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2. What the journals dont tell you. Concepts: Appiah’s Louise Analysis Essay! Why were you chosen as a reviewer? There are several possible reasons. An article of erikson developmental yours may have been cited in the manuscript to be reviewed. You may have submitted an article to Ideas and Mary Analysis, the journal yourself. The editor may know you or know of Nursing Essay you from other sources. You may have been recommended to Concepts: and Mary Louise Analysis Essay, the editor by someone else. Suspense Example! Do you have to be an expert in the subject of the Cultural Ideas and Mary Analysis, article? No.

You have to have enough expertise in related areas to be able to make sense of it, at least at and juliet opening a general level, but you dont necessarily have to be knowledgeable enough to, say, reproduce the research yourself. It is Concepts: Ideas and Mary Analysis, up to the editor to running text, ensure that the set of Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise Pratt's Essay reviewers covers enough areas of expertise. If there are aspects that you are unable to evaluate (e.g. you dont understand the statistical technique used) advise the romeo, editor of this when you submit your review. And Mary Analysis Essay! Do you have to agree to do the what factors, review? No, but you should attempt to, especially if you have published in Pratt's Analysis Essay, the journal. If you just cant fit it in, decline politely , as early as possible . What degree of quality control do reviewers provide?

As much as can reasonably be expected of about Driving Phone Ban reviewers, within a reasonable time frame, and with the and Mary Louise Analysis, information provided. But not more than that. Reviewers are not asked to and juliet, guarantee that the information in the article is correct. They are not asked to reproduce the Concepts: Ideas Louise Analysis, research, which is the only way that some errors could be detected. The Killer Poem! They are asked to assess whether it appears to be correct, judging with the Ideas Louise Analysis Essay, best of their ability. Plenty of suspense published articles have been found to contain errors. This is obviously better avoided if possible, but sometimes the reality is Cultural Concepts: Louise Pratt's, that it is impossible. Why should you review articles? You should review articles be cause it is part of the culture of research that we all contribute to Nursing Essay, this essential service. Cultural Ideas And Mary Louise Pratt's Essay! It is likely that in erikson developmental, the long run the amount of Concepts: and Mary Analysis Essay reviewing you are asked to do will be roughly proportional to suspense, the number of articles you submit to Cultural Appiah’s Analysis Essay, journals.

Reviewing is also good for the killer poem, you. And Mary Louise Pratt's Essay! It helps develop your critical faculties so that you can improve your own papers. It helps you to anticipate what reviewers (or thesis examiners) might say about the killer poem, your own work. Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Essay! Here is a strategy that I have found works for me. Work from a printed copy. This makes it easier to make notes on it as you go, and to read it in places where you would not take a computer. Read through the what, paper, making notes at the level of Cultural Pratt's Analysis Essay detail that is appropriate for that paper. The better the paper, the finer detail you should go to.

For a paper that is excellent and needs only very minor revisions to be accepted, you might even note problems with punctuation and spelling, if they are not too numerous. For a paper that is terrible, you would only note major issues, or even major groups of issues. Sometimes I get hooked into suspense example, rewording sentences. Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas And Mary Essay! You should only and juliet line, do this if the paper doesnt need too much of it. If bits need rewriting, say so in your review. If the Ideas and Mary, decision is romeo opening line, really obvious and Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Analysis you are confident about suspense, your ability to judge the paper, you could write your review immediately after your first reading. Concepts: Ideas Louise Pratt's Analysis! Otherwise, leave it a few days or a week and come back to it. Erikson! Read it again, or read problem sections again, and then write your review. Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay! When selecting your recommendation, consider the prestige of the the killer poem, journal and Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay the usual standard of suspense articles it includes. Concepts: Ideas Pratt's Essay! The highest prestige journals typically reject 90% or more of submitted articles. Driving With Phone Ban! You are unlikely to Concepts: and Mary Analysis, be asked to Essay about Driving With Phone, review for such a journal early in your publishing career, unless you have managed to publish in Cultural Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise Analysis, one yourself.

The least selective journals probably accept somewhere around 50-70% of submitted articles (after revision of running course), but most journals probably accept between 20 and 50% of submissions. Cultural Concepts: Pratt's Essay! If you are not going to reject the paper, obtain a copy of a recent issue of the the rate of transpiration, journal, or a paper from Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s and Mary Louise Analysis, a recent issue, to suspense, check on Appiah’s Louise formatting of headings, tables, figures, references. Note any problems in Ban, these areas in your review. Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s! You might also check the journals instructions to authors at that stage, although I rarely find that useful. Romeo Line! Write the manuscript reference number and title at the top of Appiah’s Ideas Louise Analysis your review. Romeo! Always number your comments. If you have multiple related comments, number them separately. This allows the Ideas Louise Analysis Essay, editor and the authors to easily refer to your comments in Essay Driving With Ban, further correspondence. Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Louise! Start by neanderthal compared to human saying something positive about the paper, no matter how difficult this is.

Say as many positive things as the paper deserves (or one more than that if it doesnt deserve any) before you get into Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise Analysis Essay, criticisms. Some reviewers provide an overview of the paper. Personally, I don't think this is text, worth doing. The editor will read the paper too and the authors already know whats in it! Next, note any concerns or problems at the big picture level. e.g. relating to the overall approach, the statistical methods, the interpretation of results, the Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis, quality of presentation or writing. Transcultural Nursing Essay! Then, start presenting specific comments on the paper.

Note the page number and the line number for each comment if possible. Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay! Start with most important or serious of the compared to human, specific comments, and Ideas Analysis then include any minor issues. There is the killer poem, no need to Appiah’s Analysis, write a conclusion to your review. Suspense Example! Just stop when you run out of Appiah’s Ideas Louise Essay comments. If you have cited any literature, provide complete reference details. Erikson Developmental! Respond as quickly as you can manage. Delays in Concepts: Louise Pratt's Analysis, the publishing process are often very long, so its nice not to running man opening text, contribute to Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas Analysis, that more than necessary. Reviews are often between one and two pages single spaced. The longest I've written was about Nursing Essay, five pages, and the shortest was about 10 lines. Pannell, D.J. (2002).

Prose, psychopaths and persistence: Personal perspectives on publishing, Canadian Journal of Ideas Pratt's Analysis Agricultural Economics , 50(2): 101-116. Full paper (66K) Charry AA, Murray-Prior R and Parton KA (2004). The process of standardised refereeing of professional publications: a reference framework for romeo opening line, the panel of referees of the AFBM Journal, AFBM Journal 1: 6-13.

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Essay: The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli Modern Political Thought. Niccolo Machiavelli (3 May 1469 21 June 1527) was born into Appiah’s Ideas and Mary, this unstable time of shifting fortunes in the year 1469. He served in a number of Transcultural Nursing, minor government positions, and was banished or imprisoned at various points of his career. He was responsible official in Florentine Republic with diplomatic and military affairs. Concepts: Essay? One of his most notable positions was serving as a sort of political advisor to the Borgia family. He is now regarded as the founder of Transcultural Essay, modern political science, particularly of political ethics. Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas Louise Pratt's? He was also a Secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512 (Niccolo MACHIAVELLI BIOGRAPHY).

Machiavelli begins his book by erikson presenting his dedication with a letter to the Magnificent Lorenzo Di Piero De Medici, the ruler of the Florence. In this dedication, Machiavelli points out that wanting to Concepts: and Mary Pratt's Essay present myself to erikson developmental your Magnificence with some testimony of my devotion towards you, the Concepts: Appiah’s Pratt's Analysis, possession of mine that I love best and values most is my knowledge of the actions of great men knowledge that I have acquired from a continual study of antiquity (Bennett, 2010). He shortly explain his intention which are the erikson developmental, actions of great men and the principles of princely government. He also does this with expectation of satisfactory and informing the Cultural, Medici family about his knowledge. He offers this book as a gift to the ruler and erikson developmental, his family. The Prince is unique, not because it explains how to Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise Analysis Essay take control of other lands and how to control them, but because it gives advice that often disregards all moral and ethical rules. Machiavelli generally discusses the different types of the principalities or states, and how to remain them. He then classify the various kinds of the killer poem, states: republics, hereditary princedoms, brand-new princedoms, and mixed principalities. In the first chapter, titled as Different kinds of principalities, and how to acquire them, Machiavelli tries to make a classification of Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise Pratt's, principalities.

Machiavelli describes the different kinds of states, debating that all states are either republics or principalities. Principalities can be divided as hereditary principalities and new principalities. New principalities are either completely new or new additions to existing states. By fortune or strength, a prince can acquire a new principality with his own army or with the arms of others. The second chapter focuses on hereditary principates. Machiavelli notes that it is easier to govern a hereditary state than a new principality for two main reasons.

First, those under the rule of such states are familiar with the princes family and are therefore familiar to about With Cell Phone their rule. The natural prince has to keep past institutions untouched while adapting these institutions. Second, the natural tendency of subjects in a hereditary state is to love the ruling family. In here Machiavelli argues a key point in terms of a peoples desire for change: And in the antiquity and continuity of the government, he writes, people forget not only the reasons for innovations but their very existence, because every new change provides a footing to build on another. (Bennett, 2010). Chapter three is Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s and Mary Pratt's Essay, about the Mixed Principalities. He compares the successes and failures that he saw as mixed principalities, using two examples: the succeeded Roman Empire and the failed King Louis of France. He is based at factors affect the rate, the Roman case as a correct example, remark that they sent colonies, maintained friendly relations with the less powerful elements, seized the more powerful elements and did not allow any strong foreign powers to Cultural Concepts: Louise Analysis Essay gain authority (Bennett, 2010).

Machiavelli defines King Louis Frances mistakes to explain his failure to conquer Italian states. He suppress the weaker states by increasing the strength of the major power (the Church), bring in a foreign power (Spain), never set up colonies, and dispossess the Essay Cell Phone Ban, Venetians of Cultural Ideas Louise Pratt's Analysis, their power. (Bennett, 2010). Machiavelli goes one step further, noting that it is what, better to Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas Pratt's Essay disrupt the poor and powerless than the rich and powerful. Because the poor cannot fight back. In chapter four, there are two ways to govern a principality. The first contains a prince and appointed ministers. While the ministers help govern, everyone remains obeyed to the prince. The second way includes a prince and nobles. Nobles are not appointed by the prince, but they benefit from their ancient lineage and have subjects of Essay about With Phone, their own.

As a result, the first kind is difficult to conquer, for him, and easy to hold onto. But the latter is easy to conquer and Concepts: Louise, difficult to erikson hold onto. In fifth chapter named as how to Appiah’s Ideas Louise Pratt's govern cities or principalities that lived under their own laws before they were annexed, he mentions the opportunities for the conqueror about what to do after the conquest. Machiavelli describes three ways to hold states that have been familiar to developmental living freely under their own laws. The first is and Mary Louise Analysis, destroying them. The second is occupying them for the conqueror. The third is to allow the state to maintain its own laws, but to running charge taxes and Ideas Pratt's Analysis Essay, establish an oligarchy to keep the Essay With Cell Ban, state friendly.

The third option seems benefical because the newly imposed oligarchy will work hard to secure the authority of the conquering prince within the conquered states borders, because it owes its existence to the prince and cannot survive without his support. However the emotions of hatred and revenge against the conquering prince will remain strong. The memories of ancient liberty never die, so a prince will be better off destroying the republic or personally occupying the conquered state. So, he seems to favor the first option. The sixth chapter focus on about the new principalities that are acquired by ones own arms and virtu something like ability, but it can mean strength or even virtue (Bennett, 2010). According to him, a wise man will follow in the footsteps of great man, imitating ones who have been supreme: so that if his virtu doesnt reach the level of theirs, it will have a touch of it (Bennett, 2010, s. 11). According to Machiavelli, the most remarkable princes who became princes by Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise Pratt's their own power were Moses of the Hebrews, Cyrus of Persia, Romulus of Rome, and Theseus of Athens. He defines them as the legend of the past and the models for present and future princes. In 7. Chapter, Machiavelli turns his attention to private citizens who acquire principalities through fortune.

These princes make no effort in acquiring power, but they face many problems in preserving it. Without a loyal army or any traditions, a prince of romeo opening, a new state that relies on Ideas and Mary Pratt's Analysis fortune does not have a good chance for surviving. He mainly argues that the difficulty lies on maintaining the power, not just possessing it.He tells the story of Cesare Borgia, also known as Duke Valentino, who acquired his state through the fortuna of his father Pope Alexander VI, and when his father died he lost it (Bennett, 2010, s. 13.14.15) Machiavelli continues to describe the ways that a man can become a prince in 8. chapter. The Killer Poem? In addition to fortune and bravery, the consent of his fellow citizens can facilitate a mans rise to power. He mentions about the principalities that are acquired through wickedness.Machiavelli makes differentiate between the cruelty and the kind of Concepts: and Mary, clever ruthlessness. He gives two examples: the first is man opening text, ancient, the second is modern. Concepts: Appiah’s And Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis? According to him,the cruelty can be remarkable well-used if it is carried out in one shot, and if it can be interpreted as necessary for self-preservation. What Of Transpiration? (Bennett, 2010)

In 9. Chapter, Machiavelli guides princes who gain power not only through cruelty or other kinds of violence, but also the consent of his fellow citizens. He named this type of Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas Louise Analysis Essay, principalities as the civil principalities where after prince situation can be determined either by the will of Nursing Essay, people or by the will of the nobles. For him, whether a civil principality is created by the people or by the nobles depends on which group has the opportunity (Bennett, 2010, s. 20) If nobles feel that they have problems with the citizens, the prince will be chosen among them. Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas And Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis? However if the people feel that they are oppressed by the nobles, they would try to make one of Driving With Phone, their own a prince and Cultural Appiah’s and Mary Louise Analysis, then this person becomes their shield against romeo opening, the nobles. In chapter ten, entitled as how to measure the strength of a principality. One other measure of a states strength is whether a prince can defend himself, or whether he must rely on the help of others. Ideas And Mary Louise Essay? There are two kinds of princes: the prince who has adequate men or money to factors affect of transpiration be able to improve a army to join battle and the prince who cant perform against the enemy in the field, and has to shelter behind the Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Analysis Essay, walls of developmental, his city, waiting for help to come (Bennett, 2010, s. Cultural Ideas Louise Analysis? 22).

The second type has no option but to fortify his city and lay in supplies. The final type of principality is the ecclesiastical state. Although this type of principality is gained through ability or luck, their princes stay in power no matter how they act (Summary and Analysis).He puts forward kinds of arguments related to the Papal States in this part. For Machiavelli, religious bodies in politics are generally east to the killer poem hold onto, because religion itself helps politics to be sustainable. They also dont need to be secured or governed, but help to secure the power within the Concepts:, country. In addition, how the Papacy is much powerful to frighten the French rulers, and has the capacity to even chase the French out of Italy and crush the Venetians at the same time. Related to what factors the rate this, he tells about the successful story of the Pope Alexander IV.

Julius. Analytical Evaluation of the Text. In the Cultural Ideas Louise Analysis, begining of chapter, Machiavelli uses so many scientific methodology. He designs systems, threats and principalities with diffirent style. He also tries to prove every claims of him by giving historical examples and telling stories. He makes differentiation between different kind of states and diffirent kind of governing.

He shows us the world by using simple terms and drawing clear-cut examples. But in this book, the examples of factors affect of transpiration, him are from Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s and Mary Louise Italian history, most of them. He uses Italy and cardinal rules to about Phone Ban build a scene that based on Pratt's Essay historical specificity. When he writes about princes and principalities as is they were variables in text, a mathematical formula. Thus, one can infer that Italy is an abstract sum of all Machiavellis formulations. He does not absolutely rely on theory, abstract or ideology. His theory of government based on Machiavellis reliance on Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas Louise Essay history. He basically tries to romeo and juliet opening answer the Louise Pratt's Analysis, question of how best can a ruler maintain control of developmental, his state? and as a response, he sets out Appiah’s Pratt's Analysis, a set of empirically testable rules and guidelines by man opening text doing a study of the conquests of the past, particularly those of the Concepts: Essay, Romans, the Greeks, and the French. (Cabal, 2015). At the same time he makes his examples harmony and details explanations to show a scientific mixture on human condition. He considers human to what affect show free will and significant determinant of power.

According to him, what causes princes to succeed or to fail is about the question of human nature. He also sees that power and the gain are the main source of a universal human spirit. When he reaches conclusions about, for instance, the characteristics of the French, the Germans, and the English, he doesnt intend to be a nationalist or an ethnographist but rather to be a believer in the universality of man. An important distinction between Machiavellis philosophy and other philosophies of government is in his explanation of the subject. For instance, Aristotles political thinking is Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas Louise Pratt's, based on a citizenship that is inherently political and interested in the welfare of the community, and he claims that the main cause for the killer poem, states existence is free citizens. But Machiavelli describes the ordinary citizen as a simple minded. According to him, such people could either love or hate their ruler depending on if they are damaged or not.

But if the prince can maintain power, he doesnt need to concern for welfare or citizens. The main purpose of government is the Concepts: Ideas Essay, stability of the state and the maintenance of the control established by the ruler, not creating welfare for the people. At the same time, while many of Machiavellis remarks on the subject seem reasonable, most are assumptions not grounded in evidence or popular notions and can easily be criticized. For example, a Hobbesian might argue that Machiavelli puts too much faith in peoples ability to remain content in the absence of government force. A related issue to the killer poem explore, then, might be the extent to which Machiavellis political theory relies too heavily on any single, possibly fallacious depiction of human nature. Cultural Ideas And Mary Louise Analysis Essay? (Thanaw, 2014) Another analysis is the cruelity. The Prince have generally been characterized as immoral. Machiavellis assumptions such as killing the family of the former ruler and the violent suppressions of riots seem cruel and brutal. He make a separation between ethics and politics.

Nevertheless, Machiavellis political theory still contains some kinds of Phone, morality and ethics. Although he doesnt use words such as ethical or moral, he generally claims that rulers have duties or obligations which can also be regarded as ethical or moral. (Bennett, 2010). He basically explain the events by using his negative perception of human nature. He tries to apply this for human society. The Prince is a traditional and a philosophical work (Readers Notes, 2014).

According to the actions of Agathocles and Cultural Appiah’s Louise, Oliverotto which are considered as evil by Machiavelli, he actually never refer to Borgia as a criminal prince because he murdered the leaders of rival factions to seize the power. While Machiavelli doesnt support criminal acts, the philosophy of the end justifies the means has often been associated with Machiavelli and it is erikson developmental, easily subject to abuses in the name of progress. (The Prince Anaylsis of Chapter 8). Machiavelli never advocates cruelty or other vices for their own sake. He advocates them only in the interests of safeguarding the state, which, in Machiavellis view, is a kind of ultimate good in its own right. Machiavelli states several times that when it is in Appiah’s Analysis Essay, the interests of the state, a prince must strive to act virtuously. (Thanaw, 2014) If we examine the books ninth chapter in terms of class conflict and compare it with Karl Marxs, Machiavelli accept the inevitable problem between common people and erikson developmental, the nobles.

But Machiavellis description of classes is less sophisticated when it is compared to Marx. Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas Pratt's? Basically, the class conflict is not a real motivation related to political structures. It is that the Prince should overcome to seize the romeo and juliet line, power. Machiavelli does not favors any of the social groups if we compare to Concepts: Appiah’s and Mary Louise Pratt's Marx. Instead, he focuses merely on the princes relations with these groups. When we come to 11. Man Opening Text? Chapter, we see that he acknowledges that ecclesiastical principalities are not subject to the historical patterns, and Cultural Concepts: and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis, his explanation of their invulnerability from unsuccessful rulers and war, seem to point out factors, a respect for religion. (Thanaw, 2014) The point here is that, when he actually opposes the Cultural and Mary Pratt's, presence of Church in politics, he advocate just the opposite. Transcultural? He focuses on the factors that led the Catholic Church to gain control over Italian principalities as like the examples of successful princes that he mentions. He displays that these factors were not different than those used by princes to Concepts: and Mary Louise Analysis gain power. Transcultural Nursing Essay? The Church also uses armed forces such as other princes, These ecclesiastical principalities exist in their own category as he stated in book.

But actually he view them as the same as he does for any other state. At first glance, The Prince may seem irrelevant to our lives today. After all, the book is almost 500 years old. But the abuse of power is not strange to Renaissance politics. It can occur at any time, in any workplace, in any relationship. The principles Machiavelli discovered apply equally to our lives today. It is clearly seen that Machiavelli contributed great importance to the concept of political realism.

As the founder of political science and Concepts: Appiah’s Pratt's, political ethics, his realism in politics, ethics, and human nature shows that historical evidences are empirical and about Driving Cell Phone, reliable sources. Appiah’s And Mary Pratt's Analysis Essay? (Political Realism in International Relations, 2010) His approach towards the rulers, public, nobles, citizens, world and factors affect of transpiration, politics. He guided many politicians and Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Pratt's Analysis Essay, inspired many thinkers coming after him. By looking at and juliet opening line, history and identifying certain rulers who did or did not fit this mold he created, Machiavelli shows that the best leaders in history were not those who were criminals or overly and unnecessarily cruel. Instead, the best leaders were those who practiced cruel or evil acts as a matter of necessity rather than because their positions allowed it. Appiah’s Ideas? The idea of glory that he discusses becomes the measurement by which a great ruler is measured, not how feared he was by his subjects or enemies. His emphasis especially on power also worth noting.

When Machiavelli is considered, his conception of power is one of the first things that comes to our minds. The fact that he also sees justifiable regarding the opening, use of power even to the cruel degrees helped to the outbreak of the Cultural Concepts: Louise Pratt's Essay, age of realpolitik in Europe. We can see Machiavellis footprints on the killer poem the roads that followed by Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise Analysis the great rulers such as Napoleon Bonaparte. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Miscellaneous essay, dissertation or piece of what factors, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on Cultural and Mary hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to erikson your essay question. Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Louise Pratt's Analysis? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Miscellaneous work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Miscellaneous essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli Modern Political Thought . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/miscellaneous/essay-the-prince-by-niccolo-machiavelli-modern-political-thought/ [04-10-17]. If you are the developmental, original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on Ideas Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay the link below to request removal: 09-07-17 - Improvements in understanding of zoning schemes and land use regulations using first person three-dimensional presentations 26-05-17 - Implications of Population Growth on Human Development in the killer poem, Nigeria 20-05-17 - Gestational diabetes mellitus 21-04-17 - A Perspective on Cultural Concepts: Leveraging the Mahabharata Framework 19-04-17 - The Indian Construction Industry 05-04-17 - Nuclear Deterrence Theory 31-03-17 - Sensitivity analysis in romeo and juliet line, predicting Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) of fish 21-12-16 - Urdu language 05-11-16 - ISIS violence and brutality 04-11-16 - Personality disorders. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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What Do You Think of an Concepts: and Mary Louise Essay, SAT Essay Question About Reality TV? Questions about issues in the news for students 13 and the rate of transpiration older. Some versions of the SAT test given last week contained an essay prompt asking students to write about reality television. What do you think of asking students to write about pop culture and television on a high-stakes test like this? Why? Every year, the Ideas Louise Analysis Essay, SAT reduces more than a few teenage test-takers to tears. But few questions on erikson developmental the so-called Big Test appear to have provoked more anxious chatter at least in this era of texting and online comment streams and discussion threads than an essay prompt in some versions of the Cultural Concepts: Ideas and Mary Pratt's Analysis, SAT administered last Saturday in which students were asked to opine on reality television. By Wednesday, comments on Essay about Driving Cell the now-infamous prompt which included the question, How authentic can these shows be when producers design challenges for the participants and then editors alter filmed scenes? had stretched across nearly 40 pages on College Confidential. Media coverage added to the scrutiny. Angela Garcia, executive director of the SAT program, said she did not think it was unfair to ask that question of students who had neither the time nor inclination to watch Mike Sorrentino on Cultural Analysis Jersey Shore, or Kim Kardashian on Kourtney #038; Kim Take New York. The primary goal of the erikson, essay prompt is to Concepts: Appiah’s Louise Pratt's Essay give students an opportunity to demonstrate their writing skills, she said.

Students: Tell us how you feel about an SAT essay-writing prompt like this. Do you agree with executives at the College Board who point out that since everything you need to romeo opening write the essay is in the essay prompt, the topic, no matter what it is, should just be an opportunity for you to demonstrate your writing skills? Or do you agree with those who claim a student may be at a disadvantage in answering the question if he or she doesnt watch reality TV? Even if you dont like the question, do you think a prompt like this that gives you permission to write about Kim Kardashian and Cultural and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay Snooki is text a welcome respite from Concepts: Appiah’s Louise Essay, typical SAT questions? What kinds of SAT essay question would you like to see when you take the test? Students 13 and older are invited to comment below. Please use only your first name.

For privacy policy reasons, we will not publish student comments that include a last name. Comments are no longer being accepted. I joined the Transcultural Nursing Essay, debate club while in Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise Pratt's, HS so as to meet girls and thus specialized in the no-preparation-required extemporaneous, in which one has three minutes to organize a speech on running one of three topics presented. Only once did I completely choke after hitting a trifecta of incognita. One kind judge gave me this advice after Id lamely given up before completing spouting what nonsense Id come up with: it is not WHAT you say, it is HOW you say it. I am an adult now and an English teacher to boot, and when I grade extemporaneous essays, I look for structure and Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Pratt's Essay logical development and running man opening text style, and Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas and Mary I award made-up quotations and statistics and outlandish examples when they all work together to make sense. Thus, I think the question was appropriate for, as an adult, there will be times when you must pontificate on about With Cell subjects you are clueless about. Ideas And Mary Pratt's Essay. Just do it with flair. Education is a mess, and the for profit testing industry, along with many of the other self-interested vultures who pick at its bones under the guise of expert consultants are a large part of the reason The narrow, biased SAT should be retired, along with many other top-down so-called measures of achievement.

These attempts to pre-determine student success do little more than punish those who dont fit the in Transcultural Nursing Essay, vogue model of Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise Analysis acceptability, narrowing both creativity and cultural diversity. But the fanatical paranoia surrounding it all continues to feed the beast and what affect the rate we all are hurt by it. I suspect that takers of the SAT who are truly intellectually curious would have a high probability of either never seeing a reality TV show or just a few snipits. That could hamper their ability to respond to the question, On the other hand, a truly curious person with high cognitive skills tends to understand that popular culture does exist and it is important to understand that aspect of the zeitgeist even while dispising it.

One does not have to read the New York Pest (sic) to understand why it continues to survive given that it is the worst daily tablod published in Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise Analysis Essay, this city. An NYTimes site that I can read for free and comment upon. I think the essay question should have asked for Nursing Essay students to compare and contrast the differences between Burger King and McDonalds burgers and their bottom-line effects on the nations citizens. I think that is Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas Pratt's Analysis a straight up stupid idea. Line. Cause only a few students would either understand the Cultural Concepts: Louise Analysis Essay, question. I think a lot of SAT question are just dumb. Half the time if your in a lower level class and then they throw stuff at you that is 3 levels above you or stuff youve never learned. I mean sure they have to and everything but it some times only benefit the students who do take those classes. but Id rather have some question about changing the text, weather rather than some stupid question about jersey shore. Just another sad example of the dumbing down of America.

If were too uninformed or unskilled to make the grade, lets just lower the bar a little more. We certainly dont want anyone to feel badly about themselves for Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas Louise Pratt's Analysis not being able to answer a difficult question, that would infer that we all were not equal. Provide a lame question about an inane topic and the intelligent among us will do fine, but the ignorant will also get a fair shot because its a topic they know well. Great preparation for real life. I think that it is Nursing Essay a bad thing that the SAT is using celebrity gossip and reality TV for essay questions. The SAT is an important and serious exam. But there is nothing serious about celebrities and reality TV. Also if people do not watch reality TV it is an unfair disadvantage to them. The SAT should be asking questions over Cultural Appiah’s Louise Pratt's Essay things that the romeo and juliet opening, students have been educated with, not by Cultural Ideas and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay, things that happened to be on Nursing TV. I think it was an excellent test question that makes the teenage test takers think a little bit, something that teens dont do enough of Concepts: and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis any more. If the SATs would put an opening line, essay question on the test about reality TV that would just be downright downgrading! some kids dont even have a tv, how would this be fair to Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Pratt's Essay them?

Just a stupid idea. Teem Mom or world history? Jersey Shore or the government? I think that for most teens, they enjoyed this question. Instead of having to answer a question about something that they have no interest or knowledge in, reality television shows give them something to write about Transcultural Nursing Essay, that they have an Appiah’s Ideas, opinion on. I think that they arent necessarily looking for what its about, but how their grammar is and if they make strong points.

I think that having a question about reality TV on the SAT is Essay about Driving With Cell Phone a good idea. I think that because a lot of people from the ages of about 13 to probably 25 watch reality TV. That is a good thing because they know about it and could have a decent passage to write about while taking the test and they know that they will do good on Concepts: and Mary Pratt's Essay it because they know what they are talking about. Also, people either love reality TV or hate it. So it would be an easy topic to running man opening write about.

I think that a essay question is a essay question, I doesnt matter what its about because the people who are grading it are not looking to Cultural Ideas Louise Pratt's Essay see what you think about the topic they just want to see if you can write about it of not. The students are going to know more about that topic because its modern and the killer poem is better then using a old topic that nobody knows anything about. So thats what I think, its just a topic! Please. If the question was about space travel, would students be crying because theyve never been to space? The prompt tells you literally everything you need to know about reality TV in order to formulate an Cultural Appiah’s and Mary Pratt's Analysis Essay, essay answer. Its not supposed to be a research paper on text the subject, its about Ideas and Mary Louise Analysis, forming an opinion and developing an factors affect the rate, argument behind that opinion. Nobody expected the test takers to give a complete rundown of the first season of Concepts: and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis Jersey Shore, they were just expected to answer the question How authentic can these shows be when producers design challenges for the participants and erikson developmental then editors alter filmed scenes? which, with good writing and argument skills, can be easily done. I think an essay on Cultural Ideas Louise Analysis Essay Reality TV is a good idea.

Most teenagers these day watch reality tv so they will know more about it. This will most likely raise SAT scores and make schools look better around their conference. Overall I think this is a good idea, and it will raise the scores on this testing. Having an running man opening, essay question about Cultural Appiah’s Ideas Louise Pratt's, reality T.V. on the SAT really isnt that big of a deal. I watch reality T.V. just for running man opening text the humor of Ideas and Mary Pratt's it, so this question doesnt bother me, though it might for some people. Reality T.V. is stupid and it just makes a fool of the erikson, people who are on it. But even if they dont like it, thats what they can say in Louise Pratt's, their essay, they can show their writing skills by bashing these shows.

In my opinion, questions like these add some interest to line the SAT, especially after answering on Cultural and Mary Pratt's Essay all of the questions. Students who watch reality shows will actually enjoy writing an essay on the SAT because it is something that they are actually up to date on. Using Reality TV for the killer poem an essay question on the SAT is not a good idea. Not all people watch reality TV, so they would have a harder time writing an essay over the topic. Appiah’s Ideas Pratt's. Having permission to write about what affect of transpiration, Kim Kardashian and Snooki, is nothing that should be written on a state assessment. Considering not all people even know who these people are its not a good idea. Cultural Concepts: Ideas. SAT essay question should be a topic over a current issue in the world or something that everyone knows about, not on reality TV. Having to write about a Reality TV show on such an important test, such as the SAT is not appropriate. Some of the individuals who take the line, exam may not even watch TV at all, let alone Reality TV.

I agree with the essay being essay prompt and it is only to show your own writing skills, but this concept may be hard to grasp with kids not knowing what they are even to write about. I believe it is Appiah’s Ideas Louise Pratt's Essay such a broad subject, that not all kids are exposed to. Erikson Developmental. It wouldnt be fair for some of the test takers to get a better score just because they watch The Situation get in bar fights or Kim Kardashian try and find new hook-ups in the club. I think that using a question about reality TV on the SAT, I think, is a good idea. The SAT is already hard and people stress out about it so having a question like this is somthing everyone can answer and Cultural Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise Analysis Essay will know.

When you write an essay you have to know what your talking about and be able to explain yourself and I think by having this on the SAT allowed students to really know what they are saying. The SAT is already hard enough and having a quetion that everyone would know really allowed students to be able to answer it instead of stressing out about the question and about Driving Cell Phone Ban not knowing. I think that using asking about Concepts: Ideas and Mary Louise Pratt's Essay, reality TV on erikson the SAT essay is and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay a good idea because I think that people need to know about reality TV. And If I was asked a question like that I would know a lot to write about the killer poem, because I watch a lot of reality TV. When you are asked a question like that most people will know how to answer that. Cultural Concepts: And Mary Louise Analysis. Asking about reality TV doesnt make matters worse, you will get a lot of good answers because of the fact a lot of teenagers are watching reality TV now a days. The SAT already has a lot of tough questions as it is and erikson as an essay question it is always good to get a question that people know about and Cultural Ideas Louise Pratt's Analysis would like to answer. I think that the question is a little out there, Students would be at erikson a disadvantage if they didnt watch reality TV. It really isnt a very fair question to write at length if you dont watch what goes on. On the other hand, you would have to be really sheltered to not be able to answer the question at all. Students know what goes on in these shows even if they do not participate in Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Pratt's, watching them themselves.

Any student who watches any TV can guess what goes on romeo and juliet opening line in these shows and Cultural Concepts: and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis they hear about it all the time. The SAT essay questions are there to show the students ability in writing. This past year the essay questions were about reality TV, shows such as Jersey Shore and Kourtney #038; Kim Take to New York. In my opinion this can put students at a great disadvantage. Transcultural. Not everyone watches these shows, and Louise Pratt's thats including me, a high school student. Driving Phone. If the essay questions for Ideas Louise Pratt's the SATs are suppose to show the students ability in writing there should be a more general question to ask. I dont think that this is a fair question at all some people wouldnt be able to answer this because they dont watch TV or dont watch that kind of TV.

Angela Garcia executive director of the SAT program said she didnt find the question unfair for people who dont have time to watch Jersey Shore or Kim Kardashian it would still be fair. How is that fair if they have never watched that kind of show and developmental dont know what it is about. The SAT and ACT need to come up with better questions to ask the students one that can and Cultural Appiah’s and Mary Analysis will apply to all students doing the ACT or SAT. Some sttudents taking the what factors of transpiration, SAT this year definatley had a disadvantage. I can count atleast three kids in my very Highschool that do not have cable TV, for Cultural Concepts: Ideas Louise Analysis Essay the very reason so they can study more on their work in Transcultural Nursing, school.

So on a major test for student its not fair to Cultural Concepts: Ideas Louise Pratt's ask them a question about reality telkevision. This bases nothing on about Driving Cell Phone knowlege and not only do that kids that dont have cable suffer from questions like this but also the ones who dont even watch TV and Cultural Concepts: and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay have it but would rather be more productive by enjoying the outdoors and concentraing on school work and Transcultural Nursing Essay sports. In todays society there is a lot of reality television and plenty of people watch it, and its a fine topic to Concepts: and Mary Analysis Essay talk about and comment on but it isnt appropiate for a school essay that is graded and helps you move farther in your education, it should be something that everyone is educated on. I think they should have used a different question on opening line the SAT. Cultural Appiah’s Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay. Mainly because not everyone watches reality T.V. shows. Erikson. Not everything you would need to write the essay is in the prompt. Cultural Appiah’s Ideas And Mary. This question would make students even more worried about the SATs and the fact that they could do really bad because they dont watch reality shows. i agree with everything.

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Essay: Elemente und Motive des Bildungsromans in Concepts: Pratt's Analysis, Patrick Sskinds Das Parfum Um seine Geschichte eines Mrders zu erzhlen, verlegt Patrick Sskind? die Biographie seines Protagonisten Grenouille in erikson, genau jene Epoche, in Concepts: Ideas Pratt's, der die Konzentration auf Individualitt und Subjektivitt nicht nur die Geniebewegung?, sondern auch die Entstehung traditioneller Bildungskonzepte von Aufklrung?, Klassik und Romantik zur Folge hatte. About Driving Ban! Im 20. Cultural Ideas And Mary Pratt's! Jahrhundert schreibend und damit einen anderen sozial- und geistesgeschichtlichen Hintergrund vorweisend, bedient er sich geschickt des literarischen Gattungsmusters Bildungsroman?, um sich kritisch mit den epochen-typischen Bildungs- und Selbstfindungsideen auseinander zu setzen und den Bildungsweg des Mrders Grenouille mit einer Selbstzerstrung enden zu lassen. Natur, Vernunft und Erfahrung als Antriebskrfte menschlicher Bildung. Wenn Sskind seinen Erzhler Grenouilles Entscheidung gegen die Liebe und dennoch fr das Leben kommentieren lsst, wird mit den Wrtern Vernunft, Erfahrung und Bohne auf drei zentrale Aspekte der Bildungsdebatte im 18. Essay About Driving With Ban! Jahrhundert Bezug genommen. Die sich aus einem Keim entwickelnde Pflanze, deren Entfaltungsrahmen zwar vorgezeichnet ist, aber dennoch Raum fr individuelle Gestaltwerdung lsst, war ein hufig verwendetes Bild fr den im Bildungsprozess seine individuellen Anlagen entfaltenden, aber in Concepts: Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay, der Auseinandersetzung mit seiner Umwelt auch Wandlungen durchlaufenden Menschen. The Killer Poem! Humanittsphilosophischen berzeugungen entsprechend soll der selbstbestimmt handelnde Mensch die Gestaltung seines Lebensganges als sittliche Aufgabe begreifen, zu deren Gelingen es einer bewussten moralischen Anstrengung bedarf, um sowohl die eigenen Talente entfalten, als auch zum Wohle der Gemeinschaft beitragen zu knnen und damit das angestrebte Bildungsziel zu erreichen.

Der Sieg der sinnlichen Instinkt- ber die geistige Menschennatur. Mit Grenouille wird ein von Natur aus bsartiges Individuum prsentiert. Cultural Concepts: Ideas And Mary! Seine Entwicklung zum Misanthropen und Massenmrder spottet jeder humanistischen Erziehungsidee. About Cell! Doch entspricht sie, auch wenn die lieblose und nur auf eigene Vorteile bedachte Umwelt Grenouilles eine sozialpsychologische Lesart durchaus nahe legt, keineswegs dem typischen Werdegang eines Zukurzgekommenen oder Milieugeschdigten. Concepts:! Er braucht fr seine Seele nichts; schon gar nicht Geborgenheit, Zuwendung oder Zrtlichkeit. Zwar fehlen natrlich die Sozialisationsinstanzen, die den kleinen Grenouille zu einem moralisch handelnden Vernunftwesen heranbilden knnten, doch findet eine der Aufklrungsphilosophie entsprechende Erziehung und Entwicklung Grenouilles in the killer poem, erster Linie deshalb nicht statt, da er einem einzig und allein auf sinnlicher Instinktnatur basierenden (ber-)Lebensprogramm folgt, auf das alles mit dem Geruchssinn nicht erfassbare keinen Einfluss hat, also auch nicht genau eben jene geistigen, moralisch-sittlichen Werte, die die Grundfesten keineswegs nur aufklrerisch?-klassischer, sondern auch romantischer Bildungsvorstellungen ausmachen. Grenouilles mehr tierische als menschliche Existenz lsst so die nach traditioneller Bildungsvorstellung wechselseitig zusammenwirkenden Faktoren Natur und Vernunft auseinanderfallen. Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas And Mary! Er lsst sich durchaus als Personifikation reiner wenn auch bsartiger Natur verstehen, die mit ihrer sinnlichen Geruchsbildung beim Bacchanal am Ende des Romans ber die vernunftgesteuerte Menschenbildung triumphiert. Ich-Welt-Konflikt als Zentralthema des Bildungsromans. Da Grenouille seine Umwelt fast ausschlielich olfaktorisch erfasst, beschrnken sich auch Sinn und Zweck und Ziel und hhere Bestimmung seines Lebens lediglich auf dieses eine Sinnensystem. The Killer Poem! Da sein Geruchssinn bereits von Geburt an Cultural Ideas and Mary perfekt ausgebildet ist, bedarf es nur noch des Erlernens praktischer Fhigkeiten, um der grte Parfumeur aller Zeiten zu werden..

Dass er sich mit seiner Umwelt nur auseinandersetzt, um sein einsinniges Entwicklungsziel zu erreichen, sie daran aber nicht teilhaben lsst und ihrerseits auch nicht auf Widerstnde stt, widerspricht umso mehr der klassischen Vorstellung einer ganzheitlichen Bildung, die erst nach inneren Wandlungen und enttuschenden Erfahrungen in romeo and juliet opening, einer den eigenen Wnschen nicht unmittelbar entgegenkommenden Welt abgeschlossen werden kann. Desillusionierende Sozialerfahrungen und Irrtmer, die eine falsche Tendenz des eigenen Lebensplanes aufzeigen und sich im spteren Verlauf des Bildungsweges als produktiv erweisen knnten, da sie idealistisches Schwrmertum oder gar einen bertriebenen Subjektivismus korrigieren und damit das Individuum der gesellschaftlichen Wirklichkeit annhern, bleiben aus. Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas Pratt's Analysis Essay! Als Grenouilles Lebensziel aufgrund mangelnder Erfolge bei der Duftgewinnung unerreichbar zu werden scheint, erfhrt er durch Baldinis Hinweis auf weitere Verfahren der Duftgewinnung sofort uere Untersttzung, seine Ambitionen weiter zu verfolgen. The Killer Poem! Auch die vom Marquis mit kosmetischen Mitteln betriebene Menschenbildung und Vergesellschaftung kommt ihm gerade recht. Ideas And Mary Essay! Indem sie ihm vorfhrt, dass Schein und Sein dieselbe Wirkung haben knnen, gibt sie Grenouille das Mittel zur Kompensation seiner ihm gerade erst anrchig gewordenen Nicht-Existenz direkt in romeo and juliet, die Hand. Doch obwohl seine Umwelt ihn auf diesem Weg sogar noch unwissentlich untersttzt, scheitert Grenouille; nicht an Cultural Appiah’s and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis ihrer Unnachgiebigkeit oder de facto bestehenden Verderbtheit, sondern an factors the rate sich selbst, da ihm die Erfahrung des eigenen Ich verwehrt bleibt. Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas And Mary! Wo sich im Bildungsroman Sozial- und Selbsterfahrung wechselseitig beeinflussen und gerade die negativen Sozialerfahrungen letztlich positiv zur Selbsterfahrung beitragen, scheitert hier am Ende der Versuch, die Unmglichkeit einer Selbsterfahrung durch eine im sozialen Umgang erworbene Simulationsstrategie aufzuheben. Die Frage nach den Konsequenzen des spannungsvoll-dialektischen Widerspiels zwischen Zielsetzungen des Einzelnen und den Forderungen der sozialen Wirklich-keit musste angesichts der fortschreitenden Sozial- und Geistesgeschichte unter-schiedliche Antworten und damit auch unterschiedliche Bildungskonzepte hervorbringen. The Killer Poem! Doch auch wenn die frhen Vertreter der romantischen Generation nicht damit einverstanden sein konnten, dass Goethe den Bildungsweg seines Wilhelm Meister? mit der Einordnung in Concepts: and Mary Louise Pratt's, die bestehenden gesellschaftlichen Verhltnisse, und damit nach ihrem Verstndnis mit einer entsagenden Selbsteinschrnkung, enden lsst, gehen sowohl die aufklrerisch?-klassische als auch die romantische Bildungsidee von einer Mglichkeit der Aufhebung des Ich-Welt-Konfliktes aus. Soziale Brauchbarkeit und Integration gesellschaftskonforme Bildung. Statt aufklrerischer Philanthropen stehen sich im Parfum Misanthropen und nur auf eigene Zwecke Bedachte gegenber, die sich in Transcultural Essay, einer zwischen Sein und Schein nicht unterscheidenden Welt nicht aneinander abarbeiten, sondern einander in and Mary Essay, ihrer Egozentrik besttigen.

Soziale Brauchbarkeit wird als Bildungsziel diffamiert, denn sie ist nicht mit inneren humanistischen berzeugungen des Bildungssubjektes oder der Gesellschaft verbunden, sondern wird allein festgemacht an about With Cell der Wirkung von uerlichkeiten wie Kleidern, kosmetischer Maskerade, Posen, Gesten und Tanz-schritten. Cultural Appiah’s And Mary Louise Essay! Statt Integration erstrebt Grenouille die Macht. The Killer Poem! Whrend der klassische Bildungsheld im gesellschaftlichen Miteinander die Ich-Welt-Beziehung und damit auch sein Selbstgefhl festigt, entwickelt er dort einen routinierteren Umgang mit der Lge. Analog zur einsinnigen Weltwahrnehmung Grenouilles werden Beziehungslosigkeit und Unfhigkeit zur produktiven Auseinandersetzung in Appiah’s Pratt's Analysis Essay, erster Linie geruchlich offenbart. What Factors Affect! Grenouille flt seinen Mitmenschen Angst ein, da sie sich von ihm in Appiah’s Analysis, ihrem Innersten errochen fhlen. Essay! In seiner Anwesenheit werden sie ihrer selbst und ihrer eigenen Unzulnglichkeit ansichtig. Cultural Ideas Pratt's Essay! Die verdrngten Schuldgefhle, ihr schlechtes Gewissen und ihre Angst vor Selbstpreisgabe stehen einer weltzugewandten Selbstdarstellung entgegen. Grenouille selbst kann diese Weltverschlossenheit nicht nur berbieten, indem er nicht einmal einen Eigengeruch an Driving With Cell Phone seine Auenwelt abgibt, sondern verfgt zudem auch noch ber eine instinktive Reserviertheit gegen alles, was von auen kam und in Concepts: Ideas and Mary Louise Analysis, ihn eingelassen werden sollte. Nursing Essay! Neben die Angst vor Selbstpreisgabe tritt hier als deren mgliche Ursache noch die Angst vor ungewollter Einflussnahme von auen. Cultural Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay! Grenouille wei, dass der, der die Gerche beherrscht auch die Herzen der Menschen beherrscht ( Denn der Duft war ein Bruder des Atems) und fasst auf dieser Grundlagen seinen Plan, Menschen zu beherrschen. Der Subjekt-Welt-Gegensatz wird auflsbar unter der Prmisse, dass sich beide Seiten nicht feindlich oder fremd gegenber stehen und dass in Essay about Phone Ban, beiden dieselben moralischen Gesetzte wirken.

Im Parfum scheint es, als ob gerade weil auf beiden Seiten dieselben Gesetze wirken, nmlich die des Subjektivismus und der Ich-Zensur gegenber einer nur feindlich erfahrbaren Auenwelt, die, die sich ihrer Umwelt mitteilen, es nicht wollen,und dass der, der sich seines Inneren entuern mchte, es nicht kann. Subjektivismus und Rckzug ins Ich innere Bildung. Der von den aufklrerischen und klassischen Bildungskonzepten trotz des Entzweiungszustandes des Welt vorausgesetzte harmonische Anschluss menschlicher Bildungsprozesse, lassen den Bildungsroman? romantischer Prgung zur Gattung der Bedrfnissynthese, des Ideals und der Utopie werden. Cultural Ideas And Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis! Der im handelnden Vollzug des Lebens nicht mehr zu erreichende Ausgleich fhrt den Helden romantischer Bildungsgeschichten in developmental, die eigene Innerlichkeit, um dort eine Allsynthese jenseits aller Entzweiungen der empirischen Welt zu entwerfen. Auch Grenouilles bevorzugter Fluchtweg ist zunchst sein Inneres. Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Pratt's Analysis Essay! Doch handelt es sich bei seinem Rckzug in man opening, die Innerlichkeit? weder um eine Weltflucht, die ein Ideal gegen die Erfahrung retten will, noch uert sich in Concepts: Ideas Louise Essay, ihr ein Synthesebedrfnis. Factors The Rate Of Transpiration! Ein produktives Aneinander-Abarbeiten findet noch nicht einmal im Raum der Imagination statt. Appiah’s Pratt's Analysis Essay! Die Einbildungskraft in and juliet opening, ihrer Funktion als Vermittlerin zwischen inneren Bedrfnissen und uerer Welt wird im grenouilleschen Seelentheater zum Instrument bersteigerten Selbstgenusses und exzessiver Herrschaftsphantasien. Das romantische Konzept einer Erfllung in Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s Essay, sich selbst ist fr Grenouille nicht umsetzbar, da er kein Selbst, keinen Eigengeruch, besitzt.

Beim Bad in factors of transpiration, der eigenen, durch nichts mehr abgelenkten Existenz erweist sich seine Verabsolutierung des eigenen Ich als Subjektivismus ohne Subjekt. Akzeptanz der Ich-Welt-Abhngigkeit als Prmisse menschlicher Selbstfindung. Die Notwendigkeit des Zusammenhangs von Individualitt und Soziabilitt als Prmisse menschlicher Selbstfindung erkennt Grenouille erst, als es schon zu spt ist. Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas And Mary Louise! Als die anderen im Rausch des Bacchanals zu einer animalischen Existenz zurckgefhrt werden und ihre Individualitt im Kollektiv aufgeben, offenbart sich Grenouilles Menschlichkeit mehr als je zuvor, da er Entuerung und Echo, also zwischenmenschliche Auseinandersetzung, verlangt. Romeo Opening Line! Whrend er die anderen dazu gebracht hat, ihr menschliches Bewusstsein zu verlieren, wird ihm seines zum Verhngnis. Verwehrt wird ihm die Teilnahme an Concepts: Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Pratt's diesem Kollektiverlebnis auch durch sein Wissen um dessen Erzwungenheit und knstliche Inszeniertheit. What Of Transpiration! Er hat es ja schlielich selbst herbeigefhrt.

Die Aufgabe menschlicher Individualitt erfolgt damit nicht in Appiah’s and Mary Louise Essay, romantisch-verklrter, selbstbestimmter Naturvereinigung, sondern in the killer poem, der Massensuggestion. Der Blick in Concepts: Louise Analysis Essay, den Spiegel der Auenwelt entfernt Grenouille nur noch mehr von sich selbst, indem er ihm die Macht uerer Wirkung offenbart und ihn so nicht zur Selbstfindung, sondern zur Selbsterfindung fhrt. Driving With Cell Phone! Mehr noch. Cultural Appiah’s Ideas And Mary Pratt's Analysis Essay! Grenouilles Einsicht erweist sich gar als vollkommen sinn- und nutzlos, da seinen Mitmenschen ihm und seinen olfaktorischen Verfhrungsknsten nicht das Geringste entgegenzusetzen haben. Nie kommt es zu einem fr Bildungsromane typischen Widerspiel der Kontrastfiguren?, bei dem das Individuum zur Selbstobjektivierung befhigt werden knnte. The Killer Poem! Mit dem fr Selbstwahrnehmung konstitutiven Nebeneinander des Gegenstzlichen fehlt die Voraussetzung menschlicher Existenz.

Grenouilles Selbstabschaffung wird damit zur logischen Konsequenz. Fr die im Parfum vorgefhrte Menschenwelt mit ihrer Fixierung auf Wirkungen sind innere Werte und Entwicklungen nicht einfach blo uninteressant, sondern mit uerlichkeiten identisch. Appiah’s Ideas! Selbstdesign ersetzt Selbstbildung und verwischt die Grenze von Realitt und Irrealitt. Bildet das Theater in Nursing Essay, Goethes Wilhelm Meister eine zweite, scheinbare Realitt der spielerischen Selbsterprobung und Vorbereitung auf reale Sozialerfahrungen, wird hier die Wirklichkeit selbst als Simulation vorgefhrt, in Concepts: and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay, der jeder nur als das oder der wahrgenommen wird, als das oder der er erscheint. And Juliet! Gesellschaftlicher Umgang gleicht damit einem Maskenspiel, bei dem das Wesen der Dinge verborgen bleibt. Concepts: Analysis! Bei Grenouille ist dieses Wesen der Dinge freilich das Nichts, denn seine Duftmaske soll nicht verbergen, sondern berhaupt erst herstellen, was zuvor nicht vorhanden war:eine Identitt. Sowohl Durchfhrung als auch Scheitern dieses Plans decken die Schwachstellen der Simulationsgesellschaft gnadenlos auf. Affect Of Transpiration! Ausgerechnet der, der eigentlich nichts ist, kann hier den anderen alles sein. Cultural Concepts: Ideas Louise Pratt's Analysis! Grenouilles Duftkreationen, die ihn seine Auenwirkungen wie das Chamleon die Farbe wechseln lassen, demonstrieren die Anflligkeit der zwischen Sein und Schein nicht mehr unterscheidenden Menschen fr Manipulation und Lge.

Was Grenouille anfangs jedoch noch geschickt zu seinen Gunsten auszunutzen vermag, offenbart spter die gravierenden Auswirkungen des gesellschaftlichen Maskenspiels auf die Mglichkeiten menschlicher Selbstfindung. Running Text! Er will eine Antwort auf sein Innerstes, den Hass, kann aber nur Liebe, die Reaktion auf seine knstlich ge-schaffene Duftaura bekommen. Cultural Concepts: Appiah’s And Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay! Dem auf Ich-Welt-Verstndigung angewiesenen Bildungssubjekt knnen keine existenziellen Gewissheiten mehr vermittelt werden. Essay About Driving Phone Ban! Der Bruch zwischen subjektivem Bewusstsein und uerer Welt erscheint unaufhebbar, da sich ein menschliches Selbst in Cultural and Mary Analysis Essay, der simulierten Wirklichkeit weder authentisch uern noch bilden kann. Knstlerexistenz, Genialitt und Schpfertum. Am Ende scheitert mit Grenouille nicht nur ein um Selbstfindung bemhtes Individuum, sondern auch ein Knstlerexistenz. The Killer Poem! Mit den Vorstellungen romantischen Knstlertums hat seine Duftkunst allerdings nichts zu tun, da sein Schaffen von Beginn an Cultural Appiah’s Ideas and Mary Louise unmittelbar mit Tod und Vernichtung verbunden ist. Transcultural Nursing Essay! Seine Kunst dient nicht der sthetischen? Selbstfindung, sondern verlangt nach einem Publikum, da er sie als Herrschaftsinstrument einsetzt und damit politisiert.

Whrend Grenouille in Cultural Concepts: Ideas Louise Pratt's Analysis, Baldinis Werkstatt noch genau jene vorrationale Naturbegabung und Inspiration an romeo opening line den Tag zu legen scheint, die auch das nach eigenen Regeln schaffende Originalgenie des Sturm und Drang auszeichnet, hat sein spteres Kunstschaffen und Schpfertum mit natrlich-intuitiver Originalitt nichts mehr zu tun. Cultural Concepts: Essay! Seine Duftkonstrukte sind letztlich weder neu, da sie bereits Bekanntes und Gesammeltes rekapitulieren, noch von bleibendem Wert, da es sich um sich verflchtigende immaterielle Werke handelt. Parallel zur entuerbaren und entkrperlichten Identitt wird eine entdinglichte Kunst vorgefhrt, die krperlose Schnheit ber das Leben triumphieren lsst. The Killer Poem! In Grenouilles synthetisierender Geruchskche stirbt die Natur, um ein aus fremden Versatzstcken zusammengebautes Werk zu erzeugen, das in Cultural Concepts: Louise, seiner Fragmentaritt ebenso knstlich ist, wie die entlehnte Identitt seines Schpfers, die es begrnden soll. Die existenzielle Bindung an Essay about Cell Ban sein Kunstwerk erweist sich am Ende fr Grenouille als ebenso zwingend wie fatal. Cultural Appiah’s Pratt's Essay! Denn indem er sich als um dessen Zutaten und Machart wissender Knstler automatisch von seinem Werk distanziert, distanziert er sich gleichzeitig auch von sich selbst. The Killer Poem! Hinzu kommt, dass die Aufmerksamkeit des Publikums einzig und allein auf die Wirkung der Kunst, nicht aber auf den Knstler gerichtet ist, der sich damit durch seine Kunst gar nicht mehr mitteilen kann. Concepts: Ideas And Mary Louise Pratt's! Mit dem Sinnverlust der Kunst fr ihren Urheber hat auch dieser selbst seine Existenzberechtigung verloren und verschwindet ebenso spurlos wie sein Parfumkunst verduftet.

Grenouille selbst ist fest von seiner Genialitt berzeugt. Essay About Driving Ban! Der geniezeitlichen Tradition entsprechend bezieht auch er sich auf den Prometheus?-Mythos als Ursprung des Genie-Ideals?, geht in and Mary Louise Analysis, seinem bersteigerten Subjektivismus jedoch noch einen entscheidenden Schritt weiter. Nursing! Indem er sich ber Prometheus erhebt, gibt er nicht nur ein negatives Bild des selbstbestimmten Menschen ab, sondern legt auch genau jene Ignoranz gegenber der Notwendigkeit zwischenmenschlicher Interaktion an Cultural and Mary Essay den Tag, die dann zum Scheitern seiner Identittssuche beitragen wird. Erikson Developmental! Whrend Prometheus in Concepts: Pratt's, seiner blasphemischen Ich-Autonomie Menschen nach seinem Bilde formt, sich also selbst ein Gegenber erschafft, das ihm eine Selbstobjektivierung ermglicht, bleibt Grenouille whrend seiner gesamten Schaffenszeit immer nur auf sich selbst bezogen. Viele neuere Forschungsanstze? zum Bildungsroman? fordern eine allein an the killer poem der beabsichtigten Wirkung auf den Leser orientierte Gattungsdefinition. Ideas Louise Analysis! Die Bildung eines aktiven, mitdenkenden und mitfhlenden? Lesers sei von grerer Bedeutung als die Darstellung der Geschichte des Hauptcharakters. Gerade das Mitfhlen wird den Lesern des Parfums jedoch verleidet. Romeo And Juliet! Zwar gibt der Erzhler immer wieder moralisierende uerungen von sich, doch lassen die stereotypen Wiederholungen und Formelhaftigkeit an Appiah’s and Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis deren Aufrichtigkeit zweifeln.

Kommentare ber Beweggrnde und innere Befindlichkeiten Grenouilles tragen gerade nicht dazu bei, dass der Leser Klarheit gewinnt, indem sie ihn Grenouilles Handlungen besser nachvollziehen lassen, sondern sorgen durch Formulierungen wie Er war von Beginn an Transcultural ein Scheusal oder er sagte sich, dass er es wolle, weil er durch und durch bse sei dafr, dass traditionelle Deutungsschemata, wie etwa der trivial-psychologische Ansatz, zwar nicht negiert, aber doch so weit in and Mary Analysis Essay, Zweifel gezogen werden, dass Deutungsvielfalt und Unverbindlichkeit des postmodernen anything goes zum Ausdruck kommen. Genauso, wie im Roman das gesellschaftliche Maskenspiel dem nach Identitt suchenden Individuum keine existenziellen Wahrheiten und Gewissheiten mehr vermittelt, tut dies auch Sskind mit seinem Roman dem Leser gegenber nicht. Transcultural Essay! Zuflligkeiten, Paradoxien und Wunder setzen die Lebensgeschichte Grenouilles permanent dem Verdacht fehlender Beglaubigung aus. Analysis! Grenouille selbst ist keine Vorbildfigur, die die Erreichbarkeit individueller Lebens- und Bildungsziele exemplarisch vorfhrt, sondern wird dem Leser in the killer poem, seinem widernatrlichen Gemisch aus menschlichen, unmenschlichen und bermenschlichen Zgen nicht vollends begreifbar. Grenouille ist eine Kunstfigur, mit deren Biographie Sskind? die unterschiedlichen Lebenskonzepte vergangener geistesgeschichtlicher Epochen nicht nur Revue passieren lsst, sondern auch auf die Lebensbedingungen des modernen Menschen bezieht. Concepts: Ideas And Mary Pratt's Analysis Essay! Dass sie sich als unpraktikabel erweisen und auch keine alternativen Selbstfindungskonzepte vorgestellt werden, macht deutlich dass sich die Suche nach Leserbildung frdernden Elementen im Parfum am Ende als ebenso sinnlos herausstellt wie das Leben Grenouilles selbst. Das Parfum ein Antibildungsroman? Das Zusammenspiel von Gegenber-Sein und Dazu-Gehren, Individualitt und Soziabilitt, als zeitloses Grundproblem menschlicher Existenz rckt im Parfum gerade nicht wie in Transcultural Essay, den klassischen Bildungs- und Antibildungsromanen durch einen direkt ausgetragenen Ich-Welt-Konflikt ins Zentrum des Interesses, sondern offenbart seine Notwendigkeit ex negativo durch die Unmglichkeit existenziell-produktiver Auseinandersetzung.

Am Ende muss Grenouille erkennen, dass die Befreiung des Menschen von seiner Auseinandersetzung mit seiner Umwelt nur unter Verlust des Menschseins verwirk-licht werden kann. Cultural Ideas And Mary Louise Pratt's Analysis Essay! Der Leser des Parfums muss erkennen, dass eine Auseinandersetzung in romeo, der Schein auf und Simulation beruhenden Un-Welt erst gar nicht mglich ist; wahres Menschsein demnach gar nicht erst ausgebildet werden kann. Cultural Ideas Louise Essay! Die Veruerlichung von Identitt und Bildung ist gleichbedeutend mit der Negation jeglicher Innerlichkeit; des Raumes existenzieller Selbstreflexion und findung im Sinne klassischer Bildungsideen. Indem Sskind sowohl die linear-chronologische Erzhlstruktur, als auch die motivischen Elemente des traditionellen Bildungsromans bernimmt, dessen Grundkonflikt aber negiert, praktiziert er genau jenes Verfahren des Scheins und der uerlichkeit, das sowohl die Gesellschaft des Parfums, als auch die Welt des modernen Menschen, deren Angehriger Sskind ja ist, bestimmen. The Killer Poem! Ein Unterschied knnte vielleicht dann doch darin liegen, dass Sskinds Roman, auch wenn er natrlich keine endgltigen Wahrheiten oder gar Lsungen vermitteln will, zumindest noch eine Chance bietet, hinter die Maske zu blicken.