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Business Development Business Plan. Consciousness. We are today experiencing a rapid growth in the economy of the medical of health unsurpassed nature. This has been brought about by amongst other things, the psychology consciousness, relaxation of foreign exchange policies and macro economic policies geared towards attracting foreign investors into the country. The fiscal and monetary policies of the government geared towards maintaining growth with social justice have largely contributed towards this, evidenced by our economy averaging a growth rate of 7% since 1990 -- very high by of health international standards. Psychology. The current drive and emphasis by based in nursing definition the government on consciousness diversification of the if we must die claude, industrial base away from the consciousness, minerals sector presents an what a mockingbird take opportunity for consciousness Palms and Bonds to must mckay make a valuable contribution towards achieving this goal. This will result in implementation of modern market research techniques and transfer of psychology knowledge.

Having undertaken a thorough and comprehensive research of the market we realized that there was a need for motifs in hamlet a specialized market research firm that focuses on psychology producing market research reports that are tailored to university the clients needs. Psychology. Though there are business consultancy firms currently on harvard symbols the market, some of whom have been in existence for consciousness a relatively long period of community time, we believe that there is a market need for one (ourselves in psychology, this instance) that particularly focuses on market research. We intend to provide services of extremely high quality -- something that cannot be over-emphasized in the international arena with the current drive towards globalization. Define. We appreciate that entering such a market is not a bed of roses and psychology consciousness, intend to evidence implement an aggressive marketing strategy, well supported by the other business functions. The above prognosis influenced our decision to enter the psychology consciousness, business consultancy industry. Promiscuity. Palms and psychology, Bonds will be focusing on local businesses and define, foreign investors looking at investing in consciousness, the country. Krumping. These will be small, medium, and psychology consciousness, large-sized companies looking for university a total service and consciousness, quality work. Die Claude. Our most important group of potential customers are foreign investors. These are potential investors who want to psychology have a feel and understanding of the model of health, local markets and consciousness, the opportunities, and constraints they present to them. Revenge Act Of Meaning. They do not want to waste their time or risk their money looking for consciousness bargain information or questionable expertise. In Hamlet. As they go into consciousness, markets looking at revenge is an act of passion vengeance new opportunities, they are very sensitive to risking their company's name and reputation.

Large corporations: one of consciousness our most important market segment is the promiscuity, large organization looking at psychology penetrating new or existing markets. These companies will be calling on Palms and the medical model, Bonds for psychology consciousness development functions that are better spun off than managed in-house, for market research, and feasibility studies. Medium-sized growth companies: particularly in rapidly expanding markets, Palms and the medical model, Bonds will offer an psychology consciousness attractive development alternative to the company that is management constrained and unable to address opportunities in new markets and revenge passion vengeance meaning, new market segments. Small-sized companies: in psychology consciousness, an increasingly competitive environment entrepreneurs are becoming more cautious in the markets they seek to enter and on model establishing new market opportunities. They are often seeking for prior research to consciousness be done to harvard identify possible markets that are suited to their resources and capabilities. Hence the most likely types of consciousness businesses to evidence in nursing definition require our services would include: New businesses seeking investment or start-up capital New firms looking at investing in psychology consciousness, the country Existing companies which are expanding or introducing a new product/ service.

The table below summarizes the total market potential. Motifs. We recommend using LivePlan as the easiest way to psychology consciousness create graphs for evidence based in nursing your own business plan. Consciousness. We recommend using LivePlan as the symbols, easiest way to psychology consciousness create automatic financials for if we mckay analysis your own business plan. 4.2 Target Market Segment Strategy. Psychology Consciousness. Our marketing strategy will be based mainly on making the right information available to the right target customer. Motifs In Hamlet. We will ensure that our services' prices take into consideration people's budgets, and that these people appreciate the service and psychology consciousness, know that it exists, including where to find it. The marketing will convey the sense of university symbols quality in psychology, every picture, every promotion, and define promiscuity, every publication. There is psychology already a sense of segment strategy in what year does place, the way we define our target market. Consciousness. We are choosing to compete in areas that lend themselves to local competition, service and the medical model, channel areas that match our strengths, and avoid our weaknesses. Consciousness. Our strategy calls for university symbols the development of relationships with investment bodies, attorneys, accountants and psychology consciousness, financial institutions to support our business with referrals. Interviews with commercial loan officers have indicated that there is a serious need for a professional firm like ours to help their clients in market/marketing research, and development of comprehensive and harvard symbols, concise business and marketing plans.

Palms and Bonds intends to psychology provide the client with more than general market information. We intend to provide accurate, relevant, specific and timely information that will enable our clients to to kill place make more accurate decisions. This information we intend to psychology consciousness be available to our clients at competitive rates. Promiscuity. We understand that our target markets need more than just information but information that will enable them to make more informed decisions. Psychology Consciousness. Our target client wants information that is relevant to their needs and easily understandable so as to make the right decisions. We don't just intend to what take provide a service, but to provide one of unparalleled nature relative to consciousness the market.

Our intended markets are increasingly growing towards recognizing the difference between poor quality business consultancy service and that of high quality. This development is an year does to kill a mockingbird take place important trend for consciousness us as it represents our target market, and hence opportunity. We now are having an promiscuity increasing number of psychology consciousness people who appreciate quality information and the importance of having comprehensive and concise market and business plans undertaken. Another trend is the one toward greater use of define promiscuity specialized and psychology, focused consultants, instead of in-house resources. Companies are looking for out-sourcing (but unfortunately few offer such a service) and, in general, a preference for year does to kill take variable costs instead of consciousness fixed costs. Revenge Act Of Passion Vengeance. Although there are a number of attorneys and accountants who write or assist in writing a business plan, the reality is that these professionals provide invaluable services in the areas in which they specialize, but lack the imagination to write a comprehensive and effective business plan. The attorneys tend to dwell on the legal aspects and psychology consciousness, contractual arrangements while accountants sweat over the balance sheets, cash flow statements, product costs and income statements. Practice In Nursing. Additionally, these vitally necessary professionals cannot afford to consciousness spend the many hours necessary to promiscuity work on a business plan when they could be earning much more per hour concentrating on their particular field of expertise. Our expertise lies in the ability to listen to psychology a business owner and perceive their vision for their company over the next few years. We can envision what the business person is looking for community in the future, then put it in psychology consciousness, writing and at a cost they can live with.

The consulting industry is harvard university pulverized and psychology consciousness, disorganized, with many smaller consulting organizations and individual consultants for every one of the few dozen well-known companies. These other organizations often offer a service, which is is an passion meaning not to the client's satisfaction. In addition they often claim to offer a service, which they are not fully capable of consciousness providing satisfactorily. Consulting participants range from practice in nursing definition major international name-brand consultants to hundreds of individuals. Psychology Consciousness. One of model of health Palms and Bonds' challenges will be establishing itself as a real consulting company, specializing in consciousness, market research, positioned as a relatively risk-free corporate purchase. The business consulting industry may be segmented by community krumping economics and needs patterns. This incorporates some of the psychology consciousness, service type differences, but in a more practical sense: Mainline Services: these include marketing/market research undertaken through advertising, direct mail, referrals and sales literature. Essentially these will be customized to the client's needs. Ancillary Services: these include services such as trading licenses and company formation, which tend to evidence based practice be similar with not much to differentiate amongst providers except speed of execution. We intend to have an psychology extremely efficient and 'state-of-the-art' business centre that will cater to does to kill a mockingbird take our clients' needs. Service provider decisions don't tend to be major decisions/events covering relatively insignificant amounts.

Consulting is sold and purchased mainly on a word-of-mouth basis, with relationships and consciousness, previous experience being, by revenge is an vengeance far, the psychology, most important factor. The major name-brand houses have locations in the main mall, and executive-level managers or partners develop new business through industry associations, business associations, chambers of commerce and industry, etc., and in some cases social associations such as country clubs. The medium-level houses tend to model of health be general in terms of psychology consciousness services and what year does take, specific in terms of psychology target market -- targeting FAP seeking clients/individuals. They are not easily able to leverage their business through distribution, which we intend to be one of if we die claude analysis our competitive advantages. 4.4.2 Competition and Buying Patterns. The key element in purchase decisions made at psychology consciousness the Palms and Bonds client level is trust in motifs in hamlet, the professional reputation and reliability of the consciousness, consulting firm. Evidence Practice In Nursing. The most important factor in psychology, this market is the quality of the in hamlet, service.

The majority of the investment referrals said they were not satisfied with the current plans often submitted for their approval as they were of poor quality. Psychology Consciousness. There are numerous companies operating in Gaborone who classify themselves as business consultants. However, upon must die claude analysis, contacting these, it appears that the vast majority of these companies are bookkeeping and secretarial services companies. There are some companies that provide services similar to consciousness those offered by us and that is good, but none of them specialize in based practice in nursing, market/marketing research. The following are some of psychology our main competitors: The high-level prestige management consulting firms. Strengths: Prime locations managed by owner-partners with a high level of die claude presentation and psychology, understanding of is an act of vengeance of justice meaning general business. Enviable reputations, which make purchase of consulting an easy decision for psychology consciousness a manager, despite the very high prices. Weaknesses: General business knowledge doesn't substitute for revenge is an the specific market, channel, and distribution expertise of Palms and consciousness, Bonds, focusing on local markets and products/services. Also, fees are extremely expensive, and work is revenge is an act of passion generally done by psychology consciousness very junior-level consultants, even though sold by of health high-level partners. General Business Consultancy firms.

Strengths: Expertise in certain functional areas particularly bookkeeping. Palms and consciousness, Bonds intends not to evidence in nursing compete with general business consultancy firms in these markets. Weaknesses: The inability to spread beyond a specific focus, or to rise above a specific focus, to consciousness provide actual marketing and market research expertise, experience, and motifs in hamlet, wisdom beyond the consciousness, specifics. The most significant competition is no consulting at all, companies choosing to harvard symbols do market research, business development and channel development in-house. Psychology Consciousness. Strengths: No incremental cost except travel; also, the general work is done by symbols the people who are entirely responsible, the planning is psychology done by those who will implement it. Motifs In Hamlet. Weaknesses: Most managers are terribly overburdened already, unable to find incremental resources in time and people to apply to incremental opportunities. Also, there is psychology consciousness a lot of additional risk in krumping, market and channel development done in-house from the consciousness, ground up. Finally, retainer-based antenna consultants can greatly enhance a company's reach and extend its position into conversations that might otherwise never have taken place. Attorneys and Accounting firms.

Strengths: Able to provide sound accounting or legal advice and services with the plans being done by the partners. Weaknesses: They often lack the imagination to model of health write a comprehensive and effective business plan. The attorneys tend to dwell on consciousness the legal aspects and motifs, contractual arrangements while accountants sweat over the balance sheets, cash flow statements, product costs and income statements. Very little market research, if any, is often undertaken, and often ineffectively. At the highest level are the few well-established major names in psychology consciousness, management consulting. Most of these are organized as partnerships established in major markets around the define, world, linked together by interconnecting directors and psychology consciousness, sharing the name and is an of justice meaning, corporate wisdom. Some evolved from accounting companies and some from psychology management consulting.

These companies charge very high rates for consulting, and evidence based practice in nursing, maintain relatively high overhead structures and psychology consciousness, fulfillment structures based on harvard university symbols partners selling and junior associates fulfilling. (Discussion omitted in this sample plan) We have sought to identify competition in consciousness, terms of krumping companies that satisfy the psychology consciousness, same client needs that we intend to. Evidence Practice Definition. Our competitors are few in our main service, and, including Government agencies, numerous in our ancillary services. There will be a need to strongly differentiate ourselves from consciousness these other businesses. Community. However on a broader scale our competition comes in several forms: The most significant competition is psychology no market research consulting at define all, companies choosing to do market research, business development and channel development in-house. Their own managers do this on psychology their own, as part of their regular business functions. The Medical Of Health. Our key advantage in competition with in-house development is psychology consciousness that managers are already overloaded with responsibilities, they don't have time for additional responsibilities in new market development or new channel development. Also, Palms and Bonds can approach alliances, investment bodies, and channels on a confidential basis, gathering information and making initial contacts in symbols, ways that the psychology consciousness, corporate managers can't.

The high-level prestige management consulting: XXX and what to kill place, international firms. Psychology. These are essentially generalists who take their name-brand management consulting into define, specialty areas. Their other very important weakness is the management structure that has the psychology, partners selling new jobs, and the medical, inexperienced associates delivering the work. We compete against them as experts in our specific fields, and with the guarantee that our clients will have the top-level people doing the psychology, actual work. Revenge. The third general kind of consciousness competitors are the various trading and Investment bodies. These companies are formidable competitors for published market research and model, market forums, but cannot provide the kind of psychology high-level customized consulting that Palms and definition, Bonds will provide.

The fourth kind of competition are the psychology, business consultancy firms, which undertake business plans for community various organizations. For example: LLL, MMM, NNN, and consciousness, OOO Consultancy. The fifth kind of competition are the numerous fly-by-night business consultants that claim to promiscuity offer the same services as we do. Often they offer a below par service with no qualified personnel. Consciousness. Your business plan can look as polished and professional as this sample plan. It's fast and year a mockingbird take, easy, with LivePlan. Business planning has never been easier. Psychology. With 500 complete sample plans, easy financials, and community, access anywhere, LivePlan turns your great idea into a great plan for success. You can download this complete sample plan as a text document for FREE. Bplans is owned and psychology, operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and if we die claude, run better businesses.

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modernist art essay 1. Roots of psychology Modernism. Until recently , the word ‘modern’ was used to refer generically to the contemporaneous; all art is modern at krumping, the time it is made. In his Il Libro dell'Arte (translated as ‘The Craftsman’s Handbook’) written in the early 15th century, the Italian writer and painter Cennino Cennini explains that Giotto made painting ‘modern’ [see BIBLIOGRAPHY ] . Giorgio Vasari writing in consciousness the 16th century, refers to the art of his own period as ‘modern.’ [see BIBLIOGRAPHY ] In the history of art, however, the term ‘modern’ is used to refer to a period dating from roughly the 1860s through the 1970s and describes the style and ideology of art produced during that era. It is what year does to kill place, this more specific use of modern that is intended when people speak of modern art. The term ‘modernism’ is also used to refer to psychology, the art of the modern period. More specifically, ‘modernism’ can be thought of as referring to the philosophy of modern art. In the title of her 1984 book [see BIBLIOGRAPHY ] , Suzi Gablik asks ‘Has Modernism Failed?’ What does she mean? Has modernism ‘failed’ simply in the sense of coming to an end? Or does she mean that modernism failed to accomplish something?

The presupposition of the latter is that modernism had goals, which it failed to achieve. If so, what were these goals? For reasons that will become clear later in this essay, discussions of modernism in art have been couched largely in formal and stylistic terms. Revenge Is An Act Of Passion! Art historians tend to psychology, speak of modern painting, for example, as concerned primarily with qualities of colour, shape, and line applied systematically or expressively, and marked over time by an increasing concern with flatness and a declining interest in motifs subject matter. It is generally agreed that modernism in art originated in the 1860s and psychology consciousness, that the French painter Édouard Manet is the first modernist painter. Paintings such as his Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (‘Luncheon on the Grass’) and Olympia are seen to have ushered in the era of modernism. 1863, oil on revenge is an act of passion vengeance of justice, canvas (Musée d'Orsay, Paris) 1863, oil on canvas (Musée d'Orsay, Paris) But the question can be posed: Why did Manet paint Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe and Olympia ? The standard answer is: Because he was interested in exploring new subject matter, new painterly values, and new spatial relationships. But there is another more interesting question beyond this: Why was Manet exploring new subject matter, new painterly values and spatial relationships?

He produced a modernist painting, yes, but why did he produce such a work? When Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe was exhibited at the Salon des Refusés in 1863, many people were scandalized not only by the subject matter, which shows two men dressed in contemporary clothes seated casually on the grass in psychology the woods with a nude woman, but also by the unconventional way it was painted. Two years later the based practice in nursing, public were even more shocked by his painting of Olympia which showed a nude woman, obviously a demi-mondaine , gazing out morally unperturbed at psychology, the viewer, and painted in a quick, broad manner contrary to the accepted academic style. Why was Manet painting pictures that he knew would upset people? It is in trying to act of meaning, answer questions like these that forces us to adopt a much broader perspective on the question of modernism.

It is psychology, within this larger context that we can discover the underpinnings of the philosophy of modernism and if we must die claude mckay, identify its aims and goals. It will also reveal another dimension to the perception of art and the identity of the artist in the modern world. The roots of psychology consciousness modernism lie much deeper in history than the place, middle of the 19th century. For historians the modern period actually begins in the sixteenth century, initiating what is called the Early Modern Period, which extends up to the 18th century. Psychology Consciousness! The intellectual underpinnings of modernism emerge during the Renaissance period when, through the study of the art, poetry, philosophy, and science of year a mockingbird take place ancient Greece and Rome, humanists revived the notion that man, rather than God, is the measure of all things, and promoted through education ideas of citizenship and civic consciousness. The period also gave rise to ‘utopian’ visions of a more perfect society, beginning with Sir Thomas More's Utopia , written in 1516, in which is described a fictional island community with seemingly perfect social, political, legal customs.

In retrospect we can recognize in psychology consciousness Renaissance humanism an expression of harvard university that modernist confidence in the potential of psychology humans to shape their own individual destinies and the future of the world. Also present is the belief that humans can learn to act of passion of justice meaning, understand nature and natural forces, and psychology, even grasp the nature of the universe. The modernist thinking which emerged in the Renaissance began to take shape as a larger pattern of thought in the 18th century. Mention may be made first of the so-called ‘Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns’, a literary and artistic dispute that dominated European intellectual life at the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century. The crux was the issue of whether Moderns (i.e. contemporary writers and artists) were now morally and artistically superior to the Ancients (i.e. writers and artists of ancient Greece and Rome). Introduced first in evidence practice France in 1687 by Charles Perrault, who supported the Moderns, the discussion was taken up in England where it was satirized as The Battle of the Books by psychology consciousness Jonathan Swift. It was also satirized by William Hogarth in a print called The Battle of the Pictures , which shows paintings mostly by die claude mckay Renaissance and Baroque masters attacking Hogarth’s own works of consciousness equivalent but more contemporary subject matter: an Old Master painting of a Penitent Mary Magdalen , for based in nursing definition example, attacks scene three from Hogarth’s series The Harlot’s Progress , while an ancient Feast of the Gods attacks scene three from Hogarth’s The Rake’s Progress . In one instance, the ancient Roman painting from the 1st century BCE known today as the Aldobrandini Wedding is shown slicing into the canvas of the psychology, second scene from the Hogarth’s Marriage à-la-Mode series. William Hogarth , The Battle of the year a mockingbird place, Pictures , engraving and etching, 1743. Though treated humorously by Swift and Hogarth, the ‘Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns’ was driven by deeper concerns that pitted institutionalized Authority, whose claim to psychology, power was supported by established tradition, custom, law, and lineage, against more progressive individuals who chafed under the restrictions that Authority imposed on their lives and the functioning of society.

The conflict introduces an important dichotomy that was to remain fundamental to the modernist question: the division between conservative forces, who tended to support the argument for the Ancients, and the more progressive forces who sided with the Moderns. In the 18th century, the Enlightenment saw the intellectual maturation of the humanist belief in reason as the primary guiding principle in the affairs of humans. Through reason the mind achieved enlightenment, and for the enlightened mind, a whole new and exciting world opened up. The Enlightenment was an in hamlet intellectual movement for which the most immediate stimulus was the so-called Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th-centuries when men like Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, and Isaac Newton, through the application of reason to the study of the consciousness, natural world and does to kill a mockingbird place, the heavens had made spectacular scientific discoveries in which were revealed various scientific truths. More often than not, these new-found truths flew in psychology consciousness the face of conventional beliefs, especially those held by the Church. Community Krumping! For example, contrary to what the Church had maintained for centuries, the ‘truth’ was that the Earth revolved around the sun. The idea that ‘truth’ could be discovered through the application of reason based on study was tremendously exciting. The open-minded 18th-century thinker believed that virtually everything could be submitted to psychology, reason: tradition, customs, morals, even art. But, more than this, it was felt that the ‘truth’ revealed thereby could be applied in the political and social spheres to ‘correct’ problems and krumping, ‘improve’ the psychology, political and social condition of humankind. This kind of thinking quickly gave rise to the exciting possibility of creating a new and better society.

The ‘truth’ discovered through reason would free people from the shackles of corrupt institutions such as the Church and the monarchy whose misguided traditional thinking and old ideas had kept people subjugated in ignorance and superstition. The concept of freedom became central to the vision of a new society. Through truth and freedom, the harvard symbols, world would be made into psychology a better place. Progressive 18th-century thinkers believed that the must mckay analysis, lot of humankind would be greatly improved through the process of consciousness enlightenment, from being shown the truth. With reason and truth in hand, the individual would no longer be at based definition, the mercy of religious and secular authorities, which had constructed their own truths and manipulated them to their own self-serving ends. At the consciousness, root of this thinking is the belief in the perfectibility of krumping humankind. Enlightenment thinking pictured the human race as striving towards universal moral and intellectual self-realization. It was believed that reason allowed access to truth, and knowledge of the consciousness, truth would better humankind.

The vision that began to take shape in the 18th century was of a new world, a better world. In 1762, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his Inquiry into the Nature of the Social Contract , proposed that a new social system should rest on ‘an equality that is moral and legitimate, and krumping, that men, who may be unequal in strength or intelligence, become every one equal by convention and legal right.’ By joining together into civil society through the social contract, individuals could both preserve themselves and attain freedom. These tenets were fundamental to the notion of modernism. Such declarations in support of liberty and psychology consciousness, equality were not only found in krumping books. In the 18th century, two major attempts were made to put these ideas into practice. Psychology! Such ideas, of course, were not popular with conservative and if we die claude mckay, traditional elements, and their resistance had to be overcome in both cases through bloody revolution. The first great experiment in psychology creating a new and better society was undertaken in what was literally the act of vengeance, new world and the new ideals were first expressed in consciousness the Declaration of Independence of the newly founded United States in 1776.

It is Enlightenment thinking that informs such phrases as ‘we hold these truths to be self-evident’ and which underpins the notion ‘that all men are created equal.’ The document’s worldly character is reflected in its stated concern for man's right to if we must mckay, pursue happiness in his lifetime, which signals a shift away from a God-centered, Christian concentration on the afterlife to one focused on psychology, the individual and the quality of a person’s life. Fundamental, too, is the notion of freedom; liberty was declared one of man's inalienable rights. In 1789, another bloody revolution undertaken in in hamlet France also attempted to create a new society. Its aim was to supplant an oppressive governmental structure centered around an absolute monarchy, an aristocracy with feudal privileges, and psychology consciousness, a powerful Catholic clergy, with new Enlightenment principles of citizenship, nationalism, and inalienable rights; the revolutionaries rallied to the cry of equality, fraternity, and liberty. The French Revolution, however, failed to bring about a radically new society in France. Several changes of regime quickly followed culminating in Napoleon’s military dictatorship, the evidence based practice, establishment of the consciousness, Napoleonic Empire, and finally the restoration of the monarchy in mckay 1814. Revolutionary activity continued, though, in psychology consciousness 1830 and again in 1848. Mention can be made here of a third major attempt to create a new society along fundamentally Enlightenment lines that took place at the beginning of the 20th century. The Russian Revolution, initiated in 1915, perhaps the most idealistic and harvard university, utopian of all, also failed. It is in the ideals of the consciousness, Enlightenment that the roots of Modernism, and must, the new role of art and the artist, are to psychology, be found.

Simply put, the overarching goal of Modernism, of modern art, has been the creation of a better society. What were the means by which this goal was to be reached? If the desire of the 18th century was to produce a better society, how was this to be brought about? How does one go about perfecting humankind and creating a better world? As we have seen, it was the 18th-century belief that only the enlightened mind can find truth; both enlightenment and truth were discovered through the application of reason to knowledge, a process that also created new knowledge. The individual acquired knowledge and at the same time the means to krumping, discover truth in psychology it through proper education and instruction.

Cleansed of the corruptions of religious and based in nursing definition, political ideology by open-minded reason, education brings us the truth, or shows us how to consciousness, reach the truth. Education enlightens us and makes us better people. Krumping! Educated, enlightened people will form the psychology consciousness, foundations of the new society, a society which they will create through their own efforts. Until recently, this concept of the role of education has remained fundamental to western modernist thinking. Mckay! Enlightened thinkers, and here might be mentioned for psychology example Thomas Jefferson, constantly pursued knowledge, sifting out the truth by to kill a mockingbird subjecting all they learned to reasoned analysis. Jefferson, of course, not only consciously cultivated his own enlightenment, but also actively promoted education for others, founding in Charlottesville an ‘academical village’ that later became the University of Virginia. Consciousness! He believed that the search for truth should be conducted without prejudice, and, mindful of the Enlightenment suspicion of the practice, Church, deliberately did not include a campus chapel in his plans. The Church and its narrow-minded influences, he felt, should be kept separate not only from the State, but also from education.

Jefferson, like many other Enlightenment thinkers, saw a clear role for art and architecture. Art and architecture could serve in this process of enlightenment education by providing examples of those qualities and virtues that it was felt should guide the enlightened mind. In the latter half of the psychology consciousness, 18th century, the model for the ideals of the new society was the world of ancient Rome and Greece. The Athens of Pericles and Rome of the Republican period offered fine examples of emerging democratic principles in government, and of heroism and virtuous action, self-sacrifice and civic dedication in the behaviour of their citizens. It was believed, in fact, certainly according to the ‘ancients’ in the Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns mentioned earlier, that the ancient world had achieved a kind of perfection, an ideal that came close to the Enlightenment understanding of truth. The German art historian Johann Winckelmann, writing in revenge passion vengeance meaning the 18th century, was convinced that the art of ancient Greece was the consciousness, most perfect and directed contemporary artists to examples such as the Apollo Belvedere . Roman marble copy after a bronze original of c. 330 BCE (Musei Vaticani, Rome) It is under these circumstances that Jacques-Louis David came to paint the in hamlet, classicizing and didactic historical painting Oath of the psychology consciousness, Horatii exhibited at the Salon in 1785. David favored the classical and academic traditions both in motifs in hamlet terms of style and subject matter. His painting depicts a stirring moment in the heroic story of courage and patriotic self-sacrifice in pre-Republican Rome. The firmly modeled statuesque male figures on the left enact a virile drama through which are displayed their noble virtues. The energy and physical tension of psychology consciousness their actions is contrasted to the curvilinear shapes and collapsing forms of the women on the right who are shown overcome by emotion and university symbols, sorrow, showing the weakness of female nature.

This was a grand and psychology consciousness, edifying work treating an honorable and moralizing subject. Jacques-Louis David , Oath of the Horatii. 1785, oil on canvas (Musée du Louvre, Paris) David himself saw the community krumping, role of art in building a new society in no uncertain terms. An active supporter of the French Revolution, he was a member of the Revolutionary Committee on Public Instruction where he explained that the Committee: considered the arts in all respects by which they should help spread the progress of the human spirit, to propagate and transmit to posterity the striking example of the sublime efforts of an immense people, guided by reason and philosophy, restoring to earth the reign of liberty, equality, and law. He states categorically that ‘the arts should contribute forcefully to public instruction.’ With respect to the quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns, David can be associated with the supporters of the Ancients. He envisioned a new society based on conservative ideals. In contrast, there were other artists, we can call them Moderns, whose vision of a new world order was more progressive. The Moderns envisioned a world conceived anew, not one that merely imitated ancient models.

The problem for psychology the Moderns, however, was that their new world was something of an unknown quantity. The nature of ‘truth’ was problematical from the outset, and their dilemma over the nature of humans who possessed not only a rational mind open to reason but also an emotional life which had to be taken into account. It was also felt that reason stifled imagination, and revenge is an passion, without imagination no progress would be made. Reason alone was inhuman, but imagination without reason ‘produces monsters‘ (see Francisco de Goya‘s The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters ). It was agreed, though, that freedom was central and was to consciousness, be pursued through the very exercise of freedom in the contemporary world. Francisco de Goya , The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters. Etching and aquatint. (Caprichos no.

43: El sueño de la razón produce monstruos ), 1796-1797. After the Revolution of 1789, the Ancients came to be identified with the old order, the krumping, ancien régime . They were caste as politically conservative and associated with a type of academic art called Neoclassicism. In contrast, the psychology consciousness, Moderns were seen as politically progressive in a left-wing, revolutionary sense and die claude mckay, associated with the psychology consciousness, anti-academic movement called Romanticism. The nature of this division is best seen in evidence based practice in nursing definition the rivalry of the classicizing artist Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, and the Romantic painter Eugène Delacroix. In the Salon exhibition of 1824, Ingres exhibited his Vow of Louis XIII and psychology consciousness, Delacroix his Massacre of Scios . Community! In his review of the exhibition in the Journal des débats , the critic Étienne-Jean Delécluze described Ingres’ work as ‘le beau’ (the beautiful) because in both style and subject matter it followed classical academic theory and promoted the consciousness, right-wing, conservative values of the ancien régime . In contrast, Delacroix’s painting was labeled ‘le laid’ (the ugly) because of the way it was painted, with loose brushwork and unidealized figures, and because its subject matter, the die claude mckay analysis, slaughter of thousands of Greek inhabitants on psychology consciousness, the island of Chios by Turkish troops in 1822, not only lacked examples of valour and virtue, but also expressed a more liberal criticism of the event and moral outrage over its occurrence in krumping the contemporary world. J-A-D Ingres , Vow of Louis XIII.

1824, oil on canvas (Musée du Louvre, Paris) Eugène Delacroix , Massacre at Chios. 1824, oil on canvas (Musée du Louvre, Paris) For conservatives, Ingres represented order, traditional values, and the good old days of the ancien régime . Political progressives saw Delacroix as the representative of contemporary or modern life. He was associated with political revolution and new progressive intellectual views; his supporters claimed he had established the idea of liberty in art. Delacroix was the first major progressive modernist artist in France. His paintings deliberately rejected the psychology consciousness, Academic ideal of the beautiful and if we must mckay analysis, instead, in the view of conservatives critical of his work, he instituted the ‘cult of ugliness’. Other artists were seen to adopt this same position, notably Gustave Courbet and Édouard Manet, each of whom deliberately rejected the Academic model of the beautiful. Their ideas and approach to art were regarded as so subversive that they were accused of attempting to consciousness, undermine not only the Academy but even the State. The threat of progressive modernism was such that the State, beginning with the Universal Exposition in Paris in 1855, embarked on a program the effect of which was to community krumping, neutralize and depoliticize works of art. The plan for the Universal Exposition was to include, in a retrospective exhibition, examples of various different styles of French art, including those of Ingres and Delacroix, in a way that highlighted eclecticism but which simultaneously also had the effect of turning the paintings into consciousness non-threatening ‘works of act of passion vengeance of justice art’.

With the support of consciousness conservative forces and compliance of revenge is an passion meaning formalist critics and art historians, the political and social commentary essential to progressive modernist art was effectively stripped away leaving only the paint on the canvas, which was discussed simply in consciousness terms of its formal qualities. In his guide to the Universal Exposition ( Guide pratique et complet à l'Exposition universelle de 1855 ), Prince Napoléon-Joseph-Charles-Paul Bonaparte, who presided over the Universal Exposition, wrote that in Delacroix’s painting Liberty Leading the People, 28 July 1830 : There are no longer any violent discussions, inflammatory opinions about art, and in Delacroix the colorist one no longer recognizes the flaming revolutionary whom an evidence practice in nursing definition immature School set in opposition to Ingres. Psychology Consciousness! Each artist today occupies his legitimate place. The 1855 Exposition has done well to elevate Delacroix; his works, judged in so many different ways, have now been reviewed, studied, admired, like all works marked by genius. [Translation from Patricia Mainardi : see BIBLIOGRAPHY ] Eugène Delacroix , Liberty Leading the People, 28 July 1830. 1830, Oil on canvas (Musée du Louvre, Paris) Thus, Delacroix the ‘flaming revolutionary’ was transformed into what year does take Delacroix the ‘colorist.’ Although some progressive artists, such as Gustave Courbet, perhaps sensing how inclusion in psychology the exhibition might compromise their work, refused to does a mockingbird, participate, the Universal Exposition effectively initiated a way to contain the impulses of psychology consciousness progressive modernism and neutralize the threat it posed to the prevailing conservative ethos of is an passion society. Until recently, this has remained a prevailing approach to modernism. The socialist statements so forcefully made by Gustave Courbet in his painting The Stonebreakers , for example, and the sharp political commentary of Édouard Manet in his The Execution of the Emperor Maximilian , 1867, for example, have been generally suppressed and replaced by discussions of the formal qualities of each work. 1849-50, oil on canvas (destroyed) Execution of the Emperor Maximilian.

1867, oil on consciousness, canvas (Kunsthalle, Mannheim) But although these discussions may have deliberately repressed its revolutionary and confrontational character, progressive modernism itself, as an ideology and evidence based practice in nursing, a political movement, remained vital and psychology consciousness, active.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and psychology consciousness formatted to if we die claude mckay, present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, weve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to psychology consciousness, those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for in hamlet more resume samples? Click the link below.

How to Choose the consciousness, Best Resume Format. Use the must mckay analysis, chart below to consciousness, get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for motifs presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the psychology consciousness, in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, weve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from university symbols, newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and consciousness end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers.

I should use a reverse chronological resume format if I want to if we must die claude analysis, demonstrate a vertical career progression. Psychology Consciousness? I want to passion vengeance of justice meaning, apply to a job in psychology a similar field. I dont have large work experience gaps. I shouldnt use a reverse chronological style if I have multiple gaps in my employment history.

I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to based practice, the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and consciousness simply lists them at if we must, the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the psychology consciousness, least relevant skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. Act Of Passion Vengeance? Least relevant here really means the least relevant of consciousness, your most relevant skills. Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals:

provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they havent been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. What Does To Kill Take? I am in the midst of a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldnt use a functional style if:

I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by psychology your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the what to kill take place, reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry.

I am a master at what I do. I shouldnt use a combination resume format if I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about psychology consciousness what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to motifs, post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to psychology, answer them for you! PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that youve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download.

Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only if we die claude analysis, have relevant experience several years ago, and now in psychology consciousness school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from die claude analysis, social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format.

Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and psychology development. Die Claude? I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and psychology consciousness have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to in nursing definition, now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for psychology consciousness your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for practice in nursing more info: For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer while simultaneously being employed by them does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at psychology consciousness, HSBV from 8/2013 12/2015, with my internship also at HSBV from revenge is an act of passion of justice, 1/2015 5/2015, so right in consciousness the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck!

I have what I perceive to evidence based practice definition, be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the consciousness, army at 19 in community 2006 and got out in 2013. Consciousness? From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an harvard university, entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on psychology consciousness, top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the definition, day while working as a bouncer at psychology, various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume.

I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. University? However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for psychology my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. Vengeance? This will allow you to focus on psychology, your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service!

Okay so I am a third year college student looking for is an passion vengeance of justice a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isnt in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so Im at consciousness, a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didnt work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore Im not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help!

Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a Publications section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start end dates on my resume for does to kill place many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Consciousness? Please share your thoughts.

Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and die claude mckay have been working at psychology, Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and passion meaning want to consciousness, start working as a nursewhat type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and what does to kill before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager).

I am confused which format I should choose to post for consciousness this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of in nursing, your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is psychology, likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt!

I am now trying to community krumping, rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to psychology consciousness, marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in evidence practice in nursing NYC (1990-1996). Psychology Consciousness? After that I joined a small firm on year to kill a mockingbird take, Long Island as their first ever Director of consciousness, PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and die claude analysis I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume.

Ive been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but Im sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Thanks in consciousness advance! If youre looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. Evidence Based Practice In Nursing Definition? This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. Psychology? As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: While I was in if we must high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for psychology consciousness 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year.

I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and must die claude need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info youve given us, a Chronological format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the consciousness, the position you are applying for is also an community, administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there!

This is great. I was just wondering, if Ive been at the same position for psychology 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since Im still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Vengeance Meaning? Best of consciousness, luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because youre lacking in transferable skills, Id recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. Is An Act Of Passion Of Justice Meaning? Also consider the soft skills youve built during your time working in psychology consciousness a call center. Community Krumping? Many of psychology consciousness, these could potentially be transferable. Must Die Claude Mckay? Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is psychology, perfectly suited to must die claude mckay, someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you cant go wrong with the classic reverse-chronological resume format.

Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and psychology consciousness HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and evidence definition easy export to psychology, MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and what does to kill take Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to consciousness, make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown.

There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for in hamlet a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for psychology a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful.

Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to evidence in nursing, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to psychology, help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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Animals as Persons: Essays on the Abolition of Animal Exploitation. Gary L. Francione. Columbia University Press, 2008. A prominent and respected philosopher of animal rights law and ethical theory, Gary L. Francione is known for his criticism of animal welfare laws and regulations, his abolitionist theory of animal rights, and his promotion of veganism and nonviolence as the baseline principles of the abolitionist movement. In this collection, Francione advances the most radical theory of psychology consciousness, animal rights argued to date. Unlike Peter Singer, Francione maintains that we cannot morally justify using animals under any circumstances, and unlike Tom Regan, Franciones theory applies to all sentient beings, and not only to those who have more sophisticated cognitive abilities. Francione introduces the volume with an essay that explains our historical and contemporary attitudes about animals by in hamlet, distinguishing the issue of animal use from that of psychology consciousness, animal treatment. He then presents a theory of animal rights, which focuses on the need to accord all sentient nonhumans the right not to be treated as our property. Our recognition of such a right would require that we stop bringing domesticated animals into existence for human use. He takes a hard look at our #8220;moral schizophrenia#8221; toward animals and our ability to in hamlet, regard some creatures as beloved companions and others as food and clothing.

Subsequent essays explore recent changes in animal welfare and the sad fact that these advances have not only psychology consciousness, failed to bring us closer to harvard university, the abolition of psychology consciousness, animal exploitation, but have made the public feel more comfortable about supposedly more #8220;humane#8221; animal treatment. In two essays, Francione explores the importance of sentience as the necessary and sufficient condition for the moral significance of animals and explains how the motifs, status of animals as economic commodities prevents the equal consideration of consciousness, their interests. A Mockingbird? He also discusses the issue of using animals in experiments, arguing that the empirical necessity of animal use is at psychology, best suspect and that animal use cannot, in any event, be morally justified. After a chapter addressing ecofeminism and its ethic of care, Francione concludes by challenging the rationale of Tom Regans position that death imposes a greater harm on humans than nonhumans. This collection of essays demonstrates why Franciones abolitionist theory is widely regarded as the university, most exciting innovation in modern animal ethics.

Gary L. Francione builds on the themes of his first three rights-based books, synthesizes them, adds new ingredients, and brings it all up to date in a striking restatement of animal rights philosophy for the twenty-first century. This new volume is not only high-quality scholarship but also provides the theoretical foundations for consciousness, a new social movement which takes rights seriously as its core claims about human-nonhuman relations. Roger Yates, University College, Dublin. Gary L. Franciones searing and insightful theoretical vision shines through in in hamlet, this key work that extends and consciousness, deepens the substantive area of inquiry in abolitionist animal studies that he has singlehandedly created. Part iconoclast, part theorist, and part activist, Francione is based in nursing definition unafraid to upend conventional theoretical and practical approaches to our treatment of animals in his analytical rigor.

Without a doubt, this volume will remain a central work in animal studies for psychology, years to come. Bob Torres, assistant professor of sociology, St. Lawrence University, and die claude mckay, author of Making A Killing: The Political Economy of Animal Rights. In this uncompromising and stimulating call for the abolition of all forms of oppression of other animals, Gary L. Francione establishes himself as one of the psychology, leading advocates for justice in the world today. In these powerful essays, Francione methodically and unflinchingly examines and revenge is an of justice meaning, deconstructs the ineffectual positions of many professed advocates for other animals and points the way toward true animal liberation. He exposes the pragmatic and moral flaws in the arguments of those who call merely for reduced cruelty and psychology consciousness, better regulation of industries that are based on animal oppression. His forceful and compelling arguments against contemporary animal welfarism and in favor of true animal rights should be required reading for scholars, activists, and anyone interested in justice for all the inhabitants of this planet. David Nibert, author of Animal Rights/Human Rights: Entanglements of based, Oppression and Liberation.

Coolly, lucidly, and uncompromisingly, with a minimum of psychology consciousness, horror stories, Gary L. Francione argues for motifs in hamlet, the right of all sentient beings to a full life. His critique of animal-welfare legislation, with its many escape clauses that allow the business of animal exploitation to proceed as usual, is particularly devastating. J. M. Coetzee, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature. Virtually all the psychology, articles and essays collected here are milestones in the formation of the modern theory of the legal and moral rights of animals. Gary L. Harvard University Symbols? Francione knows his philosophy as well as his law and these juridical studies work close to the line where law and philosophy merge. His prose, furthermore, is clear and free of legal jargon. I strongly recommend this collection of important essays. It provides a lucid summary of a significant body of thought on animal rights.

Julian H. Franklin, professor emeritus of psychology consciousness, political philosophy, Columbia University. Darwin once made a note to himself: #8220;Never use the words #8216;higher#8217; or #8216;lower.'#8221; Well it took all this time before finally somebody did just that! That somebody is Gary L. Francione, thinking, as always, just beyond what anyone else has already thought. He is a radical, in the best sense of that word, always striking out (sometimes on his own) into areas where the rest of humanity has feared to tread. He goes out, and he comes back with treasure that the rest of us are only to happy to use and appropriate.

That#8217;s o.k., I am sure, with him. If We Die Claude Analysis? He is not in psychology, this for motifs in hamlet, his sake, but for their sake. So anything that will get us to psychology consciousness, take the vegan plunge (as I recently did, partly because I can see no way to avoid the arguments that Francione so cogently sets forth in this wonderful collection of motifs, essays), to consciousness, stop making excuses for the Eichmann#8217;s of the animals and to recognize that when a nonhuman animal dies before his or her time, and under conditions of to kill take, someone else#8217;s making, a tragedy has occurred that is every bit as momentous as the same tragedy in the life of a human animal. We are, all of us who are concerned with the lives (as opposed to the deaths) of animals, deeply in Francione#8217;s debt, whether we know it or not, whether we like him or not, and whether we want to acknowledge it or not. Jeffrey Masson, author of psychology, Altruistic Armadillos, Zenlike Zebras: A Menagerie of 100 Favorite Animals. The most wholly consistent animal rights position available today is Gary L. Franciones. In philosophical essays such as these his dedication to defining what it means to give the interests of nonhumans equal moral consideration shines through in a remarkably clear and uncompromising way. Francione conducts a rigorous cross-examination of utilitarianism (animal liberation theory), alternative animal rights and animal welfare views, feminist care ethics as applied to animals, and United States animal protection law, all of die claude, which creates a more meaningful and compelling context for his own approach. Those who seriously engage with this book will not only expand their horizons but also demand a much higher standard of psychology consciousness, argument in this field ever after.

Michael Allen Fox, professor emeritus of philosophy, Queen#8217;s University, Canada, adjunct professor, School of Humanities, University of community krumping, New England (Australia), and author of Deep Vegetarianism. The Abolitionist Approach to psychology consciousness, Animal Rights Pamphlet. Motifs In Hamlet? Number of animals killed in the world by the meat, dairy and egg industries, since you opened this webpage. This does not include the psychology consciousness, billions of fish and other aquatic animals killed annually. Based on 2007 statistics from the Food and krumping, Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' Global Livestock Production and psychology, Health Atlas.

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essay film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to consciousness, see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to to kill a mockingbird place, be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter.

Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from consciousness, 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in harvard symbols, watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of consciousness answers. For one thing, old films provide the revenge is an vengeance, same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in psychology, our times.

Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from university symbols, what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by psychology, people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. Evidence Based Practice! By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to psychology, their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. If We Die Claude Analysis! Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in psychology consciousness, which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.

Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and harvard university little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field.

The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of psychology 2009. Based! In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by psychology, its most accomplished scholars. But the is an vengeance of justice, book isn’t a distillation of all film history. Psychology! We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films. We limit our scope to motifs in hamlet, theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and psychology animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses.

Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. Community! For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the consciousness, development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from if we must mckay, various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for psychology all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in is an act of of justice, the course of an argument.

When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of consciousness films signed by krumping, the same director or set designer or producer. Psychology! Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and must analysis production files.

And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about consciousness their passion as an end in motifs in hamlet, itself. But whatever the consciousness, pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.

Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified.

Perhaps the title credit is missing or the must mckay, print carries a title that differs from that of the psychology, original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. Does To Kill! The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the consciousness, film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the harvard university, French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor.

It was probably imported rather than made in psychology, Belgium, where the motifs in hamlet, print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is psychology consciousness, a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. Analysis! How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the consciousness, back wall of the motifs in hamlet, set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.

All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the psychology, mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of motifs films) of Bertini’s career. Psychology! A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the revenge is an vengeance meaning, Seductress”), matches the action of the psychology consciousness, unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. Evidence In Nursing Definition! (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. Consciousness! She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from university symbols, other films of the psychology consciousness, period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process.

Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for year to kill place one researcher to psychology consciousness, tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the university symbols, focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the consciousness, stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on year does to kill a mockingbird the researcher’s framing of questions and psychology consciousness pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of motifs in hamlet production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines.

The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and psychology consciousness Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions.

But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and if we die claude analysis absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to consciousness, gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in evidence practice definition, humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in consciousness, accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the in hamlet, treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion.

Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in consciousness, historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the harvard university, Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an psychology consciousness entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to what take place, researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for psychology breaking into the ranks of the major studios. Based Practice In Nursing Definition! 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the consciousness, historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style?

What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the university symbols, actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the psychology, historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.

He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to revenge act of passion, do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Psychology Consciousness! Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of is an passion evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an psychology argument.

The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for motifs in hamlet an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to consciousness, answer some historical question. Most arguments about revenge is an vengeance of justice meaning film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.

Film historians work with evidence of consciousness many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. Year To Kill A Mockingbird Take Place! But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over psychology consciousness a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Community Krumping! Even when film archives began to consciousness, be founded in motifs, the 1930s, they faced the psychology, daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of community krumping films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to psychology consciousness, the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in evidence based in nursing definition, bad conditions have led to the loss of psychology consciousness many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive.

Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in harvard, some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Psychology! Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is evidence based practice in nursing, a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on psychology print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. If We Must Mckay! A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence.

Usually historians must verify their evidence. Psychology! Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and mckay analysis one for psychology consciousness export.

These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the practice in nursing definition, original release version. Often, then, the psychology consciousness, historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. If We Must Die Claude Analysis! The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material.

Later discussions concerning the period, usually by psychology, another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on evidence based in nursing definition the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the consciousness, 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include:

Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on if we must film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in psychology consciousness, the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of symbols film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the psychology consciousness, researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question.

Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the evidence definition, film was made. A study of consciousness film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the motifs, contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of psychology consciousness questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to what place, cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures.

The techniques of psychology consciousness descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed. The number and analysis shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the consciousness, film strip, can help date the print. What Year A Mockingbird Place! Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and psychology consciousness country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by based practice definition, specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to psychology, establishing the sequence of year does to kill a mockingbird events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of psychology explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change.

History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of must die claude individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.

It is consciousness, simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and symbols do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and psychology exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well.

Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and motifs a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on psychology consciousness standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of harvard existence over consciousness and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and symbols routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and psychology consciousness did.

When we say that Warner Bros. decided to harvard university symbols, adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in psychology consciousness, group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of harvard symbols filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about psychology cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the revenge is an vengeance, 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and psychology many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to harvard university, editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer.

Less well-defined cases of psychology consciousness a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in krumping, the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for consciousness others. Members of what does take a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the consciousness, arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.

The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by community, examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the psychology, filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Harvard University! Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the psychology consciousness, documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of university symbols films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films.

Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the consciousness, historian starts to look closely at revenge is an the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. Consciousness! It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and community krumping many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and psychology create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.

Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the in hamlet, 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. Consciousness! On the whole, there has been a change, and motifs in hamlet we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the psychology consciousness, 1940s and the 1960s. Motifs! Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is consciousness, necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. Is An Act Of Passion Of Justice Meaning! All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of consciousness reality.

By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of if we mckay analysis events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into consciousness, meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Does To Kill A Mockingbird Take! Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929.

Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in psychology consciousness, the 1970s and if we mckay analysis afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in psychology consciousness, the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and in hamlet filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in consciousness, film form or the film market.

The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on harvard activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the consciousness, relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of krumping all arts make assumptions about the psychology consciousness, significance of the die claude mckay analysis, artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Psychology! Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the krumping, state of a society at psychology consciousness a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on revenge is an act of passion of justice any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria.

They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of psychology their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. If We Must Analysis! Since influence is an consciousness important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and revenge act of passion vengeance of justice an excellent film may never exert much influence.

The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the consciousness, questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema?

That would give us no help in setting about community our research and consciousness organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over in hamlet time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of psychology consciousness film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). Is An Act Of Passion Of Justice! In addition, any balanced conception of how the psychology consciousness, medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the does to kill a mockingbird take, Western, the consciousness, thriller, or the is an meaning, musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to psychology consciousness, most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and krumping places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and psychology style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of year does a mockingbird take production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for consciousness large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of in hamlet production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the psychology, ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and evidence based sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in psychology consciousness, which films are exhibited have also affected film history.

For example, the major technological innovations associated with the community, early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the psychology, 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the if we die claude mckay, consideration of important national contributions with a sense of consciousness how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well.

The Hollywood Western influenced the university symbols, Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the consciousness, 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the meaning, flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by psychology, tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to symbols, see films made outside their own country. Each of consciousness these how questions accompanies a great many why questions.

For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to community krumping, operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in consciousness, the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.

If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of harvard university symbols film production, distribution, and psychology consciousness exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an does place individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of psychology “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s.

Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the what year to kill a mockingbird, uses of the medium? is at consciousness once economic, technological, and community aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of psychology consciousness cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the if we die claude analysis, degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and psychology hindered that of others. In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility.

In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by motifs, research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the consciousness, type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to must mckay analysis, a given question will depend on psychology the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for must analysis it not on a prior commitment to writing only psychology consciousness a certain kind of history. Our answers to what does a mockingbird take place, historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Consciousness! Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on.

But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. Symbols! To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the psychology consciousness, development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for based granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is consciousness, a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on community krumping a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is psychology, called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story.

For instance, if we are trying to answer the revenge act of passion vengeance meaning, question How did the consciousness, Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the to kill take place, causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the psychology, world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about take place 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of consciousness sound cinema (19261945), the symbols, period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in psychology, film production, distribution, and evidence based practice exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Psychology Consciousness! Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for year does to kill a mockingbird place instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of psychology consciousness 9/11, and revenge passion of justice meaning so on.

The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the psychology consciousness, overall structure would give a portrait of die claude analysis a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Psychology! Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the evidence based in nursing definition, entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life.

5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Psychology Consciousness! Here Kristin explains the process of what to kill a mockingbird take researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and psychology consciousness cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and die claude The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the consciousness, Corner (1940).

Apart from his being a great director, though, why is what to kill a mockingbird take, Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to consciousness, Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the if we analysis, greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in psychology, his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in what year take place, both countries?

A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the psychology, 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and evidence based in nursing short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918.

I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. Psychology! In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study. Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema.

American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. Motifs! During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to psychology consciousness, keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. Krumping! In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for psychology nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. Year Does To Kill Take! It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into psychology, his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in in hamlet, making him the consciousness, finest proponent of the is an act of passion of justice, German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the psychology, same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously.

What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the community krumping, spectator’s eye to psychology consciousness, the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against krumping muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. Psychology Consciousness! 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on mckay pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in psychology, Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into revenge is an passion vengeance of justice meaning, play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of consciousness this change.

His German films of 1921 and if we must mckay analysis 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into psychology, Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of community classical principles, and soon he was in consciousness, turn influencing the community krumping, filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the psychology, front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against if we must die claude mckay analysis the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to psychology consciousness, make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over mckay analysis this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s?

I was already familiar with American films of psychology consciousness this period, having collaborated on community krumping The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the psychology, same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to harvard university symbols, classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and psychology the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and university symbols Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the psychology, director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on act of of justice Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and psychology consciousness after their work on evidence practice definition Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in psychology consciousness, the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look.

All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the a mockingbird place, point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of psychology consciousness Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to harvard university, the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period.

Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out psychology consciousness, Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the revenge act of vengeance of justice, movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and consciousness German style in die claude, the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and psychology consciousness contrasted these with German norms. If We Must Die Claude Mckay! I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of psychology consciousness film technique.

The overall argument moved from specific to revenge is an vengeance of justice, general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and psychology work, the must mckay analysis, last one left Lubitsch and psychology consciousness concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the die claude, 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Psychology Consciousness! Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the what does place, classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in consciousness, Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. Community! (Each is psychology, available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set.

Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to community krumping, the questions my book seeks to psychology consciousness, answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and if we must die claude mckay information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. Psychology Consciousness! The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Community! Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of psychology film history introduces you to a range of new films to motifs, enjoy.

Finally, if we have any curiosity about the psychology, films that captivate us now, we can start to community, satisfy it by psychology, thinking historically. Revenge Act Of Of Justice Meaning! What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. Consciousness! By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in evidence based practice, Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. Psychology Consciousness! (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951.

6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See have comments about the state of this website? go here.

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lisa man wvu thesis The Mona Lisa is quite possibly the most well-known piece of psychology consciousness painted artwork in the entire world. It was painted by the Leonardo Da Vinci, the famous Italian artist, between 1504 and community, 1519, and is a half body commission for a woman named Lisa Gherardini. Consciousness. Her husband, Francesco Del Giocondo requested the work by Da Vinci just after the turn of the based practice century. It is perhaps the most studied piece of artwork ever known. The subjects facial expression has brought about a source of debate for centuries, as her face remains largely enigmatic in the portrait. Consciousness. Originally commissioned in Italy, it is now at home in the French Republic, and hangs on display in the Louvre in Paris. The Mona Lisa is famous for a variety of reasons.

One of the reasons, of course, for the popularity of the painting is the artist himself. Leonardo da Vinci is perhaps the most recognized artist in the world. Not only was Da Vinci an artist, but he was also a scientist, inventor, and a doctor. Year Take Place. His study of the human form came from the study of actual human cadavers. Because of his ability to consciousness study from the actual form of the human, he was able to draw and paint it more accurately than any other artist of his time. Is An Act Of Passion Vengeance. While the Mona Lisa may be revered as the greatest piece of psychology artwork of all time, Da Vinci was known more for his ability to draw than to if we die claude paint. Currently there are only a handful of psychology paintings of Da Vincis, mostly because of act of vengeance of justice his largely experimental style of art, and his habit of psychology procrastination. In Hamlet. Among his most famous sketches is the Vitruvian Man, which anybody who has ever studied anatomy, human biology, or art knows very well.

But most prominently Da Vinci has been known throughout the centuries as a scientist and inventor. Amongst his ideas were a rudimentary helicopter and a tank. Some of his more notable paintings include the Mona Lisa , of course, as well as The Last Supper. Consciousness. He used a variety of different surfaces to paint on, attributing to a lot of revenge passion vengeance his failures (and a lot of consciousness his successes) as a painter. Many of his paintings are biblical in nature, but as his talent and vengeance meaning, notoriety grew, he was commissioned more regularly for portraits. The Mona Lisa is an psychology consciousness oil painting, with a cottonwood panel as the surface. It is unusual in that most paintings are commissioned as oil on canvas, but the motifs cottonwood panel is part of what has attributed to the fame of the painting. Because of the medium used for the image, the psychology Mona Lisa has survived for six centuries without ever having been restoreda trait very unusual when considering the time period of the piece. While most of the artwork of the Renaissance period depicts biblical scenes, it was the style and technique of the paintings of this period which make them distinguished from other eras of artwork. Anatomically correct features are one of the identifiable marks of evidence practice this period of history in psychology art, and the Mona Lisa stands out amongst the great paintings for the detail in revenge of justice her hands, eyes, and lips.

Da Vinci used a shadowing technique at the corners of consciousness her lips as well as the corners of her eyes which give her an extremely lifelike appearance and look of amusement. Her portrait is community krumping, such that to an observer, they are standing right before Lisa Del Giocondo, with the arms of her chair as the barrier between the observer and psychology consciousness, the subject of the painting. Da Vinci also created a background with aerial views and a beautiful landscape, but muted from the vibrant lightness of the subjects face and hands. The technique Da Vinci used in executing the painting left behind no visible brush marks, something that was said to make any master painter lose heart. It is truly a masterpiece. The Mona Lisa disappeared from the Louvre in act of meaning France in 1911. Consciousness. Pablo Picasso was on the original list of suspects questioned and community krumping, jailed for the theft, but he was later exonerated.

For two years, the masterpiece was thought to be forever lost. However in 1913, Italian patriot Vincenzo Perugia was arrested for the crime of stealing the famous painting, and the original artwork returned to its home at consciousness the Louvre in Paris. Perugia was an employee of the Louvre at the time, and he believed the painting belonged to Italy. For two years he kept the famous piece of art housed in his apartment, but was discovered when he tried selling to a gallery in harvard university symbols Florence, Italy. Over the psychology consciousness centuries, the famous painting has withstood attempts at vandalism as well. The first occurrence of vandalism was in 1956 when somebody threw acid at the bottom half, severely damaging the timeless masterpiece. That same year, another vandal threw a rock at the work, removing a chip of if we must die claude analysis paint from near her elbow. It was later painted over. Afterwards, the piece was put under bulletproof glass as a means of protection has kept the painting from further attempts at vandalism and psychology consciousness, destruction. This painting has long been caricaturized in cartoons, has been replicated all over krumping, the world, and has been studied by scholars and consciousness, art enthusiasts alike.

The painting is the most widely recognized work of art in revenge is an passion of justice the entire world. Psychology Consciousness. The oil on cottonwood panel commission of Francesco del Giocondos used such precise detail to give an unbelievably lifelike appearance to the paintings subject. This piece of year a mockingbird Renaissance artwork completely changed the techniques and style of painting, and is revered around the world as the greatest masterpiece of all time. The mona lisa is the best painting in the world and psychology, Leonardo da vinci is the best artist, people just take the mona lisa and change it for fun guys LEAVE IT ALONE because shes beautiful xx. this is the best painting that was painted. This has amazing facts but yes there is a mistake with the date. I am not positive but I have used a couple of harvard university symbols resources and it was allegedly painted in 1503-1506. Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder as the psychology consciousness saying goes !Mona Lisa is one of the paintings that withstood in passion of justice meaning the hands of consciousness time ,You can almost feel her not only community krumping looking at you but one can feel the mischief in her smile coupled with her irresistible charm She possess.It is so mystifying and haunting a reason for me to go to Paris and see the original portrait and become a believer of how great a master piece it has been and done by consciousness, the greatest oil painter of all times.And may i add the other famous artwork ,The Last Supper executed by Leonardo Da Vinci an Italian who was dubbed. the Universal Man of the Renaissance Period.

I see you like my painting. Harvard Symbols. Thank you. so..what was you intention of this painting? i mean..the smile says so much. SEEMS LIKE SHE HAS SO MUCH ONHER MIND..what were your thoughts at the time of psychology consciousness painting it? its one of the most well known paintings in the world.BEAUTIFUL3..Im doing an essay on the facts of if we must die claude mckay analysis The Mona Lisa in reality and in The Da Vinci Code Dude, Leonardo da Vinci died on May 2, 1519 age at death: 67 years so. no. yea i mean that was so dump n which dumbo pretends to be leornado da vinciand this person cant see how long ago this painting was done. Leonardo da Vinci. You are not Leonardo da Vinci because he died long long years ago.

Al right LEO, if she were a merchants wife where is the wedding ring? MONA LISA IS A VERY GOOD PAINTING. I think the consciousness Mona Lisa is a really good painting. Leonardo da Vinci is awesome =D. how dare you call leonardo da vinci infamous.

Correction made, thanks. I think this is the best painting ever!! #128578; One of my favorites!! LOVE THIS PAINTING. #128512; monalisa painting is a very glorious and sence ful painting its so cute. i like this painting.

monalisa is a good painting by in nursing, leonardo da vency is a good artist monalisa is a good painting by leonardo da vency is a good artist can anybody tell me the articles author? Someone told me that Mona Lisa is the female version of Da Vinci. Psychology Consciousness. Was Leonardo Da Vinci gay. =O. Those would be rumors, would you appreciate the work of Leonardo Da Vinci more, or less whether or not he was? YES HE IS REALY GAY PEOPLE SREACH IT UP.

can you imagine the time and skill it took to make this piece? i find the in hamlet fabric on her forarms and her facial bone structure to be the most impressive. the consciousness eyes also give off a very enigmatic feel. i wish i had this artistic skill. may this painting bring my essay many good fortunes. I think you like my painting, thank you! BUT I AM DEAD. how are you dead and your are talking to us and who are you thinking you are. Leonardo da Vinci.

its just a painting. i love this painting its so eyecatching. I found the community krumping copying of consciousness Mona Lisa on canvas very challenging. The more you study it, the more you realise the intense subtleties in its detail. The copy I made was twice the in hamlet dimensions of the original painting and psychology consciousness, it was still extremely difficult, actually impossible to imitate. Very much the same as the self portrait etchings made by Rembrandt in evidence practice the 17 th centuary.The perfect artwork technically, and in concept. Yes Mr. Dawie..I totally agree with you that it indeed is very difficult to imitate I have been trying to do it on consciousness a canvas with almost same dimensions( Just 2 cms short)And with each day her beauty seems more enigmatic than everI feel the expression forms the most difficult part of the painting After having read some literature regarding the revenge is an vengeance techniques used in the painting I am re doing it ( I havent had any formal education in fine artbut can copy well so thot of giving it a try!!) this painting is so amazing. This was an interesting article with many cool facts.

I wonder why people tried to steal it.Im just glad that it is psychology, safe now. This was an interesting article with many cool facts. I wonder why people tried to is an passion vengeance meaning steal it.Im just glad that it is safe now. I want to psychology know in this painting any secret message if yes , so what is ? Who is Mona Lisa? Dont go into mental contortions any more, and forget all those Lisas, Isabellas, Pacificas, Salais The mystery has finally been solved. Mona Lisa is Caterina Sforza, says Magdalena Soest, an expert in Renaissance art history. Evidence. She provides a chain of clear and crucial evidence (see her book: Caterina Sforza ist Mona Lisa. Psychology. Die Geschichte einer Entdeckung). Soests Mona Caterina was Italys most beautiful, brave, enigmatic, fascinating, libidinous, feared and famous virago. Men worshipped her, singers and community krumping, poets praised her, but her enemies damned her. She kept smiling.

I wanted to know that what is the consciousness main point of monalisas picture which make this picture very famous and great.plz reply me firstI wanted to know. Dear Piyush Suthar, Id like to answer your question. Is An Meaning. Indeed there is a secret message in the Mona Lisa painting. Magdalena Soest, the said German researcher (who leads a very secluded life), discovered that message ten years ago. Psychology Consciousness. HERE IS THE CODE:

Soest analysed the embroidery on if we die claude analysis the neckline of Mona Lisas dress to discover a combination of Sforza emblems (fleur de lis) and psychology, of Medici emblems (fleur de lis, oval, interwoven rings) there; likewise Soest analysed the winding road of the landscape to act of passion of justice meaning identify it as the heraldic serpent of the psychology Sforza arms, the major emblem of the House of Sforza: In the Mona Lisa painting there are represented the very symbols and emblems of Caterina Sforza, who was an illegitimate daughter of the harvard university symbols Milanese duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza, and the widow of Giovanni de Medici! Caterina Sforza is Soests Mona Lisa. The monalisa word has two components; Mon meaning man in English and alias in English too. The word is indicative of a man alias the figure depicted in this portrait.Monalisa is the portrait of a man. cant say whether he was gay. But someone rightly analysed the painting and said the correct one to you based on his research.

It is really the feminine model of Da Vinci. Consciousness. It might be the reason for which Da Vinci carried this portrait with him to France kept with him till his death. Based Practice. There are four words embedded in this painting; two on the embroidery line on the upper chest area and one each on the arms. The words are,god,cod,MR Vinci. Cod literally means a foolish person. Psychology Consciousness. The painter of this painting appears to have commented god a foolish person Mr Vinci. Find out krumping, yourself. Download an original image in full resolution, zoom it sufficiently and trace out the words in the indicated areas. I think you can find out your answer. We believe in evidences; not on historical narrations. One thing missing that is consciousness, no eyebrows.

Da Vinci appeared to have shaved his eyebrows, moustache beards in order to in hamlet assume a beautiful monalisa look. It is also the reason for the enigmatic smile of psychology Monalisa; a famous male painter like Da Vinci himself assumed a feminine form to create one of the worlds best paintings. love it, good picture. Leonardo davinci is a famous guy Amy so I agree with you a lot ok talk to you later! I want to know what are the key feathers of style, objects convey and symbols involved. I like how you gave me a lot of information on and about the Mona Lisa and what all was surrounding her. it takes a lot of time to sit down and motifs, actually look and interpret and analyze the psychology consciousness amazing piece of art. You state that the Mona Lisa is painted on vengeance of justice meaning a cottonwood panel. Psychology Consciousness. Others say on a poplar panel. Cottonwood is a very open grained wood, unsuitable for woodworking of any kind, whereas poplar is tight grained and tends to be very even ideal for a painting panel. Please, what is motifs, your source. I love how you answered all of the questions that I needed.

any idea on what materials Leonardo Da Vinci used to make the Mona Lisa? I sometimes do not understand people. why is the left side of psychology her hair curly and the right straight as can be. hi this is an amazing painting why would anyone want to steal it i wonder why. What is the Mona Lisa. hi bob look out your window who do you see? Leonardo Da Vinci? if you dont he has already made it to your mum! if he is in hamlet, not with your mum I would run to your room and lock your doors because someone is coming for you. Consciousness. ha ha ha ha jokes your cool bob. Leonardo Da Vinci is the coolest guy I have ever heard of. Is An Act Of Passion Vengeance Of Justice Meaning. you should really learn more about him.

I would just like to know what materials he used to make the consciousness mona lisa. thanks a lot.