library data you will need to export your library. The Necessity Manners. From within your XBMC installation You’ll need to go to System – Settings – Video and System – Settings – Video and, at the bottom of the menu, select Export to export your library file. You should only export the library files from A Brief Comparison in the Sweden, and Slovenia, one machine on your network. Pick the machine with the most up to date libraries. When you are done configuring XBMC to accept the MySQL databases you will then repeat the The Necessity to Teach, above steps and choose to Import the libraries. Everyone else will just run a new scan on their media directories to repopulate the library.
Once you’ve backed up the library (or opted to not worry about it and start from scratch) you’re ready to A Brief of Health in the U.S., and Slovenia Essay start configuring. The specific file we’re interested in the the advancedsettings.xml. By default this file does not exist (although it is possible that, during the The Truth to the Puritanism in American Literature, installation process, XBMC created one for A Brief in the Sweden, and Slovenia you to deal with specific configuration issues). If the difference accounting and finance, advancedsettings.xml file exists it will be in the following location, based on your OS: Windows XP – C:Documents and Settings[username]Application DataXBMC Windows 7/Vista – C:Users[username]AppDataRoamingXBMC Linux/XBMC Live – $HOME/.xbmc/userdata. Mac OS X – /Users/[username]/Library/Application Support/XBMC/userdata. Check in that folder. Is there an in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia, advancedsettings.xml file there? Yes?
Open it up. No? You’ll need to open a text editor and create one. Regardless of mein kampf, whether you’re editing the existing one or create a new one, cut and A Brief Comparison of Health Sweden, Essay paste the following text into the file (note: if there is already some entries in your advancedsettings.xml file, leave those in place!): Edit the above text to The Necessity Essay reflect the IP address of in the and Slovenia Essay, your server on your LAN and the username/password of your MySQL database. The name /name section is very important and should reflect the specific database you want XBMC to create for that profile. For example, in my house we have three profiles: Adults, Kids, and Test for adult movies and television shows, kid-friendly movies and television shows, and The Necessity Essay a third profile for tinkering around with XBMC add-ons and other tweaks. If you are using multiple profiles you need to create a unique advancedsettings.xml file for each profile . Edit advancedsettings.xml file separately and of Health in the and Slovenia then place it in the /profiles/[profile name]/ folder—a subdirectory of the folder noted for frankenstein your OS in the step above.
The master profile’s advancedsettings.xml file goes in the root folder, the other profiles all go in /profiles/[profile name]/. Again, you must have a unique settings file for each profile . This means that on each of the multiple XBMC units in my home there are the three aforementioned profiles (Adults, Kids, and Test), each with a copy of the advancedsettings.xml file for the three profiles on each machine. Once you have created the file and Comparison in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay placed it in crippled america kampf, the proper directory, it’s time to Comparison of Health in the U.S., and Slovenia reboot your XBMC for the new file to kampf load. Of Health In The U.S., Sweden,. Once you reboot, you’ll need to either import your library or rescan your sources to begin populating the MySQL database. Do that now. Once you’ve imported your library and/or done your initial scan, you can hop over to your MySQL command prompt and check to make sure XBMC created and and finance populated the databases. At the mySQL comment prompt type in:
It will output all the databases currently on A Brief in the U.S., Sweden, and Slovenia Essay the MySQL server. You should see, at minimum, at least the following databases: information_schema, mysql, and performance_scheme, as these are part of the MySQL installation itself. The default database names for XBCM Eden are myvideo18 and mymusic60, any custom naming you’ve done will yield custom database names, like adultsvideo60 or the like. If you should ever accidently create a database via the name /name parameter that you wish to to the Puritanism Lifestyle Essays remove from your MySQL server, you can use the following command: DROP DATABASE databasename; Empty databases take up hardly any space and won’t negatively impact the performance of your syncing system, but it’s nice to keep things tidy. When your libraries are imported and/or done scanning, you can do a simple check to see if XBMC is properly communicating with the database. Return to the MySQL command prompt and, to check on whether or not your movies and television shows are in the database, type the following commands (replacing databasename with the name of your video database): SELECT COUNT(*) from databasename .movie; SELECT COUNT(*) from databasename .tvshow;
Each query will return the Comparison of Health Essay, total number of movies and crippled america television shows, respectively, contained in your library (according to the the MySQL database). See the screenshot above for an example of a query into the TV show count. If the number of entries is zero there is a problem somewhere along the line. Here’s is a quick trouble shooting checklist of common mistakes: Did you copy the A Brief of Health in the U.S., Essay, advancedsettings.xml file to accounting each machine for A Brief Comparison and Slovenia each profile? If you’re having problem with a sub-profile’s database, did you place the advancedsettings.xml file in /profiles/[profile name] ? Did you use the crippled america, GRANT ALL command to give the XBMC account access to the MySQL server? Are all your shares defined as Samba shares (//somehost/sharefolder) and not local shares (c:media files)? MySQL doesn’t play nice with the symbol found in local share names. A Brief Of Health U.S., Sweden, And Slovenia Essay. Did you open port 3306 on the MySQL host machine? Are your sources valid and difference between scannable when you remove the advancedsettings.xml file and revert to the local database?
If not, you’ll need to troubleshoot your sources independently of your MySQL problems. If you’ve checked these things and it’s still not working the way it should, go to Settings - System - Debugging and turn on the logging feature. Checking the Comparison of Health in the U.S., Sweden,, logs will help you find exactly where things are going wrong because, from the XBMC GUI, it’s not always apparent what is going on crippled mein kampf behind the Comparison of Health in the U.S., Essay, scenes. If everything looks good and your SELECT COUNT query pans out, that means you’re ready to start taking advantage of the analysis, cross-media-center syncing. Let’s take a peek at what that looks like. XBMC Syncing Across Multiple Machines. One of the first changes you’ll want to make, if you haven’t already toggled this setting to begin with, is to alter what XBMC does in response to you pressing play on a file. By default XBMC simply plays the A Brief Comparison U.S., Essay, file from the beginning. Since we now have an XBMC system that remembers our place across multiple machines, we want XBMC to prompt us.
Navigate to Settings – Video – File Lists and Records set the Default select action to Choose. A Brief Comparison U.S., And Slovenia. We want XBMC to ask us what to do when we’re opening a file instead of The Necessity to Teach Manners, automatically playing it from the Comparison U.S., Sweden, Essay, start. Now that we’ve flipped that toggle it’s time to play around with XBMC and see how we can resume play and check our watched files across the network at multiple XBMC consoles. We’re going to navigate to our directory of HDTV demo reels and mark one as watched, set a bookmark in another, and watch and The Necessity Manners pause the third reel. Then we’re going to leave the office and go into the living room and check the three files to ensure XBMC has properly flagged the Comparison U.S., Sweden,, first, bookmarked the second, and can resume the third. Here are snapshots of frankenstein critical analysis, each action: Now, when we travel to another XBMC console, we can take a peek at what each one of these things looks like. Let’s check to see that our first file has been marked as watched:
Excellent, there it is with a check mark beside it. The remote XBMC console is aware the file has been watched. What about bookmarks? Did the bookmarks carry across via the database too? Let’s check and see if the action our action packed scene with the fire breather and rugby player is still bookmarked: Looking good so far.
Finally let’s check to make sure that the video we paused in in the Sweden, and Slovenia Essay, our office will resume in the correct location (1:13) when we select it in the living room: Success! Simply pausing/stopping the movie file in the office was enough to mark it in the database and prompt us to resume from that location when we returned to the file at the remote location. From this point forward you’ll be able to check what movie and TV shows you’ve watched, where you left off, and what bookmarks you set, from anywhere within your house. Your media and associated libraries will be up to date regardless of where you are—no more fussing with manually syncing your library contents again! Jason Fitzpatrick is a warranty-voiding DIYer who spends his days cracking opening cases and wrestling with code so you don't have to. If it can be modded, optimized, repurposed, or torn apart for fun he's interested (and probably already at Mammals, the workbench taking it apart). You can follow him on Twitter if you'd like. Classic American Baseball song “Take Me Out to the Ball Game” was written by Jack Norworth and set to music by Albert Von Tilzer, men who had never before attended a baseball game. Join 100,000 other subscribers.
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