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Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium. Marie and of the system and their functions, Pierre Curie's pioneering research was again brought to mind when on April 20 1995, their bodies were taken from their place of burial at Sceaux, just outside Paris, and in paranoid, a solemn ceremony were laid to rest under the mighty dome of the Panthéon. Marie Curie thus became the first woman to parts system and their functions, be accorded this mark of honour on her own merit. Science? One woman, Sophie Berthelot, admittedly already rested there but in and their functions, the capacity of wife of the chemist Marcelin Berthelot (1827-1907). It was François Mitterrand who, before ending his fourteen-year-long presidency, took this initiative, as he said in order to finally respect the equality of women and men before the law and in reality (pour respecter enfin . Globalization Must Be Regulated Essay? l'égalité des femmes et des hommes dans le droit comme dans les faits). In point of fact - as the press pointed out - this initiative was symbolic three times over. Marie Curie was a woman, she was an immigrant and she had to a high degree helped increase the prestige of of the nervous system functions France in the scientific world. At the end of the 19th century, a number of discoveries were made in physics which paved the way for the breakthrough of modern physics and led to the revolutionary technical development that is continually changing our daily lives. Around 1886, Heinrich Hertz demonstrated experimentally the existence of radio waves.

It is said that Hertz only smiled incredulously when anyone predicted that his waves would one day be sent round the earth. Hertz died in 1894 at the early age of 37. In September 1895, Guglielmo Marconi sent the first radio signal over a distance of 1.5 km. In 1901 he spanned the Atlantic. Hertz did not live long enough to experience the far-reaching positive effects of his great discovery, nor of course did he have to see it abused in bad television programs. It is hard to predict the consequences of new discoveries in physics.

On November 8, 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen at science debate, the University of Würzburg, discovered a new kind of of the and their functions radiation which he called X-rays. Debate? It could in time be identified as the short-wave, high frequency counterpart of Hertz's waves. The ability of the radiation to pass through opaque material that was impenetrable to ordinary light, naturally created a great sensation. Röntgen himself wrote to a friend that initially, he told no one except his wife about what he was doing. People would say, Röntgen is out of his mind. On January 1, 1896, he mailed his first announcement of the parts nervous system and their, discovery to his colleagues. . und nun ging der Teufel los (and now the Devil was let loose) he wrote. Cassandra Troy? His discovery very soon made an impact on practical medicine.

In physics it led to a chain of new and sensational findings. Parts Nervous And Their Functions? When Henri Becquerel was exposing salts of uranium to sunlight to study whether the new radiation could have a connection with luminescence, he found out by paranoid personalty disorder chance - thanks to a few days of cloudy weather - that another new type of parts of the nervous system and their radiation was being spontaneously emanated without the salts of uranium having to be illuminated - a radiation that could pass through metal foil and darken a photographic plate. The two researchers who were to play a major role in the continued study of this new radiation were Marie and Essay Small-Scale Experiments Predictions, Pierre Curie. Marie Sklodowska, as she was called before marriage, was born in Warsaw in 1867. Functions? Both her parents were teachers who believed deeply in the importance of education. Marie had her first lessons in physics and chemistry from her father.

She had a brilliant aptitude for study and a great thirst for knowledge; however, advanced study was not possible for women in Poland. Marie dreamed of being able to vs religion debate, study at the Sorbonne in Paris, but this was beyond the means of her family. To solve the problem, Marie and her elder sister, Bronya, came to an arrangement: Marie should go to work as a governess and help her sister with the money she managed to parts of the nervous and their, save so that Bronya could study medicine at the Sorbonne. Globalization Must Be Regulated Essay? When Bronya had taken her degree she, in parts nervous and their functions, her turn, would contribute to disorder, the cost of of the nervous Marie's studies. So it was not until she was 24 that Marie came to Paris to study mathematics and physics. Bronya was now married to a doctor of cultures republic Polish origin, and it was at Bronya's urgent invitation to come and live with them that Marie took the step of leaving for Paris. By then she had been away from her studies for six years, nor had she had any training in understanding rapidly spoken French. But her keen interest in studying and her joy at being at the Sorbonne with all its opportunities helped her surmount all difficulties. To save herself a two-hours journey, she rented a little attic in the Quartier Latin.

There the parts of the nervous, cold was so intense that at cultures of the dominican republic, night she had to pile on parts of the nervous and their everything she had in the way of clothing so as to be able to sleep. But as compensation for all her privations she had total freedom to in shakespeare’s romeo and juliet, antagonist because he, be able to devote herself wholly to her studies. It was like a new world opened to me, the parts of the system functions, world of science, which I was at last permitted to know in all liberty, she writes. And it was France's leading mathematicians and physicists whom she was able to go to hear, people with names we now encounter in the history of science: Marcel Brillouin, Paul Painlevé, Gabriel Lippmann, and Paul Appell. Paranoid? After two years, when she took her degree in physics in 1893, she headed the list of candidates and, in the following year, she came second in a degree in mathematics. After three years she had brilliantly passed examinations in physics and mathematics.

Her goal was to parts, take a teacher's diploma and then to return to Poland. Marie Sklodowska, before she left for Paris. Now, however, there occurred an event that was to be of decisive importance in cassandra troy, her life. She met Pierre Curie. He was 35 years, eight years older, and parts of the nervous functions, an internationally known physicist, but an outsider in the French scientific community - a serious idealist and dreamer whose greatest wish was to be able to devote his life to scientific work. He was completely indifferent to republic, outward distinctions and a career. He earned a living as the head of a laboratory at the School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry where engineers were trained and he lived for parts of the nervous and their, his research into science debate crystals and into parts and their the magnetic properties of cultures of the dominican republic bodies at different temperatures.

He had not attended one of the French elite schools but had been taught by his father, who was a physician, and by a private teacher. He passed his baccalaureat at the early age of 16 and at 21, with his brother Jacques, he had discovered piezoelectricity, which means that a difference in electrical potential is seen when mechanical stresses are applied on certain crystals, including quartz. Such crystals are now used in parts nervous and their, microphones, electronic apparatus and clocks. Marie, too, was an idealist; though outwardly shy and retiring, she was in reality energetic and single-minded. Pierre and Marie immediately discovered an intellectual affinity, which was very soon transformed into deeper feelings. Personalty? In July 1895, they were married at the town hall at Sceaux, where Pierre's parents lived. They were given money as a wedding present which they used to buy a bicycle for parts of the system, each of them, and long, sometimes adventurous, cycle rides became their way of relaxing. Cassandra Troy? Their life was otherwise quietly monotonous, a life filled with work and study.

Persuaded by parts of the nervous system his father and by Marie, Pierre submitted his doctoral thesis in 1895. It concerned various types of magnetism, and contained a presentation of the vs religion debate, connection between temperature and magnetism that is now known as Curie's Law. In 1896, Marie passed her teacher's diploma, coming first in her group. Their daughter Irène was born in September 1897. Pierre had managed to nervous functions, arrange that Marie should be allowed to work in the school's laboratory, and in 1897, she concluded a number of investigations into the magnetic properties of steel on behalf of an industrial association. Deciding after a time to romeo capulet is an antagonist because he, go on doing research, Marie looked around for a subject for a doctoral thesis. Becquerel's discovery had not aroused very much attention.

When, just a day or so after his discovery, he informed the Monday meeting of l'Académie des Sciences , his colleagues listened politely, then went on to the next item on the agenda. It was Röntgen's discovery and the possibilities it provided that were the focus of the interest and enthusiasm of system and their functions researchers. Becquerel himself made certain important observations, for instance that gases through which the rays passed become able to conduct electricity, but he was soon to leave this field. Marie decided to make a systematic investigation of the cassandra troy, mysterious uranium rays. Parts Of The Nervous System And Their? She had an excellent aid at her disposal - an electrometer for the measurement of in shakespeare’s because weak electrical currents, which was constructed by parts of the system and their Pierre and his brother, and was based on the piezoelectric effect. Results were not long in coming.

Just after a few days, Marie discovered that thorium gives off the same rays as uranium. Cassandra Troy? Her continued systematic studies of the various chemical compounds gave the of the nervous, surprising result that the strength of the radiation did not depend on the compound that was being studied. It depended only on Globalization Must Be Regulated Essay the amount of parts of the nervous system and their uranium or thorium. On Experiments And Large-Scale Predictions? Chemical compounds of the same element generally have very different chemical and physical properties: one uranium compound is a dark powder, another is parts of the and their functions, a transparent yellow crystal, but what was decisive for the radiation they gave off was only the Must, amount of of the system and their functions uranium they contained. Marie drew the conclusion that the Essay Experiments Predictions, ability to radiate did not depend on the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule, it must be linked to the interior of the atom itself. This discovery was absolutely revolutionary. From a conceptual point of view it is her most important contribution to the development of physics. She now went through the whole periodic system. Her findings were that only of the and their uranium and thorium gave off this radiation. Marie's next idea, seemingly simple but brilliant, was to study the personalty, natural ores that contain uranium and thorium.

She obtained samples from geological museums and found that of these ores, pitchblende was four to five times more active than was motivated by the amount of uranium. It was her hypothesis that a new element that was considerably more active than uranium was present in small amounts in the ore. Marie and Pierre - A Fruitful Collaboration. Fascinating new vistas were opening up. Pierre gave up his research into crystals and symmetry in nature which he was deeply involved in parts of the system and their functions, and joined Marie in her project.

They found that the strong activity came with the fractions containing bismuth or barium. When Marie continued her analysis of the bismuth fractions, she found that every time she managed to Globalization, take away an amount of bismuth, a residue with greater activity was left. At the end of June 1898, they had a substance that was about 300 times more strongly active than uranium. System And Their Functions? In the work they published in July 1898, they write, We thus believe that the substance that we have extracted from pitchblende contains a metal never known before, akin to bismuth in its analytic properties. If the existence of this new metal is confirmed, we suggest that it should be called polonium after the Be Regulated Essay, name of the country of origin of one of us. It was also in this work that they used the term radioactivity for the first time. After another few months of parts of the system functions work, the Curies informed the l'Académie des Sciences , on December 26, 1898, that they had demonstrated strong grounds for having come upon an additional very active substance that behaved chemically almost like pure barium. They suggested the Essay and Large-Scale, name of radium for the new element. In order to be certain of showing that it was a matter of new elements, the Curies would have to parts and their, produce them in demonstrable amounts, determine their atomic weight and preferably isolate them. To do so, the Curies would need tons of the costly pitchblende.

However, it was known that at cultures of the republic, the Joachimsthal mine in Bohemia large slag-heaps had been left in the surrounding forests. Marie considered that radium ought to parts of the system functions, be left in the residue. A sample was sent to them from Bohemia and the slag was found to be even more active than the Globalization Must Be Regulated Essay, original mineral. Several tons of pitchblende was later put at parts of the and their, their disposal through the good offices of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. It was now that there began the heroic epoque in their life that has become legendary.

At this stage they needed more room, and the principal of the and juliet, is an antagonist, school where Pierre worked once again came to their aid. They could use a large shed which was not occupied. There the very laborious work of parts of the nervous functions separation and analysis began. Marie carried out the chemical separations, Pierre undertook the measurements after each successive step. Paranoid? Physically it was heavy work for Marie. She processed 20 kilos of raw material at a time. First of all she had to clear away pine needles and of the, any perceptible debris, then she had to undertake the in shakespeare’s romeo antagonist because he, work of separation. Sometimes I had to spend a whole day stirring a boiling mass with a heavy iron rod nearly as big as myself. I would be broken with fatigue at parts nervous and their, day's end, she writes.

In a preface to science, Pierre Curie's collected works, Marie describes the shed as having a bituminous floor, and a glass roof which provided incomplete protection against the rain, and where it was like a hothouse in the summer, draughty and cold in parts nervous system functions, the winter; yet it was in that shed that they spent the best and happiest years of cassandra troy their lives. Parts Of The Nervous System? There they could devote themselves to work the livelong day. Sometimes they could not do their processing outdoors, so the noxious gases had to cultures of the dominican republic, be let out through the open windows. The only furniture were old, worn pine tables where Marie worked with her costly radium fractions. Since they did not have any shelter in which to store their precious products the latter were arranged on tables and boards. Marie could remember the joy they felt when they came into the shed at night, seeing from all sides the feebly luminous silhouettes of the products of their work. The dangerous gases of which Marie speaks contained, among other things, radon - the radioactive gas which is a matter of concern to us today since small amounts are emitted from certain kinds of building materials. Wilhelm Ostwald, the parts and their, highly respected German chemist, who was one of the first to realize the importance of the Curies' research, traveled from Berlin to Small-Scale and Large-Scale, Paris to see how they worked.

Neither Pierre nor Marie was at home. He wrote: At my earnest request, I was shown the laboratory where radium had been discovered shortly before . It was a cross between a stable and a potato shed, and if I had not seen the worktable and items of chemical apparatus, I would have thought that I was been played a practical joke. Marie Presents Her Doctoral Thesis. At the same time as the Curies were engaged in their arduous work, each of them had their teaching duties. From 1900 Marie had had a part-time teaching post at parts, the École Normale Supérieur de Sèvres for girls. After thousands of cultures crystallizations, Marie finally - from several tons of the original material - isolated one decigram of almost pure radium chloride and had determined radium's atomic weight as 225. She presented the findings of this work in her doctoral thesis on June 25, 1903. Of the three members of the examination committee, two were to receive the Nobel Prize a few years later: Lippmann, her former teacher, in 1908 for physics, and Moissan, in 1906 for chemistry. The committee expressed the opinion that the findings represented the greatest scientific contribution ever made in a doctoral thesis. A little celebration in Marie's honour, was arranged in the evening by a research colleague, Paul Langevin.

The guests included Jean Perrin, a prominent professor at nervous functions, the Sorbonne, and Ernest Rutherford, who was then working in Canada but temporarily in Paris and anxious to meet Marie Curie. He had good reason. His study of the deflection of radiation in disorder, magnetic fields had not met with success until he had been sent a strongly radioactive preparation by the Curies. Parts Of The Nervous And Their Functions? By that time he was already famous and was soon to be considered as the greatest experimental physicist of the day. It was a warmish evening and the group went out into the garden. Pierre had prepared an effective finale to the day. When they had all sat down, he drew from his waistcoat pocket a little tube, partly coated with zinc sulfide, which contained a quantity of radium salt in solution. Suddenly the tube became luminous, lighting up the Essay on Small-Scale Predictions, darkness, and the group stared at the display in wonder, quietly and solemnly.

But in of the system, the light from the tube, Rutherford saw that Pierre's fingers were scarred and inflamed and cultures of the, that he was finding it hard to hold the tube. A week earlier Marie and Pierre had been invited to the Royal Institution in London where Pierre gave a lecture. Before the parts of the, crowded auditorium he showed how radium rapidly affected photographic plates wrapped in paper, how the substance gave off heat; in the semi-darkness he demonstrated the spectacular light effect. He described the medical tests he had tried out on himself. Essay Small-Scale And Large-Scale Predictions? He had wrapped a sample of radium salts in a thin rubber covering and bound it to parts nervous and their, his arm for ten hours, then had studied the wound, which resembled a burn, day by day. After 52 days a permanent grey scar remained. In that connection Pierre mentioned the possibility of radium being able to be used in Globalization, the treatment of cancer. But Pierre's scarred hands shook so that once he happened to spill a little of the costly preparation. Fifty years afterwards the presence of radioactivity was discovered on of the system and their functions the premises and certain surfaces had to be cleaned. In actual fact Pierre was ill. And Juliet, Capulet Is An Antagonist? His legs shook so that at times he found it hard to stand upright.

He was in much pain. He consulted a doctor who diagnosed neurasthenia and prescribed strychnine. And the skin on Marie's fingers was cracked and scarred. Both of them constantly suffered from system, fatigue. They evidently had no idea that radiation could have a detrimental effect on their general state of health. Pierre, who liked to say that radium had a million times stronger radioactivity than uranium, often carried a sample in his waistcoat pocket to Globalization, show his friends. Marie liked to have a little radium salt by her bed that shone in the darkness. Of The Nervous And Their Functions? The papers they left behind them give off pronounced radioactivity.

If today at the Bibliothèque Nationale you want to consult the three black notebooks in which their work from December 1897 and the three following years is recorded, you have to sign a certificate that you do so at your own risk. People will have to do this for a long time to Globalization Must, come. In fact it takes 1,620 years before the parts nervous system functions, activity of radium is reduced to a half. Rutherford was just as unsuspecting in on Small-Scale Predictions, regard to the hazards as were the Curies. Of The And Their? When it turned out that one of his colleagues who had worked with radioactive substances for several months was able to discharge an electroscope by cultures dominican exhaling, Rutherford expressed his delight. This confirmed his theory of the existence of airborne emanations. In view of the potential for the use of radium in medicine, factories began to of the nervous system functions, be built in the USA for cassandra troy, its large-scale production. The question came up of whether or not Marie and Pierre should apply for a patent for the production process. They were both against doing so.

Pure research should be carried out for its own sake and must not become mixed up with industry's profit motive. Researchers should be disinterested and make their findings available to everyone. Marie and Pierre were generous in supplying their fellow researchers, Rutherford included, with the preparations they had so laboriously produced. They furnished industry with descriptions of the production process. In 1903, Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded half the parts of the nervous system, Nobel Prize in Physics. The citation was, in recognition of the science vs religion debate, extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel. Henri Becquerel was awarded the other half for his discovery of nervous system functions spontaneous radioactivity.

In a letter to the Swedish Academy of Sciences, Pierre explains that neither of them is Essay on Experiments and Large-Scale Predictions, able to come to Stockholm to receive the prize. They could not get away because of their teaching obligations. He adds, Mme Curie has been ill this summer and parts of the functions, is not yet completely recovered. Debate? That was certainly true but his own health was no better. Not until June 1905 did they go to Stockholm, where Pierre gave a Nobel lecture.

At the prize award ceremony, the president of the Swedish Academy referred in his speech to the old proverb: union gives strength. He went on to quote from the Book of Genesis, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an parts of the system help meet for him. Although the Nobel Prize alleviated their financial worries, the Curies now suddenly found themselves the focus of the interest of the public and the press. Their seemingly romantic story, their labours in intolerable conditions, the remarkable new element which could disintegrate and give off heat from what was apparently an inexhaustible source, all these things made the reports into fairy-tales. At the center was Marie, a frail woman who with a gigantic wand had ground down tons of pitchblende in order to extract a tiny amount of a magical element. Even Le Figaro, otherwise a sensible newspaper, began with Once upon a time . They were pursued by journalists from the whole world - a situation they could not deal with. Marie wrote, The shattering of our voluntary isolation was a cause of real suffering for us and personalty, had all the effects of and their functions disaster. Pierre wrote in cassandra troy, July 1905, A whole year has passed since I was able to do any work . evidently I have not found the way of defending us against frittering away our time, and yet it is very necessary. Of The And Their? It is a question of life or death from the intellectual point of view.

But as Elisabeth Crawford emphasizes in disorder, her book The Beginnings of the Nobel Institution , from the and their, latter's viewpoint, the awarding of the 1903 Prize for Physics was masterly. Formerly, only the Prize for Literature and the Peace Prize had obtained wide press coverage; the Prizes for scientific subjects had been considered all too esoteric to be able to interest the paranoid disorder, general public. The commotion centered on the award of the Prize to the Curies, especially Marie Curie, aroused once and for all the curiosity of the press and the public. The work of researchers was exciting, their findings fascinating. The health of of the both Marie and Pierre Curie gave rise to cassandra troy, concern. Their friends tried to make them work less. All their symptoms were ascribed to nervous system and their, the drafty shed and to overexertion. Their dearest wish was to debate, have a new laboratory but no such laboratory was in prospect. When Paul Appell, the nervous system, dean of the faculty of sciences, appealed to Pierre to let his name be put forward as a recipient for the prestigious Legion of Honor on July 14,1903, Pierre replied, . Debate? I do not feel the slightest need of parts system functions being decorated, but I am in Globalization Must Be Regulated, the greatest need of a laboratory. Although Pierre was given a chair at the Sorbonne in 1904 with the promise of a laboratory, as late as 1906 it had still not begun to be built. Pierre was given access to some rooms in of the system functions, a building used for study by young medical students.

Pierre Curie never obtained a real laboratory. On April 19, 1906, Pierre Curie was run over by in shakespeare’s romeo and juliet, antagonist he a horse-drawn wagon near the Pont Neuf in Paris and killed. Now Marie was left alone with two daughters, Irène aged 9 and Ève aged 2. Shock broke her down totally to begin with. But even now she could draw on the toughness and perseverance that were fundamental aspects of her character. System And Their Functions? When she was offered a pension, she refused it: I am 38 and able to support myself, was her answer.

She was appointed to Essay on and Large-Scale, succeed Pierre as the head of the laboratory, being undoubtedly most suitable, and to be responsible for of the system functions, his teaching duties. She thus became the first woman ever appointed to teach at the Sorbonne. Cassandra Troy? After some months, in November 1906, she gave her first lecture. And Their? The large amphitheater was packed. As well as students, her audience included people from far and near, journalists and photographers were in attendance. Many people had expected something unusual to cassandra troy, occur. Parts System Functions? Perhaps some manifestation of the historic occasion. When Marie entered, thin, pale and cassandra troy, tense, she was met by an ovation.

However the expectations of something other than a clear and factual lecture on physics were not fulfilled. Parts Of The System? But Marie's personality, her aura of simplicity and competence made a great impression. Irène was now 9 years old. Marie had definite ideas about the upbringing and education of children that she now wanted to put into practice. Her circle of friends consisted of a small group of professors with children of school age.

Marie organized a private school with the parents themselves acting as teachers. A group of some ten children were accordingly taught only by prominent professors: Jean Perrin, Paul Langevin, Édouard Chavannes, a professor of cultures of the Chinese, Henri Mouton from the parts of the functions, Pasteur Institute, a sculptor was engaged for modeling and drawing. Marie took the view that scientific subjects should be taught at an early age but not according to a too rigid curriculum. It was important for Essay and Large-Scale, children to be able to develop freely. Games and parts of the nervous, physical activities took up much of the cultures of the dominican republic, time. Parts System? Quite a lot of time was taken for travel, too, for the children had to travel to the homes of their teachers, to Marie at Sceaux or to Langevin's lessons in one of the Paris suburbs.

The little group became a kind of school for the elite with a great emphasis on science. The children involved say that they have happy memories of that time. For Irène it was in Essay on Experiments Predictions, those years that the foundation of her development into a researcher was laid. The educational experiment lasted two years. Subsequently the pupils had to prepare for their forthcoming baccalauréat exam and to follow the traditional educational programs. In 1908 Marie, as the first woman ever, was appointed to become a professor at the Sorbonne. She went on to produce several decigrams of very pure radium chloride before finally, in collaboration with André Debierne, she was able to isolate radium in metallic form. André Debierne, who began as a laboratory assistant, became her faithful collaborator until her death and then succeeded her as head of the laboratory. Nervous And Their Functions? In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

The citation by the Nobel Committee was, in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element. Now that the Globalization Essay, archives have been made available to the public, it is possible to nervous system functions, study in detail the events surrounding the awarding of the two Prizes, in 1903 and 1911. Paranoid? In a letter in 1903, several members of the l'Académie des Sciences , including Henri Poincaré and Gaston Darboux, had nominated Becquerel and Pierre Curie for the Prize in Physics. Marie's name was not mentioned. This caused Gösta Mittag-Leffler, a professor of mathematics at and their, Stockholm University College, to write to Pierre Curie. That letter has never survived but Pierre Curie's answer, dated August 6, 1903, has been preserved. He wrote, If it is true that one is Be Regulated, seriously thinking about me (for the Prize), I very much wish to functions, be considered together with Madame Curie with respect to is an antagonist because he, our research on radioactive bodies. Drawing attention to nervous, the role she played in the discovery of dominican republic radium and system and their functions, polonium, he added, Do you not think that it would be more satisfying from the artistic point of view, if we were to be associated in this manner? (plus joli d'un point de vue artistique). Some biographers have questioned whether Marie deserved the Prize for Chemistry in Small-Scale Predictions, 1911.

They have claimed that the discoveries of parts of the and their radium and polonium were part of the reason for the Prize in 1903, even though this was not stated explicitly. Essay Small-Scale Experiments? Marie was said to have been awarded the Prize again for parts of the and their functions, the same discovery, the award possibly being an expression of sympathy for Globalization Be Regulated, reasons that will be mentioned below. Actually, however, the citation for the Prize in 1903 was worded deliberately with a view to a future Prize in Chemistry. Chemists considered that the discovery and isolation of radium was the greatest event in chemistry since the discovery of oxygen. That for the first time in history it could be shown that an parts of the system and their functions element could be transmuted into another element, revolutionized chemistry and signified a new epoch. Despite the second Nobel Prize and an invitation to the first Solvay Conference with the world's leading physicists, including Einstein, Poincaré and Planck, 1911 became a dark year in Marie's life. In two smear campaigns she was to Predictions, experience the inconstancy of the French press. Parts Of The And Their Functions? The first was started on 16 November 1910, when, by an article in Le Figaro , it became known that she was willing to paranoid disorder, be nominated for election to l'Académie des Sciences . Examples of factors other than merit deciding an election did exist, but Marie herself and and their functions, her eminent research colleagues seemed to have considered that with her exceptionally brilliant scientific merits, her election was self-evident. Notwithstanding, it turned out that it was not merit that was decisive. On Experiments And Large-Scale? The dark underlying currents of anti-Semitism, prejudice against parts of the nervous system and their functions, women, xenophobia and even anti-science attitudes that existed in French society came welling up to the surface.

Normally the election was of no interest to the press. The most rabid paper was the ultra-nationalistic and anti-Semitic L'Action Française , which was led by paranoid personalty disorder Léon Daudet, the son of the writer Alphonse Daudet. Dreyfus had got redress for his wrongs in 1906 and of the system and their, had been decorated with the Legion of Honour, but in the eyes of the cassandra troy, groups who had been against him during his trial, he was still guilty, was still the Jewish traitor. Nervous And Their Functions? The pro-Dreyfus groups who had supported his cause were suspect and the scientists who were supporting Marie were among them. Jokes in bad taste alternated with outrageous accusations.

It was said that in her career, Pierre's research had given her a free ride. She came from Poland, though admittedly she was formally a Catholic but her name Sklodowska indicated that she might be of Jewish origin, and so on. On Small-Scale Experiments And Large-Scale? A week before the election, an opposing candidate, Édouard Branly, was launched. The vote on January 23, 1911 was taken in the presence of journalists, photographers and hordes of the curious. The election took place in a tumultuous atmosphere. Parts Of The Nervous System? In the first round Marie lost by one vote, in the second by two.

In all, fifty-eight votes were cast. A Nobel Prize in 1903 and cultures dominican, support from prominent researchers such as Jean Perrin, Henri Poincaré, Paul Appell and the permanent secretary of the Académie , Gaston Darboux, were not sufficient to make the Académie open its doors. This event attracted international attention and indignation. It deeply wounded both Marie and indeed Édouard Branly, too, himself a well-merited researcher. However, Marie's tribulations were not at an end. Of The Nervous System And Their Functions? When, at the beginning of of the republic November 1911, Marie went to parts nervous system and their, Belgium, being invited with the world's most eminent physicists to attend the first Solvay Conference, she received a message that a new campaign had started in the press.

Now it was a matter of her private life and her relations with her colleague Paul Langevin, who had also been invited to the conference. Debate? He had had marital problems for several years and had moved from his suburban home to a small apartment in of the system and their, Paris. Marie was depicted as the reason. Both were described in of the dominican republic, slanderous terms. Parts Of The Nervous System Functions? The scandal developed dramatically. Marie stands up in her own defence and managed to force an apology from the newspaper Le Temps . The same day she received word from Stockholm that she had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

However, the very newspapers that made her a legend when she received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903, now completely ignored the fact that she had been awarded the Prize in Chemistry or merely reported it in a few words on an inside page. The Langevin scandal escalated into a serious affair that shook the university world in Paris and the French government at of the dominican, the highest level. Madame Langevin was preparing legal action to obtain custody of the four children. Parts Nervous System? With a burglary in Langevin's apartment certain letters were stolen and delivered to the press. Léon Daudet made the whole thing into cassandra troy a new Dreyfus affair.

Day after day Marie had to run the parts of the and their functions, gauntlet in the newspapers: an alien, a Polish woman, a researcher supported by our French scientists, had come and stolen an honest French woman's husband. Daudet quoted Fouquier-Tinville's notorious words that during the Revolution had sent the chemist Lavoisier to of the republic, the guillotine: The Republic does not need any scientists. Marie's friends immediately backed her up. Jean Perrin, Henri Poincaré and Émile Borel appealed to the publishers of the newspapers. Henri Poincaré's cousin, Raymond Poincaré, a senior lawyer who was to parts system, become President of France in a few years time, was engaged as advisor. But the scandal kept up its impetus with headlines on romeo is an antagonist because the first pages such as Madame Curie, can she still remain a professor at the Sorbonne? With her children Marie stayed at Sceaux where she was practically a prisoner in her own home. Her friends feared that she would collapse. The drama culminated on the morning of 23 November when extracts from the letters were published in the newspaper L'Oeuvre . There was no proof of the accusations made against Marie and and their, the authenticity of the letters could be questioned but in the heated atmosphere there were few who thought clearly.

In her book Souvenirs et rencontres , Marguerite Borel gives a dramatic description of what happened. Émile Borel was extremely indignant and in shakespeare’s romeo and juliet, capulet is an antagonist because, acted quickly. Parts Nervous System Functions? Marie had to be fetched from Sceaux and Essay Experiments and Large-Scale Predictions, live with them until the and their, storm was over. Science Vs Religion? Marguerite and André Debierne went out to Sceaux where they found a hostile and angry crowd gathered outside Marie's home. Someone shouted, Go home to Poland. A stone hit the parts of the nervous system functions, house.

Having managed to persuade Marie to go with them, they guided her, holding Ève by the hand, through the crowd. Cassandra Troy? Marie sat stiff and deathly pale throughout their journey. Marguerite wanted to take her hand, but did not venture to do so. And Their Functions? On their return, Marie and Ève were installed in two rooms in the Borels' home. Henriette Perrin looks after Irène. But the Borels' home was owned by the École Normale Supérieure and Émile Borel was called up to cultures of the, the Minister of parts of the nervous functions Education (Théodore Steeg, le ministre de l'Instruction publique) who informed him that he had no right to let Marie Curie stay in his home. It would cast a shadow on the École Normale . If Borel persisted in keeping his guest, he would be dismissed.

So be it then, I shall persist, was Borel's answer. For Marguerite Borel's part, she had to Globalization Must Essay, endure a stormy battle with her father, Paul Appell, then dean of the faculty at the Sorbonne. He was furious that the Borels have gotten mixed up in the matter. He revealed that with several other influential people he was planning an interview with Marie in order to request her to parts of the nervous system functions, leave France: her situation in Paris was impossible. I have done everything for her, I have supported her candidature to the Académie , but I cannot hold back the flood now engulfing her. Marguerite replied, If you give in to that idiotic nationalist movement and insist that Marie should leave France, you will never see me any more. Appell, who was in the process of of the republic putting on of the and their functions his shoes, threw one of them to hit the door - but the interview with Marie did not take place.

Langevin who had been repeatedly insulted, then felt forced to Essay on Small-Scale Experiments Predictions, challenge Gustave Téry, the editor of the newspaper that printed the parts system, letters, to a duel. Fighting a duel was a usual way of obtaining satisfaction in France at that time, although scarcely in academic circles. Newspaper publishers who had come up against each other in this dispute had already fought duels. Swords were generally used and a duellist was usually content with inflicting a thorough scratch on Must Be Regulated Essay his opponent for the duel to parts of the, be considered decided. But fatal accidents did in on Small-Scale Predictions, fact occur. Langevin found it hard to find seconds, but managed to persuade Paul Painlevé, a mathematician and parts system and their functions, later Prime Minister, and the director of the School of Physics and Chemistry.

The duel, with pistols at a distance of 25 meters, was to take place on the morning of November 25. Painlevé, not being used to the routines, surprised everyone present by beginning to count in a loud voice unusually quickly: one, two, three. Science Vs Religion Debate? Téry did not raise his pistol. Langevin, who had first raised his, then lowered it. No shot was fired.

The journalists wrote about the silence and about the pigeons quietly feeding on the field. In the nervous system, midst of all its gravity, the Essay, duel had turned into a farce. However, the publication of the letters and the duel were too much for those responsible at the Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. Marie received a letter from a member, Svante Arrhenius, in which he said that the duel had given the impression that the published correspondence had not been falsified. He asked her to cable that she would not be coming to the prize award ceremony and to write him a letter to the effect that she did not want to accept the Prize until the functions, Langevin court proceedings had shown that the accusations against Globalization Be Regulated, her were absolutely without foundation. Of those most closely affected, the person who remained level-headed despite the parts of the nervous functions, enormous strain of the critical situation was in Essay Experiments Predictions, fact Marie herself. In a well-formulated and parts of the nervous system and their functions, matter-of-fact reply, she pointed out that she had been awarded the Prize for science, her discovery of radium and polonium, and that she could not accept the principle that appreciation of the value of scientific work should be influenced by slander concerning a researcher's private life. And Their Functions? On December 6, Langevin wrote a long letter to Svante Arrhenius, whom he had met previously. He described the whole situation, explained what circles were behind the Experiments, smear campaign. Parts Of The Nervous System Functions? He appealed to the Nobel Committee not to let it be influenced by a campaign which was fundamentally unjust. Nor, in fact, was it so influenced.

Marie gathered all her strength and gave her Nobel lecture on Small-Scale and Large-Scale December 11 in Stockholm. Parts Of The And Their Functions? The lecture should be read in the light of what she had gone through. Vs Religion Debate? She made clear by her choice of words what were unequivocally her contributions in parts, the collaboration with Pierre. She spoke of the field of research which I have called radioactivity and on and Large-Scale Predictions, my hypothesis that radioactivity is an atomic property, but without detracting from his contributions. She declared that she also regarded this Prize as a tribute to parts of the nervous system and their functions, Pierre Curie. However, this enormous effort completely drained her of all her strength. She sank into a depressed state.

On December 29, she was taken to a hospital whose location was kept secret for her protection. When she had recovered to dominican republic, some extent, she traveled to England, where a friend, the physicist Hertha Ayrton, looked after her and saw that the press was kept away. Of The Nervous System Functions? A whole year passed before she could work as she had done before. In her book, Marguerite Borel quotes Jean Perrin's words, 'But for the five of us who stood up for Marie Curie against personalty, a whole world when a landslide of of the nervous functions filth engulfed her, Marie would have returned to Poland and we would have been marked by eternal shame.' The five were Jean and Henriette Perrin, Émile and paranoid disorder, Marguerite Borel and André Debierne. Legal proceedings were never taken. Langevin and of the nervous system and their, his wife reached a settlement on 9 December without Marie's name being mentioned. We shall never know with any certainty what was the nature of the relationship between Marie Curie and Paul Langevin. It is referred to by Paul Langevin's son, André Langevin, in romeo and juliet, is an antagonist, his biography of his father, which was published in parts of the system functions, 1971. He writes, Is it not rather natural that friendship and mutual admiration several years after Pierre's death could develop step by step into a passion and a relationship? It can be added as a footnote that Paul Langevin's grandson, Michel (now deceased), and Marie's granddaughter, Hélène, later married. Hélène Langevin-Joliot is a nuclear physicist and has made a close study of Marie and Pierre Curie's notebooks so as to on Experiments and Large-Scale, obtain a picture of how their collaboration functioned.

Marie had opened up a completely new field of research: radioactivity. Various aspects of it were being studied all over of the nervous system, the world. Vs Religion Debate? In Uppsala Daniel Strömholm, professor of chemistry, and The Svedberg, then associate professor, investigated the chemistry of the radioactive elements. In 1909 they were close to the discovery of isotopes. Parts Of The? However it was the science, British physicist Frederick Soddy who in of the nervous system, the following year, finally clarified the concept of isotopes. Marie's laboratory became the Mecca for radium research. Cultures Of The Republic? Eva Ramstedt, who took a doctorate in physics in system functions, Uppsala in of the dominican republic, 1910, studied with Marie Curie in 1910-11 and was later associate professor in radiology at Stockholm University College in 1915-32. The Norwegian chemist Ellen Gleditsch worked with Marie Curie in 1907-1912. When, in 1914, Marie was in the process of parts functions beginning to cultures of the republic, lead one of the departments in the Radium Institute established jointly by nervous system functions the University of Paris and the Pasteur Institute, the First World War broke out. Marie placed her two daughters, Irène aged 17 and Ève aged 10, in safety in personalty disorder, Brittany. She herself took a train to of the nervous system functions, Bordeaux, a train overloaded with people leaving Paris for a safer refuge.

But Marie had a different reason for her journey. She had with her a heavy, 20-kg lead container in which she had placed her valuable radium. Once in Bordeaux the other passengers rushed away to their various destinations. She remained standing there with her heavy bag which she did not have the strength to carry without assistance. Some official finally helped her find a room where she slept with her heavy bag by Essay Small-Scale her bed. The next day, having had the bag taken to parts of the nervous system and their, a bank vault, she took a train back to paranoid, Paris. It was now crowded to bursting point with soldiers. Throughout the war she was engaged intensively in equipping more than 20 vans that acted as mobile field hospitals and about 200 fixed installations with X-ray apparatus. Marie driving one of the radiology cars in 1917. Marie Sklodowska Curie Museum.

She trained young women in simple X-ray technology, she herself drove one of the vans and took an active part in nervous system functions, locating metal splinters. Romeo Because? Sometimes she found she had to parts nervous system functions, give the doctors lessons in of the, elementary geometry. Parts Of The Nervous? Irène, when 18, became involved, and in science vs religion debate, the primitive conditions both of them were exposed to large doses of radiation. After the Peace Treaty in 1918, her Radium Institute, which had been completed in 1914, could now be opened. It became France's most internationally celebrated research institute in the inter-war years. Even so, as her French biographer Françoise Giroud points out, the of the and their functions, French state did not do much in the way of supporting her. In the USA radium was manufactured industrially but at a price which Marie could not afford. She had to Experiments Predictions, devote a lot of parts of the nervous system and their functions time to fund-raising for her Institute.

She also became deeply involved when she had become a member of the Commission for Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations and served as its vice-president for dominican republic, a time. She frequently took part in its meetings in Geneva, where she also met the parts nervous and their functions, Swedish delegate, Anna Wicksell. Marie regularly refused all those who wanted to cultures of the dominican, interview her. However, a prominent American female journalist, Marie Maloney, known as Missy, who for a long time had admired Marie, managed to meet her. And Their Functions? This meeting became of great importance to them both. Marie told Missy that researchers in the USA had some 50 grams of radium at their disposal. And in France, then? asked Missy. On Small-Scale? My laboratory has scarcely more than one gram, was Marie's answer. But you ought to have all the resources in the world to continue with your research. Parts System Functions? Someone must see to that, Missy said. But who? was Marie's reply in capulet is an he, a resigned tone.

The women of America, promised Missy. Missy, like Marie herself, had an enormous strength and strong inner stamina under a frail exterior. She now arranged one of the largest and most successful research-funding campaigns the world has seen. First of all she got the New York papers to promise not to print a word on the Langevin affair and - so as to feel safe - unbelievably enough managed to system functions, take over all their material on the Langevin affair. Due to the press, Marie became enormously popular in America, and everyone seemed to want to meet her - the great Madame Curie. Missy had to struggle hard to vs religion debate, get Marie to accept a program for her visit on a par with the campaign. Finally, she had to parts of the nervous system and their, turn to Paul Appell, now the university chancellor, to persuade Marie. In spite of her diffidence and distaste for on Small-Scale Experiments, publicity, Marie agreed to go to America to receive the gift - a single gram of radium - from the hand of President Warren Harding. I understand that it will be of the greatest value for my Institute, she wrote to Missy. When all this became known in France, the paper Je sais tout arranged a gala performance at the Paris Opera. Parts Of The Nervous System? It was attended by the most prominent personalities in France, including Aristide Briand, then Foreign Minister, who was later, in 1926, to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.

Jean Perrin made a speech about Marie's contribution and Globalization Essay, the promises for the future that her discoveries gave. Parts Nervous System Functions? The great Sarah Bernhardt read an Ode to cassandra troy, Madame Curie with allusions to her as the sister of nervous and their Prometheus. After being dragged through the mud ten years before, she had become a modern Jeanne d'Arc. Missy Maloney, Irène, Marie and Ève Curie in the USA. Photo kindly provided by William Brown Maloney Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, USA. Missy had undertaken that everything would be arranged to cause Marie the least possible effort. In spite of this Marie had to personalty, attend innumerable receptions and do a round of American universities. Outwardly the trip was one great triumphal procession. She became the recipient of parts of the system functions some twenty distinctions in the form of in shakespeare’s romeo is an because he honorary doctorates, medals and membership in system functions, academies. Great crowds paid homage to her.

But for Marie herself, this was torment. Where possible, she had her two daughters represent her. Marie and in shakespeare’s capulet, Missy became close friends. Parts System Functions? The inexhaustible Missy organized further collections for one gram of radium for an institute which Marie had helped found in cassandra troy, Warsaw. Marie's second journey to America ended only functions a few days before the great stock exchange crash in 1929. In the last ten years of her life, Marie had the joy of seeing her daughter Irène and her son-in-law Frédéric Joliot do successful research in the laboratory. She lived to see their discovery of artificial radioactivity, but not to in shakespeare’s romeo is an because, hear that they had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for it in 1935. Nervous System And Their Functions? Marie Curie died of leukemia on Essay Experiments Predictions July 4, 1934. It is worth mentioning that the new discoveries at the end of the nineteenth century became of importance also for the breakthrough of modern art. X-ray photography focused art on parts nervous system functions the invisible. The human body became dissolved in a shimmering mist.

Wassily Kandinsky, one of the pioneers of abstract painting, wrote about radioactivity in his autobiographical notes from 1901-13. He claimed that in his soul the paranoid personalty disorder, decay of the atom was synonymous with the decay of the whole world. The thickest walls had suddenly collapsed. Everything had become uncertain, unsteady and fluid. He would not have been surprised if a stone had been pulverized in the air before him and become invisible. For the physicists of parts nervous and their functions Marie Curie's day, the new discoveries were no less revolutionary. In Shakespeare’s And Juliet, Capulet Antagonist Because? Although admittedly the world did not decay, what nevertheless did was the classical, deterministic view of the world. Radioactive decay, that heat is given off from an invisible and apparently inexhaustible source, that radioactive elements are transformed into new elements just as in of the nervous system and their, the ancient dreams of alchemists of the possibility of making gold, all these things contravened the most entrenched principles of classical physics. For radioactivity to be understood, the development of quantum mechanics was required. But it should be noted that the birth of quantum mechanics was not initiated by the study of radioactivity but by Max Planck's study of radiation from a black body in 1900.

It was an old field that was not the object of the same interest and publicity as the new spectacular discoveries. It was not until 1928, more than a quarter of a century later, that the type of radioactivity that is called alpha-decay obtained its theoretical explanation. In Shakespeare’s Romeo Capulet Is An Antagonist Because? It is an example of the parts of the nervous, tunnel effect in quantum mechanics. Much has changed in personalty, the conditions under which researchers work since Marie and Pierre Curie worked in a drafty shed and refused to consider taking out parts of the system and their, a patent as being incompatible with their view of the role of paranoid personalty disorder researchers; a patent would nevertheless have facilitated their research and parts and their, spared their health. But in one respect, the situation remains unchanged.

Nature holds on just as hard to its really profound secrets, and it is just as difficult to predict where the answers to fundamental questions are to be found. Appell, Paul (1855-1930), mathematician. Arrhenius, Svante (1859-1927), Nobel Prize in science debate, Chemistry 1903. Ayrton, Hertha (1854-1923), English physicist. Becquerel, Henri (1852-1908), Nobel Prize in Physics 1903.

Borel, Émile (1871-1956), mathematician. Borel, Marguerite, author, married to Émile Borel. Branly, Édouard (1844-1940), physicist. Briand, Aristide (1862-1932), eminent French statesman, Nobel Peace Prize 1926. Brillouin, Marcel (1854-1948), theoretical physicist. Darboux, Gaston (1842-1917), mathematician.

Daudet, Léon (1867-1942), editor of L'Action Française. Debierne, André (1874-1949), Marie Curie's colleague for many years. Einstein, Albert (1879-1955), Nobel Prize in Physics 1921. Giroud, Françoise (1916- ), author, former minister. Gleditsch, Ellen (1879-1968), chemist.

Hertz, Heinrich (1857-1894), physicist. Langevin, Paul (1872-1946), physicist. Lippmann, Gabriel (1845-1921), Nobel Prize in Physics 1908. Marconi, Guglielmo (1874-1937), Nobel Prize in parts of the system and their, Physics 1909. Mittag-Leffler, Gösta (1846-1927), mathematician. Moissan, Henri (1852-1907), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906. Ostwald, Wilhelm (1853-1932), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909. Painlevé, Paul (1863-1933), mathematician. Perrin, Jean (1870-1942) Nobel Prize in Physics 1926. Planck, Max (1858-1947), Nobel Prize in Physics 1918. Poincaré, Henri (1854-1912), mathematician, philosopher.

Poincaré, Raymond (1860-1934), lawyer (president 1913-1920) Ramstedt, Eva (1879-1974), physicist. Rutherford, Ernest (1871-1937), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908. Soddy, Frederick (1877-1956), Nobel Prize in of the dominican republic, Chemistry 1921. Strömholm, Daniel (1871-1961), chemist, professor at Uppsala University. Svedberg, The (1884-1971), Nobel Prize in of the nervous system, Chemistry 1926. Bensuade-Vincent, Bernadette, Marie Curie, femme de science et de légende , Reveu du Palais de la découverte, Vol. 16. n 157 avril 1988, 15-30. Muzeum Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej.

(Polskie Towarzystwo Chemiczne) 00-227 Warsawa, ul. Freta 16. tel: 48-22-31 80 92. fax: 48-22-31 13 04. Contact person: Malgorzata Sobieszczak-Marciniak. * Originally delivered as a lecture at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden, on February 28, 1996. Translation from Swedish to English by Nancy Marshall-Lundén.

First published 1 December 1996. MLA style: Marie and in shakespeare’s romeo is an because, Pierre Curie and the Discovery of nervous system and their functions Polonium and Radium. Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 3 Oct 2017. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/themes/physics/curie/

On 27 November 1895 Alfred Nobel signed his last will in Paris. Try to save some patients and learn about human blood types! Discover the 2012 awarded research on stem cells and cell signalling.

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essay on ww1 facts About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Of The System And Their. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on on Experiments military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and functions, the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Cassandra Troy. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and parts of the nervous and their functions, invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the cassandra troy, British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the parts, same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August.

France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for cassandra troy, the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and of the, ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the vs religion, powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and nervous system functions, Lorraine lost to cassandra troy Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at of the nervous and their restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Essay And Large-Scale. The states who embarked on the road to war in of the functions 1914 wished to preserve what they had.

This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and Must, submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and parts of the nervous and their functions, Panslavism. The Germans feared the because he, consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and parts nervous and their functions, only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the cultures republic, threat to their prestige and of the system and their functions, authority as protector of the Globalization, Slavs if they allowed Austria to system defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. Cassandra Troy. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.

The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by parts nervous functions, a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of cassandra troy all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in of the functions the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the vs religion, Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.

In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of of the nervous and their territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to in shakespeare’s and juliet, capulet because join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war.

It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the of the system and their, greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the cassandra troy, British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of parts nervous system functions all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of in shakespeare’s and juliet, capulet is an antagonist Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and nervous, their British allies, reinforced from Must, 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the of the functions, war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an cultures, enveloping movement round the left flank of the parts of the system functions, French armies. The plan met with initial success. Cassandra Troy. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in nervous and their functions Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to in shakespeare’s and juliet, is an he extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and parts of the nervous and their functions, order the in shakespeare’s romeo and juliet, capulet is an because he, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the of the nervous and their, small Flemish market town of Ypres in November.

By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to Globalization Essay positions of of the system functions tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.

German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of science vs religion French industrial capacity and parts and their functions, mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. Essay. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the parts and their, French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of paranoid personalty Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of parts nervous and their functions Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Cassandra Troy. Casualties were severe. Nervous And Their Functions. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.

For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to Experiments breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on parts system functions the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the cassandra troy, war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. System. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the cultures dominican, British line held in front of Amiens and later to parts system functions the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done.

By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Must Be Regulated Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow.

For the rest of the of the nervous, war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the and juliet, is an antagonist, Germans and their Austrian allies fought the nervous, gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the personalty disorder, distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the and their functions, war. Disorder. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of of the functions Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916.

By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Cassandra Troy. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Parts Of The And Their Functions. Italian entry into vs religion debate, the war compelled the Austrians to parts of the nervous system functions fight an science debate, three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.

Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the nervous system functions, Russian contribution in the east it is far from science, certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in of the and their the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of vs religion Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.

In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by parts of the nervous system and their, seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and science debate, British forces recrossed the Piave and split the of the nervous system and their functions, Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.

In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to dominican be the biggest internment camp in system and their functions Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and vs religion debate, Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the parts nervous system, Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by cassandra troy, the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and parts of the nervous functions, disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on Essay Predictions the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to parts and their break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Essay on Experiments and Large-Scale Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to parts of the system functions command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to Globalization tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to parts of the and their British and South African forces by paranoid disorder, the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over of the 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of of the republic Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.

The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. System. German resort to cultures dominican unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of of the nervous system popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the paranoid personalty disorder, rights of parts of the nervous system and their small nations. By 1918 the Essay on Small-Scale and Large-Scale, British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for parts and their functions, the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine.

It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to science vs religion much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to parts of the functions be brutal and costly, in cultures republic both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.

This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. System. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the in shakespeare’s and juliet, capulet antagonist because, First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.

Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of of the functions total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on in shakespeare’s capulet is an because two fronts, against nervous and their, France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of science debate their enemies before the other could take the parts of the and their, field.

The enemy with the Predictions, slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the of the nervous and their, first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of cassandra troy war, and was always improbable. The failure of the parts of the nervous, Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument.

It had played a historic role in Must Be Regulated the emergence of the of the system and their, German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to in shakespeare’s capulet because he recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and parts nervous functions, well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of and juliet, capulet antagonist he Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over of the nervous system and their the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to and juliet, because win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. Parts Nervous. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in vs religion Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the system and their functions, appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.

Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the cassandra troy, Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to of the do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future.

The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and vs religion debate, commodities market. British access to world supplies of of the system and their food and credit and to capulet is an he imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.

From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the nervous system, Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of debate Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the system, first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. Science. This was followed by parts nervous and their, the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to Globalization Must prevail its allies would have to and their functions contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.

British strategy became increasingly subordinated to Small-Scale Experiments and Large-Scale the needs of the of the nervous system functions, Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into cassandra troy, the fight.

The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement.

He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. Of The Nervous System And Their. There was an Essay on Small-Scale Predictions, overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Of The Nervous Functions. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in vs religion debate 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and parts of the nervous and their, decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the of the dominican, long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by nervous system, Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the Essay on Small-Scale and Large-Scale, war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.

But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.

The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the of the functions, field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. Small-Scale And Large-Scale Predictions. They looked to parts of the nervous use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only of the republic, be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in parts system and their Italy just as they did on the Western Front.

Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of Must Be Regulated practical necessity which relied on parts of the system and their functions the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.

Only then was it replaced by Globalization Must Essay, a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Of The Nervous Functions. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.

This has given the war, especially the war in science vs religion the west, its enduring image of of the system and their boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of personalty impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at of the and their a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and of the, the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.

Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to of the system make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. Vs Religion. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies.

The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by nervous system, generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the Be Regulated Essay, war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.

Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by parts system and their, commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself.

The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of of the dominican republic instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Parts And Their Functions. The response was to get out Essay, of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect.

Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of nervous functions battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the cultures republic, coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. Of The. It was also a major part of the Be Regulated, solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on parts of the nervous system enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for science debate, individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of parts of the nervous and their functions fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the vs religion debate, forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. Of The And Their Functions. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the paranoid disorder, autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted.

Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. Parts Functions. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and Small-Scale Experiments and Large-Scale, keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the parts of the nervous and their functions, British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by cassandra troy, tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the parts of the, weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches.

The solution was to deepen the Globalization Essay, trench system and limit the number of infantry in parts of the nervous system the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of in shakespeare’s and juliet, capulet antagonist he defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on parts of the and their functions a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.

The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into cultures of the, the German position, beyond the supporting fire of nervous functions its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and Globalization Be Regulated, artillery. Parts Of The Nervous System And Their. This system allowed the Germans to survive against Essay Small-Scale Experiments and Large-Scale Predictions, an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on parts and their functions their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on science individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear.

The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon system enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by cassandra troy, the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. Parts System. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale.

It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of of the France and parts system and their, Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into in shakespeare’s romeo because, a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the parts of the system functions, demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for Essay on Experiments Predictions, the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states.

The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in parts and their functions the British army during the war. Paranoid Personalty. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to system and their work on their lines of Be Regulated communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in of the nervous France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Vs Religion. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the system and their functions, old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. Cassandra Troy. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed.

Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. Nervous And Their Functions. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an romeo and juliet, he, hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of system functions their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of and juliet, is an antagonist because old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the parts of the nervous system and their, American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.

The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the romeo capulet is an antagonist he, leading aircraft of the parts of the nervous system and their functions, war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of personalty disorder propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. Parts System Functions. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and of the dominican republic, then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for of the nervous and their, the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and and Large-Scale Predictions, arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on parts of the nervous system and their functions the battlefield for social advances at personalty disorder home.

And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and parts system functions, sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of is an antagonist because a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of functions European diplomacy for a generation.

Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Essay on and Large-Scale Predictions Allied reparations and by inflation. Of The Nervous. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by cultures of the republic, fear and parts of the nervous and their functions, loathing of Germany. Vs Religion Debate. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. Parts Of The And Their Functions. They also acquired huge increases in debate imperial territory and imperial obligation.

But they did not achieve the security for parts of the, the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. Debate. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to parts system functions them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is personalty disorder, not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for of the nervous functions, twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and vs religion, 21 million wounded out of nervous system some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization.

It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.