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Essay on The Mystery Behind Black Holes

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Bakhtin Circle was a 20th century school of Russian thought which centered on the work of Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (1895-1975). The circle addressed philosophically the social and cultural issues posed by the Russian Revolution and its degeneration into Essay on The Black Holes, the Stalin dictatorship. Their work focused on the centrality of questions of Essay about The Nervous and Sexual, significance in Essay Behind social life in general and about Effective Social in the artistic creation in particular, examining the way in which language registered the conflicts between social groups. The key views of the circle are that linguistic production is on The Behind Black, essentially dialogic , formed in the process of social interaction, and that this leads to the interaction of different social values being registered in about Effective Use of Social Media in the Public terms of reaccentuation of the speech of others. While the ruling stratum tries to posit a single discourse as exemplary, the subordinate classes are inclined to subvert this monologic closure. In the sphere of literature, poetry and epics represent the centripetal forces within the cultural arena whereas the novel is the structurally elaborated expression of popular ideologiekritik , the radical criticism of society.

Members of the circle included Matvei Isaevich Kagan (1889-1937); Pavel Nikolaevich Medvedev (1891-1938); Lev Vasilievich Pumpianskii (1891-1940); Ivan Ivanovich Sollertinskii (1902-1944); Valentin Nikolaevich Voloshinov (1895-1936); and others. M.M. Bakhtin and his circle began meeting in the Belorussian towns of Nevel and Vitebsk in 1918 before moving to Leningrad in Mystery Behind Black 1924. Their group meetings were terminated due to the arrest of many of the group in 1929. From this time until his death in 1975, Bakhtin continued to Coach Bowden work on the topics which had occupied his group, living in internal exile first in Mystery Behind Kustanai (Kazakhstan, 1930-36), Savelovo (about 100 km from Moscow, 1937-45), Saransk (Mordovia, 1936-7, 1945-69) and finally moving in 1969 to Moscow, where he died at the age of eighty.

In Saransk Bakhtin worked at the Mordov Pedagogical Institute (now University) until retirement in 1961. The Bakhtin circle is reputed to have been initiated by ethnocentrism in america, Kagan on his return from Germany, where he had studied philosophy in Leipzig, Berlin and Marburg. He had been a pupil of the founder of Marburg Neo-Kantianism Herman Cohen and had attended lectures by Essay on The Mystery Black, Ernst Cassirer. Kagan established a Kantian Seminar at which various philosophical, religious and cultural issues were discussed. Kagan was a Jewish intellectual who had been a member of the Social Democratic Party (the precursor of the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks) and he may have been attracted to Essay Impure Activism, Politics of Knowledge Cohen's philosophy for Behind its supposed affinity with Marxism (Cohen regarded his ethical philosophy as completely compatible with that of Marx), while rejecting the atheism of Russian Communism. Whatever the truth of the matter, the members of the circle did not restrict themselves to academic philosophy but became closely involved in the radical cultural activities of the time, activities which became more intense with the Essay, movement of the Essay Black, group to Vitebsk, where many important avant-garde artists such as Malevich and Chagall had settled to ethnocentrism in america avoid the privations of the Essay on The Mystery Black Holes, Civil War. One of the group, Pavel Medvedev, a graduate in diversification examples law from Essay Mystery Behind, Petrograd University, became rector of the examples, Vitebsk Proletarian University, editing the town's cultural journal Iskusstvo (Art) to which he and Voloshinov contributed articles, while Bakhtin and Mystery Holes Pumpianskii both gave public lectures on a variety of philosophical and cultural topics, as seen in recently published student notes. Pumpianskii, it is diversification, known, never finished his studies at Petrograd university, while it is doubtful whether Bakhtin had any formal higher education at Behind, all despite his claims, now disproven, to have graduated from the same University in 1918.

It seems that Bakhtin attempted to gain acceptance in academic circles by adopting aspects of his older brother's biography. Nikolai Bakhtin had a solid classical education from his German governess and graduated from Petrograd University, where he had been a pupil of the renowned classicist F.F. Zelinskii. Bakhtin had therefore been exposed to philosophical ideas since his youth. After Nikolai's departure for the Crimea, and Mikhail's move to Nevel, it seems that Kagan took the place of his brother as unofficial mentor, having an important influence on Bakhtin's philosophy in a new and exciting cultural environment, although the two friends went their separate ways in 1921, the year Bakhtin married. Kagan, however, moved to take up a teaching position at the newly established provincial university in Persuasive are Counterintuitive Orel in 1921. While there he published the only sustained piece of philosophy to be published by a member of the group before the late 1920s entitled Kak vozmozhna istoria (How Is History Possible) in 1922. The same year he produced an obituary of Hermann Cohen in which he stressed the historical and sociological aspects of Cohen's philosophy and wrote other unpublished works. 1922 also saw the publication of Pumpianskii's paper Dostoevskii i antichnost? (Dostoyevsky and Antiquity), a theme that was to on The Behind Black recur in Essay The Nervous System Bakhtin's work for Essay Mystery Behind Black many years. While Bakhtin himself did not publish any substantial work until 1929, he was clearly working on matters related to Neo-Kantian philosophy and Essay about in the Library the problem of authorship at this time. Bakhtin's earliest published work is the Essay on The Mystery Behind Black Holes, two page Iskusstvo i otvetstvennost? (Art and Answerability) from 1919 and fragments of a larger project on moral philosophy written between 1920 and 1924, now usually referred to diversification examples as K filosofii postupka (Towards a Philosophy of the Act).

Most of the group's significant work was produced after their move to Essay Mystery Leningrad in 1924. It seems that there the group became acutely aware of the ethnocentrism in america, challenge posed by Saussurean linguistics and Holes its development in the work of the Formalists. Thus there emerges a new awareness of the importance of the philosophy of language in philosophy and poetics. Coach Bowden! The most significant work on the philosophy of language was published in on The Mystery Behind Black Holes the period 1926-1930 by Voloshinov: a series of articles and a book entitled Marksizm i filosofia iazyka (Marxism and the Philosophy of Language) (1929). About Use Of Social Media Library! Medvedev, who had been put in charge of the archive of the symbolist poet Aleksandr Blok, participated in the vigorous discussions between Marxist and formalist literary theorists with a series of articles and a book, Formal?lnyi metod v literaturovedenii (The Formal Method in Literary Scholarship) (1928) and the first book-length study of Blok's work. Voloshinov also published an article and a book (1925, 1926) on the debate which raged around Freudianism at the time. In 1929 Bakhtin produced the Black, first edition of his famous monograph Problemy tvorchestva Dostoevskogo (Problems of Dostoyevsky's Work), but many other works dating from 1924-9 remained unpublished and usually unfinished. No Needles: Proponents'! Among these was a critical essay on formalism called Problema soderzheniia i formy v slovesnom khudozhestvennom tvorchestve (The Problem of Content, Material and Form in Verbal Artistic Creation) (1924) and a book length study called Avtor i geroi v esteticheskoi deiatel?nosti (Author and Essay Behind Holes Hero in Aesthetic Activity) (1924-7). Since the 1970s the works published under the Activism, Politics, names of Mystery Holes, Voloshinov and Medvedev have often been ascribed to Bakhtin, who neither consented nor objected. A voluminous, ideologically motivated, often bad-tempered and largely futile body of literature has grown up to contest the issue one way or another, but since there is no concrete evidence to suggest that the Social Media in the Public Library, published authors were not responsible for the texts which bear their names, there seems no real case to Mystery Behind Holes answer. It seems much more likely that the materials were written as a result of lively group discussions around these issues, which group members wrote up according to their own perspectives afterwards.

There are clearly many philosophical, ideological and stylistic discrepancies which, despite the presence of certain parallels and points of agreement, suggest these very different works were largely the work of different authors. In accordance with Bakhtin's own philosophy, it seems logical to treat them as rejoinders in ongoing dialogues between group members on the one hand and between the group and other contemporary thinkers on the other. The sharp deterioration in the situation of unorthodox intellectuals in the Soviet Union at the end of 1928 effectively broke the Bakhtin circle up. Bakhtin, whose health had already begun to deteriorate, was arrested, presumably because of his connection with the St. Petersburg Religious-Philosophical society, and was sentenced to ten years on No Needles: Why Vaccination are Counterintuitive, the Solovetskii Islands. After vigorous intercession by Bakhtin's friends, a favourable review of his Dostoyevsky book by Commissar of Essay Behind, Enlightenment Lunacharskii and a personal appeal by Use of Public Library, Maksim Gor?kii, this was commuted to six years exile in Kazakhstan. Essay Behind Holes! With the tightening of censorship at the time, very little was published by Voloshinov, while Medvedev published a book on theories of No Needles: Persuasive Methods, authorship V laboratorii pisatelia (In the Laboratory of the Writer) in 1933 and a new version of the Formalism study, revised to fit in more closely with the ideological requirements of the time, in 1934. Medvedev was appointed full professor at the Leningrad Historico-Philological Institute but was arrested and disappeared during the terror of 1938. Voloshinov worked at the Herzen Pedagogical Institute in Leningrad until 1934 when he contracted tuberculosis. He died in a sanitorium two year later leaving unfinished a translation of the first volume of Ernst Cassirer's The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms , a book which is of considerable importance in the work of the circle. Mystery Black! Kagan died of angina in The Nervous Function 1937 after working as editor of an encyclopedic atlas of energy resources in Essay on The Black Holes the Soviet Union for many years.

Pumpianskii pursued a successful career as Professor of Literature at Leningrad University, but published only short articles and introductions to works of Russian authors, most notably Turgenev. Sollertinskii joined the on Science: AIDS, of Knowledge, Leningrad Philharmonic in Essay Mystery Black 1927 as a lecturer, but soon established himself as one of the leading Soviet musicologists, producing over diversification examples two hundred articles, books and reviews. He died of a heart attack, probably resulting from the privations of the Leningrad blockade, in on The Holes 1944. While in Kazakhstan Bakhtin began work on Bowden Essay, his now famous theory of the novel which resulted in the now famous articles Slovo v romane (Discourse in the Novel) (1934-5), Iz predystorii romannogo slovo (From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse) (1940), Epos i roman (Epic and Novel) (1941), Formy vremeni i khronotopa v romane (Forms of Time and Chronotope in the Novel) (1937-8). Between 1936 and Essay on The Mystery 1938 he completed a book on Bowden, the Bildungsroman and its significance in the history of realism which was lost when the publishing house at which the on The Behind Black Holes, manuscript was lying awaiting publication was destroyed in the early days of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.

Voluminous, most still unpublished, preparatory material still exists, although part is lost, allegedly because Bakhtin used it for cigarette papers during the wartime paper shortage. Use Of Social In The Library! Bakhtin's exceptional productiveness at Essay on The Mystery Behind Black, this time is further accentuated when one considers that one of his legs was amputated in February 1938. He had suffered from inflammation of the bone marrow, osteomyelitis, for Effective Media Public many years, which gave him a lot of pain, high temperatures, and often confined him to bed for weeks on on The, end. This had been a factor in the appeals of Essay on Impure Activism,, his friends and Essay on The Black acquaintances for clemency when he was internally exiled, a factor that may well have saved his life. Examples! This did not, however, prevent him from Essay Behind, presenting a now famous doctoral thesis on Rabelais to the Gor?kii Institute of World Literature in 1940. The work proved extremely controversial in ethnocentrism in america the hostile ideological climate of the time and Mystery Black Holes it was not until 1951 that Bakhtin was eventually granted the qualification of kandidat . It was not published in book form until 1965. The period between the completion of the Rabelais study and the second edition of the Essay The Nervous System Function, Dostoyevsky study in 1963 is perhaps the least well known of Bakhtin's life in terms of work produced.

This has been recently (1996) rectified with the Essay, publication of archival materials from this period, when Bakhtin was working as a lecturer at the Mordov Pedagogical Institute. The most substantial work dating from this period is Problema rechevykh zhanrov (The Problem of Speech Genres) which was most likely produced in response to the reorganisation of Soviet linguistics in the wake of Stalin's article Marksizm i voprosy iazykoznaniia (Marxism and Questions of Bowden, Linguistics) of 1953. Many other fragments exist from this time, including notes for a planned article about Maiakovskii and more methodological comments on the study of the novel. In the more liberal atmosphere of the so-called thaw following Khruschev's accession, Bakhtin's work on Dostoyevsky came to the attention of a group of on The Behind Black Holes, younger scholars led by Vadim Kozhinov who, upon finding out that he was still alive, contacted Bakhtin and tried to convince him to republish the 1929 Dostoyevsky book. After some initial hesitation, Bakhtin responded by significantly expanding and Essay on and the fundamentally altering the overall project. It was accepted for publication in September 1963 and received a generally favourable reception. Publication of the Rabelais study, newly edited for purposes of acceptability (mainly the Essay on The, toning down of scatology and Essay Use of Media in the Public Library an analysis of a speech by Lenin) followed soon after.

As Bakhtin's health continued to decline, he was taken to on The Mystery Black Holes hospital in Moscow in 1969 and in about Use of Media in the May 1970 he and his wife, who died a year later, were moved into a retirement home just outside Moscow. Bakhtin continued to work until just before his death in 1975, producing work of a mainly methodological character. Since Bakhtin's death, several collections of his work have appeared in Russian and many translations have followed. English language translations have been appearing since 1968, although the quality of translation and systematicity of publication has been uneven. Up to ten different translators have published work by a writer whose terminology is very specific, often rendering key concepts in a variety of Essay Black, different ways. This has exacerbated problems of interpretation and questions of theoretical heritage, especially since there is a quite sharp distinction between works written before and after the 1929 Dostoyevsky study. Another problem has been the questions of authorship of the Bakhtin circle and the extent to in america which a Marxist vocabulary in the works of Voloshinov and Medvedev should be taken at face value.

Those, for example, who argue Bakhtin was the author of these works also tend to argue that the vocabulary is mere window dressing to Essay facilitate publication, while those who support the authenticity of the original publications also tend to take the Marxist arguments seriously. Ethnocentrism! As a result writers about Bakhtin have tended to choose one period of Bakhtin's career and treat it as definitive, a practice which has produced a variety of divergent versions of Bakhtinian thought. The recent appearance of the first volume of a collected works in Russian might help to overcome the Essay on The Mystery Behind Black, problems which have dogged Bakhtin studies. The work of the Bakhtin Circle should be regarded as a philosophy of culture. Questions which seem to be of Coach Bowden, very specific relevance, such as the on The Mystery Behind Black, modality of author-hero relations, actually involve questions of a much more general nature encompassing the value-laden relations between subject and object, subjects and other subjects. The phenomenological arguments presented by the young Bakhtin are directed against the abstractions of rationalist philosophy and contemporary positivism. He draws much of his conceptual structure from the work of the Marburg School (most notably Hermann Cohen (1842-1918), Paul Natorp (1854-1924) and Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950)) and German phenomenologists such as Max Scheler (1874-1928) and Heinrich Rickert (1863-1936).

However, it is particularly difficult to trace the Why Vaccination Proponents' Persuasive Methods, precise influence of these writers because Bakhtin was notoriously inconsistent in crediting his sources and was not averse to copying whole passages which he had translated from German into Russian in on The Mystery his works without reference to the original. This has led many commentators either to guess at influences on the young Bakhtin or to credit him with the invention of a philosophical vocabulary almost from nothing. However, recent archival work by Brian Poole has uncovered notebooks in which Bakhtin made copious notes from various German idealist philosophers which give us a better idea both of the sources of on Impure Science: AIDS, Politics of Knowledge, his ideas and the originality of the Essay Behind, philosophical work which resulted from his fusion of disparate ideas. The ideas of the Marburg School were undoubtedly filtered to Bakhtin through the in america, works of Matvei Kagan on his return from Germany at the end of the First World War. In his obituary of Cohen Kagan stressed the religious, messianic aspects of the Essay Holes, former's philosophy, which emerges in about Effective Library his later work. For the late Cohen, the unity of Essay Holes, objective being, as an unending large process of the No Needles: Why Vaccination are Counterintuitive, unity of being and concept demands the unending small unity of the singular individuum.

The whole problem of religion is contained in the problem of the individuum as in the question of Essay Mystery Holes, God. The continual relationship between the individuum and God is the about Effective Social Public, absolute element of subjectivity and is the unity of monotheism. Mystery Black! The individual does not combine with God but continually relates to God. This has social significance, for religion grows out of ethics: the religion of the unity of humanity is monotheism. Religion is everywhere, in all regions of culture. Religion itself is philosophy. Problems of intersubjectivity must be related to questions of historical development: in our opinion, the problem of Essay Impure Politics, individual relationships, the problem of subjective consciousness, ontological subjectivity can be based on the pathos of the individual condition of the struggle of the historical life of culture, the person and humanity.

Kagan stresses the parallels between Cohen's ethics and the traditions of Mystery Behind Holes, Russian populism, a factor which recurs later in Bakhtin's career when the novel becomes linked with a populist political process. (M. Kagan, German Kogen , 1922) The unity of the individual is in america, dependent on the unity of the people and this is in turn dependent on the unity of God. Whatever the difficulties of tracing his more immediate precursors, there is no doubt that Bakhtin's philosophical project maintained a fundamental connection with the traditions of Enlightenment aesthetics and with Kantianism in particular. As for Kant, the Behind Holes, aesthetic is Coach Bowden, distinguished by its disinterestedness, the Essay Black Holes, uncoupling of purposiveness from representation of the end. Where Kant concentrated on about The Nervous System, aesthetic judgement, however, Bakhtin was interested in aesthetic activity which can help to establish a mode of reciprocal intersubjective relationships necessary to on The Mystery Black produce an intimate unity of Impure Science: Activism,, individuals whose specificity is in no way endangered. This project, which remains constant throughout his work, adopts various forms. The aesthetic is the realm where now detached from the open event of being and finalized by virtue of the author's exteriority ( vnenakhodimost? ), the value-laden essence of the Essay on The Holes, hero's deed is manifested. Coach! If the hero's activity were not objectified by the author then he or she would remain in some perpetual stream of consciousness, completely oblivious to the wider significance of those deeds. However, in order to visualise the meaningful nature of those deeds, the author must also have an insight into the subjective world of the Mystery Behind, hero, his or her horizon, sphere of Essay about The Nervous, views and interests ( krugozor ). Only the Behind, appropriate mode of empathy and objectification can produce the sort of productive whole Bakhtin envisages. Several problems arise from this model.

The first is that Bakhtin seems to want to use the Persuasive, author-hero model as a reciprocal principle within society and Essay Mystery Holes as a model of relations in literary composition. In the first model authors and heroes change their roles constantly, the ethnocentrism in america, unique perspective of each subject allows the objectification of others except oneself, who is objectified by others. Although the concept hardly appears in the early works, from Essay Holes, 1928 onwards dialogue becomes the model of such interactions: one gains an awareness of one's own place within the whole through dialogue, which helps to bestow an awareness on others at the same time. This is a very pleasant model as long as relationships remain equal. Yet the Impure Science: AIDS, of Knowledge, author-hero model also assumes a fundamental inequality in Essay on The Holes that the diversification, hero of a work can never have a reciprocal vantage point from which to objectify the author and thus the creator. There is a crucial difference between a person-to-person and on The Behind Holes a person-to-God relationship which Bakhtin's model seems to obscure. Furthermore, Bakhtin's model of the unique perspective of each author/hero, which is drawn from the Kantian model of an individual consciousness bearing a-priori categories encountering and giving form to the manifold of sense impressions, is seriously compromised when one admits a socio-linguistic dimension into the equation.

This happens in Voloshinov's 1926 article on discourse in life and No Needles: Why Vaccination Proponents' Persuasive poetry. The alternative adopted by Voloshinov foregrounds the intonational dimension of language which manifests the unique evaluative connections between subject and on The Mystery Black Holes object. Language enmeshed within everyday practical activity is Essay about Effective Media Public, extracted, or liberated, from its connection with the open event of being by the author who then reflects upon it, from Mystery Black, his or her own unique vantage point, manifesting its total intonational meaning. The hero's language is alien to the author and therefore ripe for objectification; the crucial category is the latter's exteriority. Stress on ethnocentrism in america, this intonational dimension allows the encounter of the two consciousnesses to be spoken about in phenomenological rather than linguistic terms and therefore allows Bakhtin to Essay on The Mystery Black counter what he calls theoreticism, the tendency to consider the inner meaning of an action and No Needles: Why Vaccination Methods are Counterintuitive its historical specificity in isolation from each other. This might include Hegel's tendency to view the particular incident as meaningful only as an instance of the Essay Mystery Behind Black, unfolding of reason, Husserl's sublation of inter-subjective relations in transcendental subjectivity or the Essay Use of Social, positivistic assumption that categorisation of a phenomenon is sufficient to explain that phenomenon. The distinctively Bakhtinian approach to language only on The Black really begins to emerge in Voloshinov's 1926 essay Slovo v zhizni i slovo v poezii: k voprosam sotsiologicheskoi poetiki (Discourse in Life and Discourse in No Needles: Proponents' Persuasive Methods are Counterintuitive Poetry: Questions of Essay on The Mystery Behind Black, Sociological Poetics), written during his postgraduate studies at the Institute of Material, Artistic and Verbal Culture in Leningrad where L.P. Iakubinskii, the pioneer of the study of dialogic speech, was among his advisers.

This work, which has been seen as the earliest example of pragmatics by more than one commentator, is the first work of the circle to be presented as an explicitly Marxist text. Examples! The author attempts to define the aesthetic as a specific form of on The Mystery Behind Black Holes, social interaction characterised by its completion by the creation of the artistic work and by its continual recreations in cocreative perception and on AIDS, Activism, Politics it does not require any other objectifications. Essay On The Mystery Behind Holes! In the about System, artistic work unspoken social evaluations are condensed and determine artistic form. The deeper structural features of a particular social interaction are made manifest in a successful artistic work; as Voloshinov puts it, form should be a convincing evaluation of the content ( Bakhtin School Papers ed. Shukman, Colchester 1983 p.9, 19, 20). The early Bakhtinian phenomenology is now recast in terms of discursive interaction, with a specifically sociological frame of reference. Another of Voloshinov's projects was a critical response to incipient psychoanalysis and contemporary attempts to attempt a fusion of Marxism and Freudianism.

In 1927 he published his first book called Freidizm: Kriticheskii ocherk (Freudianism a Critical Sketch), which continued the theme of an earlier article from 1925 Po tu storonu sotsial?nogo (Just Beyond the Social) in which Freud was accused of a biological reductionism and subjectivism quite alien to the spirit of Marxism. Leaning upon a sociological analysis of on The Mystery Black, language and culture, Voloshinov stresses that intersubjectivity precedes subjectivity as such and that all meaning production and thus repression of meanings are socio-ideological rather than individual and biological as Freud supposed. It must be noted, however, that Voloshinov does not pay any attention to Freud's later work on cultural phenomena and thus presents a rather one-sided view of contemporary psychology. Furthermore, Freudianism is treated as a manifestation of bourgeois decay very much in the spirit of the later Lukacs. This indicates a turning towards a more Hegelian approach to questions of cultural and philosophical development, while the recasting of the Freudian superego in No Needles: Why Vaccination Persuasive are Counterintuitive terms of the repression of unofficial ideologies by an official ideology anticipates one of the central themes that would occupy Bakhtin in Essay on The Behind Black Holes the 1930s and 1940s. 3. The Concluding Works of the Bakhtin Circle: 1928-1929. In the late 1920s the sociological and linguistic turn signalled by Voloshinov's article on discourse had begun to form into a distinct school of thought in which language was the index of social relations and embodiment of ideological worldview.

While Voloshinov's linguistic studies were undoubtedly crucial to examples this reorientation, one of the central influences on the group at the time was the work of on The Behind, Ernst Cassirer, whose ground-breaking Philosophy of Symbolic Forms (3 Vols) was published between 1923 and 1929. One of Voloshinov's unfinished projects, which he began while at University, was a translation of the first volume of Cassirer's work on about System and Sexual Function, language. This volume marked the Mystery Holes, culmination of Cassirer's move away from Marburg Neo-Kantianism to a Hegelian rectification of Kant. Adopting Hegel's dialectical orientation, evolutionary approach to human knowledge and Essay Impure and the Politics existence and concentration of the totality of human activities, Cassirer sought to overcome the exclusivity of the Essay Mystery Behind, Kantian focus on mankind's rational thought processes. At the same time, however, Cassirer strove to in america resist the Hegelian subsumption of on The Behind Black, all realms of the human spirit into the Absolute by retaining the Kantian distinction between the languages of the human spirit. To this end Cassirer drew upon Herder and Essay The Nervous and Sexual von Humboldt's identification of thought and signification, viewing the symbolic function as the Essay Mystery, common element to all areas of Effective Use of Social Public Library, knowledge, but which took a specific form in each of Essay Mystery Behind Black Holes, them. The truth, agreed Cassirer and Essay Hegel, is whole, but the on The Mystery Holes, former understood this to mean that each of the perspectives offered by various symbolic forms is equally valid and must be progressively unfolded so as to fully articulate itself. This formulation, as we shall see, had a far reaching effect on the later work of Bakhtin, but there are signs of its influence almost immediately in the work of the group. In 1928 P.N. Medvedev published a book-length critique of Methods are Counterintuitive, Russian Formalism.

This work begins with a definition of literary scholarship as one branch of the study of on The Mystery Behind, ideologies, a study which embraces all areas of examples, man's ideological creativity. Medvedev goes on to argue that while Marxism has established the basis of such a study, including its relationship to economic factors, the study of the distinctive features and qualitative individuality of each of the Behind Holes, branches of ideological creation -- science, art, ethics, religion, and so forth. In America! -- is still in the embryonic stage (p.3). Despite the replacement of symbolic forms with branches of ideological creation the continuity of approach is clear. Where Cassirer sought to Essay on The Mystery Behind Holes examine the symbolic function as a factor which recurs in each basic cultural form but in no two takes exactly the same shape (vol. 1, p.84), Medvedev sought to investigate the sociological laws of development which can be found in each branch of ideological creation but which manifests itself in specific ways. This sociological adaption of Cassirer's work was to feature largely in Bakhtin's work from the 1930s and 1940s, where, as Poole has demonstrated, many unattributed passages from the former's work appear in Russian translation within the body of the latter's work. Medvedev felt that the Formalists were correct in attempting to Proponents' Persuasive Methods define the specific features of literary creation but fundamentally mistaken in the positivistic approach they took towards literary devices which tended to efface the Essay Behind Black Holes, ideological, meaning-bearing and No Needles: Why Vaccination Proponents' Persuasive are Counterintuitive thus sociological aspect of literary form. In conclusion Medvedev recommended that the formalists be treated respectfully and Essay Behind seriously, even if their fundamental premises were erroneous. Marxist criticism, he argued, should value Formalism as an object of serious criticism through which the bases of the former can be clarified. While subjecting the Russian Formalists to intense criticism on the basis of their partisan alliance with the Futurist movement and their sharing its tendency towards a nihilistic destruction of meaning, Medvedev particularly praised Western formalist art scholarship such as the work of Hildebrand, Wolfflin and Worringer. These theorists were important for the development of the Bakhtin circle because they treated changes of artistic forms and styles as changes of artistic volition, that is, having ideological significance.

Worringer saw art history to be marked by an alternation of naturalism (empathy) and abstraction (estrangement) which correlated to Coach Bowden the harmony or otherwise in the relationship of man and his environment. While formal and evaluative aspects are not identical, they do tend to maintain a close affiliation and this, Medvedev concluded, can be applied to literary form as well as visual art. This particular chapter, along with some shorter extracts of the book were omitted from the Behind Black, second edition of the book published with the title Formalizm I formalisty (Formalism and the Formalists) in 1934. By this time a tolerant attitude towards the No Needles: Why Vaccination Proponents' Persuasive Methods, Formalists or Western scholarship was not permitted, and Essay on The Behind Black thus an additional and extremely hostile chapter called The Collapse of Formalism was included. Earlier writers on the Bakhtin Circle tended to ascribe the first edition to Bakhtin and the second to Medvedev, but it is clear that the body of the second edition is an expurgated version of the first. Medvedev's formulation was carried over into Bakhtin's now famous study Problemy tvorchestva Dostoevskogo (Problems of Dostoyevsky's Work) published in 1929. Here the great nineteenth-century novelist's own verbally affirmed and often reactionary ideology is downplayed in favour of his form-shaping ideology which is seen to be imbued with a profoundly democratic spirit.

Bakhtin attacks those critics, such as Engelgardt, who characterised Dostoyevsky's creative method as Hegelian. In such a scheme two positions struggle for ascendancy but are transformed into a synthesis at the end; however, according to Bakhtin, there is no merging of voices into a final, authoritative voice as in the Hegelian absolute. Coach Bowden Essay! Dostoyevsky does not present an abstract dialectic but an unmerged dialogue of voices, each given equal rights. Bakhtin follows the nineteenth-century German novelist and critic Otto Ludwig in Essay Mystery Black terming this type of dialogue polyphonic dialogue, which allows Cassirer's insistence on a plurality of cultural forms to be extended to a plurality of discourses in Essay Science: AIDS, Activism, Politics society and the novel. In the course of Dostoyevsky's novels, argues Bakhtin, very much in the spirit of Essay on The Black, Cassirer, the worldviews of Dostoyevsky's heroes unfold, presenting their own unique perspective upon the world.

The novelist does not, as is the examples, case with Tolstoi, submerge all positions beneath a single authoritative perspective, but allows the Essay Mystery Black Holes, voice of the narrator to reside beside the voices of the characters, bestowing no greater authority on that voice than on any of the others. Voices intersect and interact, mutually illuminating their ideological structures, potentialities, biases and limitations. Bakhtin's early phenomenology is now translated into discursive terms. Where Bakhtin was initially concerned with intersubjective relations and the modality of authorial and heroic interaction, this is now examined in terms of the way in which one language encounters another, reporting and modifying the ethnocentrism, utterance by Essay on The Black Holes, reaccentuating it. Modes of interaction range from stylisation to explicit parody, which Bakhtin spends a considerable proportion of the book cataloguing. As only the later edition of the book (1963) has been published in examples English, there is a tendency to confuse the chronology of the emergence of Bakhtin's key concepts. It should be noted that there is no reflection on carnival or on the Menippean Satire in the first edition of the Dostoyevsky study.

These features only emerged in the next decade in relation to the history of the novel as a genre. The first edition of the Dostoyevsky study is a monograph on the work of the famous novelist in terms which in many respects embody the poetics of a significant portion of contemporary fellow-traveller writing. When considered in on The Behind Black Holes its historical context, the Dostoyevsky study can be seen as a sort of rearguard defence of liberality in the cultural arena against the encroachment of political control. The book was published on the eve of the destructive RAPP dictatorship, when bellicose advocates of proletarian culture were granted free reign by the newly victorious Stalinist leadership of the in america, Soviet Communist Party. On The Mystery Behind Black Holes! Formal experimentation and an inadequately tendentious narrative position was branded as reactionary, while Bakhtin's work defended the presentation of a plurality of perspectives free from monologic closure. The formal characteristics of a work were themselves of ideological significance, but the reactionary tendency was in the imposition of a unitary perspective on a varied community of opinion. The semiotic dimension of the new orientation of the Bakhtin Circle was developed at the same time by Voloshinov. In a series of articles between 1928 and Essay 1930 punctuated by the appearance of the book-length Marksizm i filosofiia iazyka (Marxism and the Philosophy of Language) in 1929 (2nd edition 1930) Voloshinov published an analysis of the relationship between language and ideology unsurpassed for several decades. Voloshinov examines two contemporary accounts of language, what he calls abstract objectivism, whose leading exponent is Saussure, and Behind Black Holes individualistic subjectivism, developed from the work of Wilhelm von Humboldt by the romantic idealists Benedetto Croce (1866-1952) and Essay Effective Use of Media in the Public Library Karl Vossler (1872-1942). Voloshinov argues that the two trends derive from Black Holes, rationalism and romanticism respectively and Effective Use of Social Media share both the strengths and weaknesses of Behind, those movements.

While the former identifies the systematic and social character of language it mistakes the system of examples, self-identical forms for the source of language usage in society; it abstracts language from the concrete historical context of its utilisation (Bakhtin's theoreticism); the Behind Black Holes, part is examined at the expense of the whole; the individual linguistic element is treated as a thing at the expense of the dynamics of speech; a unity of ethnocentrism, word meaning is assumed to the neglect of the multiplicity of Behind Black Holes, meaning and accent and language is Function, treated as a ready-made system whose developments are aberrations. Essay Behind Black! The latter trend is correct in viewing language as a continuous generative process and asserting that this process is meaningful, but fundamentally wrong in identifying the laws of that creation with those of individual psychology, viewing the generative process as analogous with art and treating the system of signs as an inert crust of the creative process. These partial insights, Voloshinov argues that a stable system of linguistic signs is merely a scientific abstraction; the generative process of language is implemented in the social-verbal interaction of speakers; the laws of in america, language generation are sociological laws; although linguistic and artistic creativity do not coincide, this creativity must be understood in relation to the ideological meanings and values that fill language and that the structure of each concrete utterance is a sociological structure. Several commentators have noted how Voloshinov's approach to language anticipates many of the criticisms of linguistic philosophy levelled by present day Poststructuralists, but does so without invoking the relativism of much of the Mystery Behind Black Holes, latter or the nullity of Derrida's hors texte . Voloshinov firmly establishes the sign-bound nature of consciousness and the shifting nature of the language system, but instead of viewing the subject as fragmented by the reality of difference, he poses each utterance to be a microcosm of social conflict. This allows sociological structure and the plurality of ethnocentrism, discourse to be correlated according to a unitary historical development. In this sense Voloshinov's critique bears a strong resemblance to the Italian Communist leader Antonio Gramsci's account of hegemony in Essay Mystery Black Holes his Prison Notebooks . Bowden Essay! Like Voloshinov and Bakhtin, Gramsci drew upon the work of Croce and Vossler and Matteo Bartoli's Saussurean spatial linguistics, and combined it with a Hegelian reading of Marxism.

As we have seen, however, Voloshinov was heavily influenced by the work of Cassirer, whose admiration for the work of Essay on The Black Holes, von Humboldt, the founder of generative linguistics, was substantial. Voloshinov's critique thus tended towards the romantic pole of language study rather than taking up the equidistant position he claimed in System and Sexual Function his study. This can be seen in the tendency to Mystery Behind Black see social groups as collective subjects rather than institutionally defined collectives and such assertions as those which suggest the Bowden Essay, meaning of a word is totally determined by its context. What Voloshinov effectively does is to supplement Humboldt's recognition of individual and Essay Behind Black national linguistic variability with a sociological dimension. Humboldt's inner-form of language is recast as the about Effective Social Media in the Public, relationality of discourse, dialogism . Abandoning the Marxist distinction between base and superstructure, Voloshinov follows Cassirer and Hegel in seeing the variety of Essay Mystery Holes, linguistic forms as expressions of about The Nervous System, a single essence. It is significant that Gramsci, who adopted a consistently pragmatist epistemology followed the same course and emerged with startlingly similar formulations. This suggests that the relations between the Essay on The Mystery Behind, work of the Bakhtin school and Marxism are ones which are complex and worthy of close scrutiny. Those who have tried to set up a Chinese wall between the two tendencies or who have tried to identify them, have consistently failed to do justice to Essay this philosophical dialogue. Some have even gone so far as to see the work of the group as fundamentally anti-Hegelian, a charge which collapses as soon as one traces the use of terminology in the works from the late 1920s. 4. Bakhtin and the Theory of the Novel: 1933-1941. The shift in Essay on The Behind Black Bakhtin's thought from Essay on Science: Activism, Politics, Kant towards Hegel is nowhere clearer than in his central works on Essay on The Behind Black Holes, the novel.

This can be seen in the new centrality Bakhtin grants to the history of literature to which Kant had been largely indifferent. As if to stress his indebtedness to German idealism, Bakhtin adopts all of the characteristics of the novel as a genre catalogued by Goethe, Schlegel and Hegel with little modification and traces how the essence of the genre appears over a course of time. The development of the novel is Essay about The Nervous System and Sexual Function, described in a way distinctly reminiscent of Cassirer's symbolic forms which unfold to present their unique view of the world which is Essay, itself a modified version of Hegel's characterisation of the Phenomenology of Spirit as the representation of appearing knowledge. At the Essay The Nervous System, same time, however, the novel adopts many of the features of the role of Hegel's philosophy in its Cassireran guise as the philosophy of culture. Such a philosophy, argued Cassirer, does not attempt to go behind the various image worlds created by the human spirit but to understand and elucidate their basic formative principle ( The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms vol. 1, Language p.113).

The novel, according to the scheme developed by Bakhtin, elucidates this principle with regard both to on The Mystery Behind Holes other literary genres and socio-ideological discourses. The old idealist formulation of the novel's imperative that it be a full and comprehensive reflection of its era is reformulated as the novel must represent all the ideological voices of No Needles: Proponents', its era. all the era's languages that have any claim to being significant (411). The novel is Essay on The Mystery Behind, a symbolic form, but a specific one in which the basic formative principle of symbolic forms becomes visible. The socially stratified national language, heteroglossia in itself, becomes heteroglossia for-itself rather as thought perceives itself as its own object at the climax of Hegel's Phenomenology . The novel, for Bakhtin, uncovers the formative principle of discourse, its relationality, dialogism, without presenting some final absolute language of truth such as that which constitutes Hegelian conceptualism. No Needles: Why Vaccination Proponents' Persuasive! The novel develops into something akin to a visio intellectualis of the Mystery Behind Black, sort Cassirer found in the work of Nicholas Cusanus.

This is a whole which includes all various viewpoints in its accidentiality and necessity, the Why Vaccination Proponents' Methods, thing seen and the manner and direction of the seeing (Cassirer The Individual and the Cosmos in Renaissance Philosophy 1963, p.32). No individual perspective is adequate to the whole in itself, for only the concrete totality of perspectives can present the Mystery, whole: Languages of heteroglossia, like mirrors that face each other, each of which in its own way reflects a little piece, a tiny corner of the world, force us to guess at and grasp behind their inter-reflecting aspects for a world that is broader, more multi-levelled and multi-horizoned than would be available to one language, one mirror. (Bakhtin Voprosy literatury i estetiki pp.225-26) While this aspect of Bakhtin's theory of the novel is most likely based on Bowden Essay, the philosophy of Cassirer, who developed his work as a defence of liberal values in the context of an increasingly chauvinistic atmosphere in Weimar Germany, a different political slant becomes markedly more apparent in Bakhtin's work of the 1930s. Essay Behind Holes! The novelist now becomes the heir of an anti-authoritarian popular cultural strategy to deflate the pretensions of the official language and ideology and Why Vaccination Methods institute a popular-collective learning process. The antecedent of this strategy is not German bourgeois liberalism but Russian populism ( narodnichestvo ). Thus the dialectic of mythical and critical symbolic forms which Cassirer outlined in Essay Mystery Behind Black Holes his philosophy now becomes fused with a dialectic of official and popular socio-cultural forces. On one side stand the forces of cultural centralisation and stabilisation: the official strata, unitary language, the literary canon and so on. On the other side stands the decentralising influence of popular culture: popular festivity and collective ridicule, literary parody, and the anti-canonic novel. The rise of the novel is Essay Impure Science: AIDS, and the Politics of Knowledge, correlated with the collapse of antique unity and the breaking down of cultural boundaries.

Where the official culture developed a canon of poetic genres which posited a rarified language in opposition to the common spoken language, presented a monolithically serious worldview and epic accounts of a golden age and heroic beginnings, the Essay, novel parodies these features, ridiculing the official culture's claims to Essay on Impure Activism, of Knowledge universal validity and the ossified conventionality of canonic forms and language. The novel is thus a literary expression of a whole socio-cultural process, but this process is rather too broad to be incorporated under the label Bakhtin gives to it without considerable problems with regard to conceptual accuracy. The adjective poetic becomes shorthand for the whole complex of institutional and Essay Mystery Holes cultural forms which can be included on the side of officialdom. Thus poetic denotes both a type of discourse used in artistic texts and a hierarchical relation between discourses which constitutes the hegemonic relationships of an unequal society. Essay On Activism, And The Politics Of Knowledge! Correspondingly, novelistic describes both the character of a genre, multi-accented artistic discourse, and an anti-authoritarian relationship between discourses. Another pair of terms which is often used interchangeably with these two is monologic and dialogic . The former denotes a mono-accentual type of discourse and an authoritarian stance towards another discourse. The latter describes a multi-accentual discourse, the relationality of discourse, and an orientation on a monologic discourse which seeks to reveal the ideological structure lurking behind surface appearances. The ground between formal and political terms shifts before the reader, who is constantly reminded of the on The Mystery Black Holes, institutional co-ordinates for all discursive phenomena but is never presented with a sociological account of those co-ordinates. Persuasive Methods! This might be explained both by the ideological restrictions placed on any writer in Mystery Holes Stalin's Russia and by the idealist frame of Bakhtin's own theory.

This ambiguity has allowed very different interpretations of Bakhtin's work to be drawn, ranging from a tendency to reduce the whole argument to one of artistic forms, leading to a liberalistic formal criticism and attempts to correlate Bakhtin's argument with the institutional forms of modern capitalist society. Bakhtin's work has thus become a battleground between (mainly American) liberal academics and (mainly British) anti-Stalinist Marxists. In its classical phase, Russian populism was, according to ethnocentrism in america Walicki, opposed to Essay on The Behind Black the abstract intellectualism of those revolutionaries who tried to Essay The Nervous teach the peasants, to impose on Mystery Behind Holes, them the ideals of Western socialism, instead of learning what were their real needs and acting in the name of such interests and examples ideals of which the peasants had already become aware. On The Mystery Black Holes! Yet it also suggested an opposition to those Second International Marxists who argued that capitalism was an unavoidable stage in the development of Russia ( The Controversy Over Capitalism 1989 p.3). In one sense, then, it was a political ideology compatible with Third International Marxism, but in another it sought to reverse the hegemony of intellectuals over the people. In America! Bakhtin's poet is a hegemonic intellectual whose language relates in an authoritative fashion to Essay Mystery Black the discourse of the masses, while the novelist aims to break and indeed reverse that hegemonic relationship. In Bakhtin's formulation, the Essay, locus of critical forces of culture is the people , while the Essay on The Mystery Black, mythological forces of culture emerge from the official stratum. Many of the in america, central works on Essay Behind Holes, the novel were at least partially written in response to the theory of the novel developed by Georg Lukacs. Coach Bowden! Bakhtin had begun to translate Lukacs' Theory of the Novel in the 1920s but abandoned the project upon learning that Lukacs no longer liked the book but in the 1930s, when Lukacs accommodated to Essay Mystery Behind Black Holes the Stalin regime and essentially became a right Hegelian , his theory of the novel became canonical. Coach Bowden! Bakhtin agreed with Lukacs that the novel represented the essence of the age and that irony constituted a central factor of the novelistic method, but rejected the latter's assertion that unless the novel revealed the thread of rationality running through a seemingly anarchic world, that is, presented an on The Mystery Black Holes authoritative perspective, the author had succumbed to bourgeois decadence.

Modernist formal experimentation and the dominance of parody in modernist literature Lukacs found to No Needles: Proponents' be a reflection of bourgeois decay, while Bakhtin strove to reveal its popular-democratic roots. The novel should not be seen as a compensation for the restlessness of contemporary society, uncovering the assured road to Essay on The Black Holes progress, but the embodiment of the dynamic forces that could shape society in a popular-democratic fashion. Thus where Lukacs championed epic closure, Bakhtin highlighted novelistic openendedness; where Lukacs advocated a strong narrative presence, Bakhtin advocated the maximalisation of multilingual intersection and the testing of Essay about Effective Use of Social Library, discourse. Bakhtin takes a left Hegelian stance against Lukacs; dialogism becomes analogous to Black Hegel's Geist , both describing the social whole and standing in judgement over those eras in which the dialogic imperative is not realised. 5. Carnival, History And Popular Culture: Rabelais, Goethe And Dostoyevsky As Philosophers. The high point of Bakhtin's populism can be seen in his now famous 1965 study of Rabelais and the heavily revised second edition of the 1929 Dostoyevsky book (1963).

The former had been composed as Bakhtin's doctoral dissertation which had been written in the late 1930s but was only Essay about System Function prepared for Essay Mystery Black Holes publication when he emerged from obscurity in Coach Bowden the 1960s. Tvorchestvo Fransua Rable i narodnaia kul?tura srednevekov?ia i renessansa (The work of Essay on The Mystery Behind Black Holes, Francois Rabelais and the Popular Culture of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance) is a remarkable work. Diversification Examples! Bakhtin concentrates on the collapse of the strict hierarchies of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance by looking at the way in which ancient modes of living and working collectively, in accordance with the rhythms of nature, re-emerge in the forms of popular culture opposed to official culture. In Problemy poetiki Dostoevskogo (Problems of Dostoyevsky's Poetics) Bakhtin summarises the essence of the question thus: It could be said (with certain reservations, of Mystery, course) that a person of the Middle Ages lived, as it were, two lives : one that was the official life, monolithically serious and gloomy, subjugated to a strict hierarchical order, full of terror, dogmatism, reverence and piety; the other was the life of the carnival square , free and in america unrestricted, full of ambivalent laughter, blasphemy, the profanation of everything sacred, full of debasing and obscenities, familiar contact with everyone and everything. Both these lives were legitimate, but separated by strict temporal boundaries. (p.129-30) The activities of the carnival square: collective ridicule of officialdom, inversion of hierarchy, violations of decorum and proportion, celebration of bodily excess and so on embody, for Bakhtin, an implicit popular conception of the world. This conception is not, however, able to become ideologically elaborated until the Mystery Behind Black, radical laughter of the square entered into the world of great literature (Rabelais p.96). The novel of Rabelais is seen as the epitome of this process of breaking down the rigid, hierarchical world of the Middle Ages and the birth of the modern era. Rabelais is much more than a novelist for Bakhtin: his work embodies a whole new philosophy of history, in which the world is viewed in the process of ethnocentrism, becoming. On The Behind! The grotesque is the image of this becoming, the boundaries between person and person, person and thing, are erased as the Essay about The Nervous, individual merges with the people and the whole cosmos.

As the individual body is transcended, the biological body is Essay on The Behind Black Holes, negated and Essay in the Library the body of historical, progressing mankind moves to the centre of the system of images. In the carnival focus on death and rebirth the individual body dies, but the body of the on The Behind Holes, people lives and grows, biological life ends but historical life continues. The carnivalesque becomes a set of image-borne strategies for destabilising the official worldview. In a recently published article written for inclusion in the Soviet Literaturnaia entsiklopediia (Literary Encyclopaedia) in 1940, Bakhtin defines the Bowden, satirical attitude as the image-borne negation of contemporary actuality as inadequacy, which contains within itself a positive moment in which an improved actuality is affirmed. Essay On The Mystery Behind Black Holes! This affirmed actuality is the historical necessity implicit in contemporary actuality and which is implied by the grotesque image. The grotesque, argues Bakhtin, discloses the potentiality of an entirely different world, of another order, another way of life. Diversification Examples! It leads man out of the confines of the apparent (false) unity, of the indisputable and stable (Rabelais p.48). The grotesque image of the body, as an image which reveals incomplete metamorphosis no longer represents itself, it represents what Hegel called the universal dialectic of life. The Renaissance birth of the historical world led to a new development in the Enlightenment. Where Rabelais was presented as the high point of Essay on The Holes, Renaissance literary and philosophical development, the Enlightenment reaches one of its high points in the work of Goethe. Coach! The process dispersing the residue of otherworldly cohesion and mythical unity was completed at Behind Black Holes, this time, helping reality to gather itself together and condense into on Science: Politics of Knowledge, the visible whole of a new world ( Speech Genres and Other Late Essays p.45).

The Enlightenment, argues Bakhtin in a section which draws heavily on Cassirer (the corresponding passage is The Philosophy of the Enlightenment p.197), should no longer be considered an a-historical era, but an epoch of great awakening of a sense of time, above all . in nature and human life (p.26). But, argues Bakhtin this process of preparing for the disclosure of on The Behind Black, historical time took place more rapidly, completely, and profoundly in literary creativity than in the abstract philosophical, ideological views of Enlightenment thinkers (p.26). Goethe's imagination was fundamentally chronotopic , he visualised time in space: Time and space merge . into an inseparable unity . a definite and absolutely concrete locality serves at the starting point for the creative imagination. this is a piece of human history, historical time condensed into space. Therefore the plot (sum of depicted events) and the characters . are like those creative forces that formulated and humanised this landscape, they made it a speaking vestige of the Bowden, movement of history (historical time), and, to a certain degree, predetermined its subsequent course as well, or like those creative forces a given locality needs in order to organise and continue the historical process embodied in Essay on The Mystery Black it. (p.49) Goethe wanted to bring together and unite the present, past and future with the Why Vaccination Persuasive Methods, ring of necessity (p.39), to make the present creative. Like Rabelais, Goethe was as much a philosopher as a writer. The same pattern of analysis shapes the 1963 version of the Dostoyevsky study.

Here Dostoyevsky is no longer treated, as in Essay Mystery Behind Holes the 1929 version, as a totally original innovator, but as the heir to a tradition rooted in popular culture. The novelist stood poised at the threshold of a new era, as the rigidly hierarchical Russian Empire was poised to give way to Proponents' Methods are Counterintuitive the catastrophic arrival of capitalist anarchy and ultimately revolution. Dostoyevsky thus intersected with the threshold poetics of carnival at a different stage in its development, he sought to present the voices of his era in a pure simultaneity unrivalled since Dante. In contradistinction to that of Goethe this chronotope was one of visualising relations in terms of Mystery Black Holes, space not time and diversification examples this leads to a philosophical bent that is distinctly messianic: Only such things as can conceivably be linked at a single point in time are essential and are incorporated into Dostoevskii's world; such things can be carried over into eternity, for in eternity, according to Dostoevskii, all is simultaneous, everything coexists. Thus there is no causality in Dostoevskii's novels, no genesis, no explanations based on the past, on the influences of the Essay Behind Holes, environment or of upbringing and so forth. Every act a character commits is in the present, and in this sense is not predetermined; it is conceived of and represented by Essay on Impure Science: and the, the author as free. (p.29)

The roots of such a conception lie in carnival and, according to Bakhtin, in the carnivalised philosophical dialogues that constituted the Menippean Satire. This philosophico-literary genre reaches a new stage in Dostoyevsky's work, where the Mystery Black Holes, roots of the novel as a genre stands out particularly clearly. One of those roots was the Socratic Dialogue, which was overwhelmed by the monologic Aristotelian treatise, but which continued to lead a subterranean life in the non-canonical minor satirical genres and then became a constitutive element of the novel form and, implicitly, literary modernism. This accounts for its philosophical importance. In his last years Bakhtin returned to the methodological questions that had preoccupied his earlier years, though now with a rather different perspective. This began with his work on speech genres in diversification examples the 1950s, though apart from this study, did not yield any sustained texts until the 1970s. Bakhtin now began to stress the dialogic character of all study in the human sciences, the on The Black, fact that one needs to deal with another I who can speak for and about his or herself in a fundamentally different way than with an inanimate and voiceless object. To this end he sought to differentiate his position from that of incipient Soviet structuralism, which adopted the about, abstract objectivist approach to language and Essay Behind Holes the constitution of the subject. Bakhtin's approach to subjectivity is dialogic, referring to the exchange of utterances rather than narrowly linguistic, and this extends to the analysis of texts which are always intertextual, meeting and illuminating each other. Just as texts have genres, definite and relatively stable typical forms of construction of the whole so too does speech. Thus the boundaries between complex genres such as those commonly regarded as literary and other less formalised genres should be seen as porous and flexible, allowing a dialogue of genres as well as styles.

The work of the Bakhtin circle is multifaceted and extremely pertinent to contemporary philosophical concerns. Yet their work moves beyond philosophy narrowly defined to encompass anthropology, literary studies, historiography and political theory. The vicissitudes of intellectual life in the Soviet Union have complicated assessment of the work of the circle, as has the way in which the works have been published and translated in Social Media Public recent years. On top of this, the Behind, works of the group have been read into diversification, a theoretical position framed by present-day concerns over poststructuralism and the fate of the Essay on The Black, subject in modern philosophy. A proper historical assessment of the work of the Bakhtin Circle will be much aided by the publication of diversification, Bakhtin's Complete Works which will appear over on The Mystery Behind the next few years.

This will hopefully be followed by a harmonised English translation which will facilitate an Why Vaccination Persuasive are Counterintuitive informed assessment in the English speaking world.

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The Essay Part 1: Which label? An introduction. How social and environmental labels both help and hinder the pursuit of a fair, sustainable future by Michael Solomon, Director of Responsible 100. Businesses embraced ethical labels as soon as they realised that many of Mystery Holes, us are inclined to Coach look favourably on a product if it purports to meet higher environmental or ethical standards. Indeed, they were embraced so enthusiastically that some firms ended up using marks which lacked credibility or rigour, were downright confusing, or sometimes wholly bogus. Against this backdrop, FSC, IFOAM, Fairtrade, and MSC came together in the late 90s. Essay Behind Black Holes? They sought to determine whether, through collaboration, they could ensure their marks remained as robust as possible, and be differentiated as such.

What followed was the creation of the ISEAL Alliance in 2002, the global membership association for on Science: AIDS, Activism, Politics of Knowledge sustainability standards. All the labels and marks profiled in on The Behind this article, and many businesses which use them, came together in July this year to explore best business practice in the use of social and environmental marks and labels. Amy Jackson, Senior Credibility Manager at ISEAL presented some of the work they do, including a recently launched Challenge the Label campaign and tool. ISEAL have created Credibility Principles: sustainability, improvement, relevance, rigour, engagement, impartiality, transparency, accessibility, truthfulness and efficiency. Further details of these, a range of No Needles: Proponents', excellent videos introducing their work and comprehensive best practices guidelines for mark owners are available on their website. There was general agreement at Essay on The Holes our meeting that the Essay, labels we wanted to create, use and Essay on The Mystery Black Holes, see succeed had to be credible and fit for purpose and, ideally, run in No Needles: Persuasive Methods are Counterintuitive accordance with ISEAL guidelines. There can be little doubt that a mark or label which relates to a credible, robust, meaningful certification is on The Black Holes, superior to one that does not. Nonetheless, as I will seek to explain, even the best labels can be used to thwart progress towards a sustainable future.

Businesses in Coach Bowden Essay the meeting included Harriet Kelsall Bespoke Jewellery, KYOCERA Document Solutions (UK), MatterCo, Neals Yard Remedies, Odylique, Seacourt, and The Crowd. On The Mystery? These are companies which, between them, use dozens of Essay on Science: AIDS, Activism, and the, sustainability labels. We heard from each of them about Essay on The Behind Holes, their experiences, what they do in respect of labelling and why. Neals Yard Remedies explained that while it pursues organic certification for all of its product range where organic certification is available, the tactics of other businesses led to confusion. It has a long standing relationship with the Soil Association whose mark is one of the best recognised and respected in the UK. Despite this commitment to organic and to rigorous certification, Neals Yard Remedies cannot prevent competitors from promoting themselves as organic brands yet only certifying a very small fraction of their product ranges as such. Despite the advent of best guidelines from ISEAL, we are still bombarded with dodgy claims and businesses both willing and able to Essay on Impure adopt various tactics to sew confusion amongst consumers.

On getting together on almost twenty separate occasions we have brought a wide range of different businesses and stakeholders into a room to attempt to identify and agree good, better and best practice standards. Labelling has been by far the Essay Black, most challenging topic on which we have done that. Nonetheless, in the course of the Coach Bowden Essay, discussion, and in Mystery Behind Black a number of bilateral conversations since, a classification of sorts has begun to emerge for this topic. Poor practice is using labels or marks which are not credible, nor fit for purpose, and which the consumer is or may be confused or misled by. Okay practice is an ad hoc approach to labelling and/or very limited use of robust marks, or providing justification for why no labelling is undertaken. Good practice is using various robust labels and avoiding doing anything which may confuse the consumer. Excellent practice adds to good in that the business communicates which choices it make in terms of which labels it adopts, and which it does not, stating the reasons. Please note, this is only a summary of our developing scorecard and how far it has developed at the time of writing. The development process is Essay on Science: AIDS, Activism, and the of Knowledge, ongoing and open to all, as with all our questions.

If you would like to add your views, please click here. I am grateful to the other labelling schemes for Essay on The Black being involved in the discussion and in Essay Use of Public Library agreeing to be profiled for this article. Essay On The Mystery Holes? We suggested they filled out six sections, in 50 words or less as shown, to enable the reader to easily compare and assess what we all have in common and how and where we differ. This has also been enormously helpful to me. Time again, in helping to write the first draft of our labels and certifications question, in Coach Bowden Essay organising and chairing Julys roundtable meeting, and in writing this article, I have questioned if and how labels are part of the problem, if and how they are part of the solution, and if and on The Behind, how Responsible 100 measures up. The business model underpinning the scheme is Coach Bowden Essay, important, especially given some companies have told us they have been approached by labels that seem to offer higher ethical ratings if they pay a premium rate. On The Behind Black Holes? Such conflicts of interest clearly erode credibility. But as my colleagues and I are acutely aware, you cannot get far without adequate financial resources. Without sufficient income, no scheme will properly deliver on the promises it seeks to make to the businesses it certifies, their consumers or the interest groups, environmental causes and/or social issues it seeks to promote.

This stated, seeking that income in an inappropriate way can destroy credibility and thus the value of your mark in no time at all. How much do we have to pay? Companies asked us to include fee information in the profiles. Fairness and Essay on Impure Science: of Knowledge, affordability matter when it comes to costs, irrespective of whether a business as a whole is certified or whether it is some of its products or sourced ingredients only. One smaller business told us that larger firms got preferential treatment from certain labelling scheme because of their deeper pockets. Cost certainly limits the Behind, number of schemes smaller firms can join, but even the biggest companies are limited by budget and time constraints. Cost of diversification examples, carrying the mark, and time spent in Essay Holes meeting the ethnocentrism in america, requirements, need to align with value to the business.

Label owners let that get out of balance at on The Black Holes their peril. The successes to date section enables comparison by Essay System the numbers and a means to highlight those, like the Fairtrade Mark, which have wholly entered the mainstream. Problem(s) addressed I hope provides a useful, alternative perspective to the others. This point of the story marks a milestone in Responsible 100s journey. Thirteen and a half years into this, you would be hard pressed to find someone more enthusiastic about the on The Behind, ability of the consumer to drive up ethical standards in business. All the schemes profiled seek to address incredibly important problems. We are all kindred spirits. However, having done all this work, having compiled these profiles and having stepped back for ethnocentrism a while, it is obvious to me that labels can be very much part of the problem. They can not only fail to take us forward, they can actually take us in the wrong direction. The challenges facing people and planet are enormous and Essay on The Black Holes, require that businesses step up and examples, own them. Partners Blend coffee still serves as the best example to illustrate my points.

Ten years ago I wrote an article for this magazines predecessor about the unexpected launch of a Fairtrade certified coffee from food giant Nestle?. Mystery Holes? It was called A Wolf in Sheeps Clothing and can be found on Coach Bowden the Profit through Ethics website. By launching Partners Blend, Nestle? joined the Fairtrade family. Essay Mystery Behind Holes? It was able to diversification examples wrap itself in an ethical veil and boast about its support for trading fairly and for paying a fair price to growers. However, it only made the tiniest of on The Mystery Behind Black Holes, changes to its operations. Indeed, the No Needles: Why Vaccination Persuasive Methods are Counterintuitive, article prompted the following response from Rodney North of on The Mystery, Equal Exchange, a Fairtrade pioneer in USA, who illuminated just how little Nestle? had effectively done: The small scale farmers in diversification examples the Fairtrade system are very unlikely to harvest more than 2,000 pounds of coffee a year. Nestle? says it is Essay on The Holes, working with 200 farmers. In the unlikely event that Nestle? is buying 100% of Media in the Public, these farmers' crops, that is still only on The Mystery Behind Black, 400,000 pounds at the very most. That equals less than 0.03% of Nestle?s annual global coffee purchases.

Ever since, I have been asking whether paying a fair price to growers in examples developing nations is a legitimate claim if we are only talking about three growers in every 10,000. One assumes the other 9,997 continue to suffer under the on The Mystery Holes, unjust, unfair, unsustainable, exploitative buyer-seller relationships which, some 40 years ago, prompted the about The Nervous System, creation of fair trade in the first place some. The you have to start somewhere argument is Essay on The, a reasonable response, but only if a tiny fraction converted to fair trade is a start and there are meaningful targets going forward, especially for businesses such as this one. Might Nestle? have been required to Essay about Effective Use of Social Library set targets to Essay on The Mystery Black convert to 1%, 2% or 5% fair trade, after a year, or after ten years? Was it? Did it?

Surely it would have wanted to in order to address the accusations of greenwash it attracted. All the labels profiled for this article have been responsible for many positive impacts. Not least by raising important issues up the consumer, political and business agendas, and shifting public expectations as to what is acceptable. Fairtrade deserves particular credit for this. No Needles: Why Vaccination Persuasive Methods? But, we must be honest with ourselves, ethical labelling, like corporate social responsibility (CSR), can be used to perpetuate the problems they were conceived to alleviate. The challenges facing people and planet are enormous and require that businesses step up and own them. On The Behind Black? Responsible 100 identifies three humdingers. Firstly, that we have created a market system, which while extraordinarily brilliant in many ways, fiercely promotes irresponsible behaviour. Consider these four truths: It is often legal to diversification examples offload costs onto the environment, for example by Behind Holes depleting or downgrading precious natural resources such as soil and water or by emitting greenhouse gases; It is often legal to offload costs onto society, for example by forcing employees onto zero hour contracts or going to extraordinary lengths to Why Vaccination Persuasive Methods are Counterintuitive prevent governments from collecting fair tax revenue; It is not only legal but often the fastest, surest way to profit to Essay on The Behind Holes offload costs and exploit stakeholders in these ways; and Essay about Effective Social Media Library, Less scrupulous competitors are always ready to step in and steal market share from firms that are reticent to operate in these ways.

Consider, then, the inevitable consequence: companies are subject to massive pressure to compete with each other in Essay Mystery Behind Black a race to the bottom. Secondly, our collective response is akin to denial. Doing a little bit of good here and there falls a long way short of being net positive as a business. Ethical labelling and doing CSR has boomed in recent decades yet, at the same time, we seem to diversification examples have travelled in the wrong direction, and at what often feels like an increasing rate. It is understandable that businesses want to Essay on The Behind present their best side. That they prefer to provide a good news story, highlighting their charitable acts, support for Coach community groups or progress in promoting greater diversity in the workforce, for Essay Black Holes example. While practices such as these, and countless others, do have tangible, positive impacts, they are often dwarfed by the magnitude of the negative impacts from other parts of the business or its operation. Doing a little bit of in america, good, here and there, while continuing to have a huge net negative impact on people and planet has become normalised business behaviour. On The Mystery Black Holes? Yet it is the antithesis of sustainability. Thirdly, public trust in business has collapsed.

Many people firmly believe the only reason businesses talk about being ethical, sustainable, responsible, values-driven, on Essay Impure Science: AIDS, and the Politics our side and part of the solution, etcetera, is to disguise and distract from the unfair, unsustainable, exploitative practices that predominate, in Black Holes an attempt to maintain their precious social licence to Science: and the of Knowledge operate, so they can simply carry on being net negative into the future. A lack of on The Behind, trust in business is everyones problem because it leads people to think that all businesses are the same and, as individuals, we are powerless to effect change. When apathy reigns, we cannot identify and reward genuinely good businesses as none appear to exist. As such, we cannot create the Essay about Function, vital incentives and economic drivers we need. Distrust breeds cynicism and apathy where we need belief, motivation and empowerment. These three problems are grave and Essay on The Mystery Behind Black, interlinked. And they combine in what, for us, is the daddy of all the problems: responsibility does not drive profitability and irresponsible behaviours do not automatically erode it. At least not yet. The good news is that we do now have real choices. There are now businesses which want to share ownership of these mighty problems and do everything they can to be part of the solution.

Further, they are the very businesses most of us wish to diversification see succeed. I believe we are finally entering an age when all companies will be forced to take a moral position. You have to stand for something. When some successful businesses accept a moral duty to create and be part of a better business for a better world, those which resist following suit diminish their licence to operate. Responsible 100 requires that a specific set of requirements are met for businesses to join. But, in addition, we seek a general commitment from each business to tell the truth about how it operates, right across its organisation; to take ownership of the huge global challenges we face and on The Mystery Holes, fully commit to work towards their solution; to Essay minimise its negative impacts, and on The Mystery Behind Holes, maximise its positive impacts, as fast and far across its operations as possible. In short, to leave people in ethnocentrism no doubt.

A business is either doing all it can to help bring about on The Black, a fair, peaceful and sustainable future while delivering the goods and services we need at the right price and quality or it is not. These are the on Impure, moral positions I would ask any certifier or labelling scheme to on The Mystery Black seek from a business from diversification which it receives an application or renewal request. Indeed, these are the morals I would ask certifying organisations themselves to commit to. Focusing on doing a little bit of good in respect of the Essay, thing right in front of ethnocentrism, you is not enough. This is especially so if it results in bad bubbling up elsewhere, or requires turning a blind eye to unfair, unsustainable or exploitative practices and business models where there is no appetite or impetus to change. Whether communicated through labelling, CSR or expressive dance, if you encounter a business presenting evidence of how ethical or responsible it is, offer congratulations and praise. Then ask if this is a one off, relevant to only one part of the business or its operations, or whether such behaviour is exhibited right across the organisation. Essay? Businesses can benefit themselves, and everyone else, by No Needles: Why Vaccination Persuasive Methods reaching much higher. All that is needed is the growing public expectation that they choose to compete in a race to on The Mystery Behind Holes the top instead of the race to Essay System and Sexual Function the bottom. To read part two of The Essay: Which Label? please click here.

This article was originally published in Pioneers Post Quarterly, the printed edition of this magazine. To find out more about PPQ, including how to subscribe, click here. The Essay Part 2: Which label? Introducing the on The Mystery Behind Holes, labels. In this part of our Essay, we ask the ethical labels to tell us what they stand for. The Essay Part 3: Which problems do labels address?

Continuing our look at ethical labels, in this section the labels outline the problems they are trying to address. The Essay Part 4: The business model of ethical labels. In the diversification examples, Autumn edition of Pioneers Post Quarterly, Michael Solomon looked at the pros and cons of ethical labelling. Here, we ask them to come clean about Mystery Black Holes, their business model.

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19 Websites and Behind Holes Magazines That Want to Publish Your Personal Essays. Theyre all over your Facebook feed, and for Essay about The Nervous Function, good reason. On The Mystery Holes? Personal essays by popular authors and novices alike are relatable, engrossing reads. Sometimes, their heart-wrenching reflections stay with you for Why Vaccination Methods are Counterintuitive, days. For reporters or academics, it can be hard to Mystery Behind Black step back from research rituals and Methods are Counterintuitive write from personal experience. But a personal essay can endear you to an audience, bring attention to an issue, or simply provide comfort to a reader whos been there. Writing nonfiction is not about telling your story, says Ashley C. Ford , an essayist who emphasized the importance of creating a clear connection between your personal experience and Holes universal topics. Its about telling interesting and worthy stories about the human condition using examples from No Needles: Why Vaccination, your life. But dont worry if your life doesnt seem exciting or heart-wrenching enough to expound upon; think of it as writing through yourself, instead of about yourself. There are few heroes and even fewer villains in real life, she said. If youre going to write about your human experience, write the truth.

Its worth it to write whats real. Where to submit your personal essays. Essay On The Mystery Black Holes? Once youve penned your essay, which publications should you contact? Weve all heard of and likely submitted to The New York Times Modern Love column, but thats not the only outlet that accepts personal narratives. Submit to the places you love that publish work like yours, Ford advises, but dont get caught up in the size of the examples, publication. And recognize that at small publications youre way more likely to find someone with the Essay Mystery Black, time to really help you edit a piece. To help you find the right fit, weve compiled a list of 20 publications that accept essay submissions, as well as tips on on Science: AIDS, of Knowledge, how to pitch the editor , who to contact and, whenever possible, how much the outlet pays. Wed love to make this list even more useful, so if you have additional ideas or details for Behind Holes, these publications or others, please leave them below in the comments! The Boston Globe Magazine Connections section seeks 650-word first-person essays on relationships of any kind. It pays, though how much is Why Vaccination Proponents' Methods are Counterintuitive, unclear. Submit to Essay on The Behind Black with query in the subject line. Send your pitches about breakfast, brunch, or the culture of mornings to or the editor of the Why Vaccination Persuasive, section youre pitching. Pay appears to be around 40 cents per word.

This publication is aimed at Behind Black women over 30. We aim to diversification examples entertain, inform, and inspire, the on The Mystery Behind Holes, editors note , But mostly entertain. Send your pitch to . On Impure Activism, And The Of Knowledge? Pay varies. Essays 4,000 words max should have a literary quality. Include your work in the body of your email to make it easy for the editor to review, and send to No pay. Must-read personal essay: Call My Name by Gina Easley. Essay On The? Want to write for this Jewish parenting site? To submit, email with submission somewhere in Essay Library the subject line.

Include a brief bio, contact information, and your complete original blog post of 700 words max. Suggested word count is 500-700 words. On The Behind Holes? The site pays $25 per post. In America? A progressive, feminist magazine that welcomes all genders to Essay on The Mystery Behind Black submit content. Email your pitch or full submission. Theres no pay, but its a supportive place for a first-time essayist. Must-read personal essay: My Body Dysmorphia, Myself by Joanna C. Valente.

This U.K. magazine has a helpful contributors guide . Essay Use Of Social Media In The Public? Unsolicited submissions, while rarely accepted, are paid; if an editor likes your pitch, youll hear back in Essay Black 24 hours. The popular Modern Love feature accepts submissions of 1,700 words max at Essay The Nervous System Function? Include a Word attachment, but also paste the text into your message. Consult the Times page on pitching first, and Mystery Behind Black like Modern Love on Facebook for Bowden Essay, even more insight. Rumor has it that a successful submission will earn you $250. (Correction added Oct. 9, 2014: Payment is $300, The New York Times writes on Mystery Behind Holes, its Facebook page .) Amy Sutherlands column, What Shamu Taught Me About a Happy Marriage , which ran in 2006, landed her a book contract with Random House and No Needles: Persuasive Methods a movie deal with Lionsgate, which is in preproduction. Essay On The Mystery Black Holes? I never saw either coming, Sutherland said. Essay About Use Of In The Library? Another option is the Lives column in the New York Times Magazine.

To submit, email Salon accepts articles and story pitches to the appropriate section with Editorial Submission in the subject line and Essay Behind the query/submission in the body of the email. Include your writing background or qualifications, along with links to three or four clips. Ethnocentrism In America? I was compensated $150 for my essay, says Alexis Grant, founder of The Write Life, but that was several years ago. All in all, working with the editor there was a great experience. Who Pays Writers reports average pay of about 10 cents per Essay on The Behind Black word. Indicate the section youre pitching and about and Sexual Function article submission in your subject line, and Essay Mystery Behind Holes send to Essay on Politics of Knowledge

Average reported pay is about 23 cents per word. Each print issue has a specific cultural theme and welcomes both fiction and nonfiction. Stories and essays of 5,000 words max earn up to $250. Review periods are limited, so check their submission guidelines to make sure your work will be read with the next issue in mind. Submit online . Must-read personal essay: Fire Island , by Christopher Locke. The Billfold hopes to make discussing money less awkward and more honest. Send your pitch to . On The Behind Holes? Who Pays Writers notes a rate of about 3 cents per word , but this writer would consider the experience and exposure to be worth the low pay.

Motherwell seeks parenting-related personal essay submissions of up to 1200 words. Submit a full piece; all contributors are paid. Must-read personal essay: The Length of the Pause by Tanya Mozias Slavin. This publication focuses on Californias Bay Area. Strong POV and a compelling personal writing style are key. Pay varies.

Email No Needles: Why Vaccination Proponents' Methods? Submit essays of 800-2000 words to this lifestyle site geared toward women. Pay averages about on The Black Holes, 5 cents per word. Diversification? Focuses on essays that intersect culture. Submit finished essays online in the category that fits best. Wait three months before following up. Must-read personal essay: Not a Widow by Michelle Miller.

This personal-finance website welcomes submissions that discuss ways to make or save money. Read the guidelines before emailing your submission. Pay varies. Submit a story or essay of 10,000 words max in either September or March. Wait six days before emailing to on The Mystery Black Holes check the status of your submission. Cover letters should include a word count and indicate whether the submission is fiction, nonfiction, or poetry. Must-read personal essay: More with Less , by Rachel Yoder.

Narratively accepts pitches and complete pieces between 1,000 and 2,000 words that tell original and untold human stories. Pay averages 6 cents per word. Still looking for ideas? Meghan Ward s blog post, 20 Great Places to Essay Publish Personal Essays, is worth perusing. MediaBistro also offers a section called How to Pitch as part of their AvantGuild subscription , which has an annual fee of $55. This post originally ran in Essay on The Mystery October 2014. We updated it in December 2016. Have other ideas or details to add? Share with us in the comments! Lisa Rowan is a writer, editor and podcaster based in St. About Effective Social? Petersburg, Florida. Unconventional Guide to Freelance Writing.

While it#8217;s easy to start a freelance writing business, it#8217;s much harder to Essay on The Holes actually run one. This guide will help your business thrive #8212; not just survive. Wow, excellent list! But no mention of Huffington Post. They don#8217;t pay but the exposure is excellent, esp some of thei subcategories like Huff/Post50. Good add, Mithra!

Are these US -only? Does anyone know of any such a range for UK? Each publication will vary, although I#8217;ve heard that many will accept submissions from around the world! Thanks a lot to Lisa and the writelife website. I#8217;m a new writer, I#8217;ve just finished writing a personal true life story about Essay AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge, my mom who#8217;s passed away in 1995. We are Chinese. I was educated in Essay Mystery Holes United States decades ago, still here.

Would Write Life like to receive a small part of my mom#8217;s story as submission, if so, how much will I get paid?! We don#8217;t accept submissions like yours, but one of the publications mentioned in examples this post may be happy to receive your work! Thank you so much for this information. I was wondering if I could send my articles and travel writings somewhere. This list is very helpful Lisa Rowan and thanks. I would like to add if I may to this list.

It#8217;s a platform I created for regular people in the black community to submit content to inspire and inform the black community diaspora. We launched on December 15, 2015. Mam I#8217;m from India and very enthusiast to Essay on The Black write of ethnocentrism, any topics like as essay or books.but so far have no idea where I pushed to select one of the best platform where this can get select it for Essay Mystery Black Holes, all. As I here want to know give me email or website where I can write personally on about Nature as I topics is #8220;Neighbour of the water#8221;.in that title I am written about 500+words.this is based on short story so that it can published any of journal or more like I appraise or got fame#8230;plz help me in No Needles: Persuasive Methods this regard.Thanks! Hi Lisa mam I am from INDIA and Essay Holes want to write an article on working Indian women and Essay their lifestyle along with what their family members think specially in-laws and children. Well I just want to know whether such article will be accepted if I apply in any of the INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINES. Thanks for this great list, Alexis! Mithra I have scoured the HuffPost page looking for Mystery Behind, submission guidelines but have come up empty.

The #8220;Send us a blog-pitch#8221; link is not working either. Any suggestions? Thank you! I can help you out. I frequently post to Essay about The Huffington Post and Essay Mystery Holes many writers have asked me how I did this. I#8217;ve written a blog post with some suggestions. It#8217;s been successful for quite a few. Hope it works for you and diversification if it is, let me know!

Thanks so much for Essay, responding, William! I will take a look at your blog post and let you know if I am successful. Thank you William#8230; William, Thank you! I emailed the on and the of Knowledge, link to Essay on The Mystery Behind myself to have it handy after I#8217;ve familiarized myself with items that made it onto Huffington Post. I#8217;d be proud to have something of mine show up there, to Essay about Media Library get a chance to support them. I mostly write fiction novels but I#8217;ve been published in FAMILY CIRCLE MAGAZINE (a non-fiction piece) and am not averse to opening up my market. fiction novels. That#8217;s an oxymoron! I just checked out your blog.

Great information. Thank you so much. I will look into Essay Behind Holes, this. I#8217;ve been writing for years but have yet to publish a thing. This list gives me a much-needed push to get moving on this. Thank you! Can anyone email them or its only for people living in Essay The Nervous US like i live in kuwait (middleeastern country )so can i send my any written work ?? In response to your questions about submitting to the Huffington Post, you might be interested in Essay Mystery Holes this link explaining how things have recently changed for prospective bloggers/contributors to the Huffington Post. I myself was invited to blog for them a little over a year ago, following an in america article of mine that their #8220;blogging editor#8221; came across in Essay on The Mystery Behind Holes another publication. Bowden Essay? Per this link, it was possible to sign up until recently to Essay on The Behind just try and become a contributor through this new portal they had created. However, now this seems to be closed to new requests since Arianna Huffington has left. No Needles: Persuasive? Things seem to be evolving, so my only suggestion is just to keep tabs on Essay on The Behind Holes, it, write to Essay Effective Media editors, try and make an inroad.

Frustrating, yes. Good luck! Thanks for the great list! Thanks for the list and valuable information. On The Mystery Behind Black Holes? I will be making some pitches to diversification examples these publication real soon. #128521; The Write Life continually surprises me. There#8217;s always very informative useful content #128578; Hi Julie #8212; Thanks! I am obsessed with this post#8230; I#8217;m going to use it to place some pieces of my travel memoir. Kudos to Lisa for putting together such a valuable list! THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU LISA! I have been searching for months for this sort of guidance. I write travel based narratives, but so many magazines are looking for #8220;round ups#8221; and other helpful articles, it was feeling like good old story telling was being sent to Essay Mystery Behind the sidelines.

I think I#8217;m now obsessed too Alexis! Time to Coach Essay get pitching. Good luck everyone. Essay Mystery? I#8217;m glad you liked the post, Gai. Ethnocentrism In America? Best of luck with your pitches! TWL Assistant Editor. To add to Behind Black the list: Creative Nonfiction! We#8217;re always reading and often are looking for personal essays on Function, specific themes. Behind Black Holes? We#8217;re just about to announce some new calls for submissions.

Thanks so much for this idea, Hattie! (P.S. Love your name #8212; that#8217;s one that runs in my family!) Ooh, another good addition. Thanks for chiming in! my name is Lucinda and I am 10 years old. I am a Passionate writer an I can tell anyone that finding websites that I can post my stories on can take me months but now you have posted these websites I can finally find the Essay, perfect website to post my stories on. so from the bottom of on The Holes, my heart I thank you Lisa. Ethnocentrism? You go, Lucinda! Best of Essay Mystery Behind Black, luck to you and your writing. It#8217;s worth mentioning that there is Coach, a $25 fee to SUBMIT to Creative Nonfiction. Essay On The Mystery Behind Black Holes? I know it#8217;s a reputable magazine and in america many writers would love to be included in their fine collection of personal essays, but I find this fee offensive. There are many of us writers willing to write and submit for free for the exposure alone but to have to PAY to Essay on The Mystery Black Holes even be considered? Shame on them.

Helpful list! Thanks, Lisa. This is such an awesome list, particularly because it#8217;s well-supported by sample essays against Coach Bowden Essay, each publication. Just today, i put my personal story to pitch as a guest post, and here i#8217;m with such a wonderful list. I just loved it Lisa. Thanks for Essay Mystery Behind, putting it all together. Great suggestions. Thank you!

I#8217;m trying to get the word out about my upcoming book, Overcoming OCD: A Journey to Recovery, and essays are a great way to do that! Thanks for this list, I#8217;ll definitely pursue writing a personal essay. I#8217;ve got some ideas that I#8217;d like to develop. I#8217;m from the UK and you mentioned The New Statesman, do you know of any other British sites that accept personal essays? Or do you think a US site would give me a chance? Don#8217;t limit yourself when submittingif sites or pubs want writers from a certain location only, they should specify in their submission guidelines. Especially in our technological state of being able to work from around the in america, world, your location shouldn#8217;t be an issue! Thank you for the encouragement. Loved your article. I am looking for Mystery, an outlet that would accept a piece I#8217;ve written concerning a right-leaning political view of things.

It is an interesting piece but I know must publications are on the left end of the political spectrum. Any ideas? Thanks for your question, Rossana. I don#8217;t know of any outlets off the ethnocentrism, top of my head, but many are interested in diverse ideas and opinions, so I wouldn#8217;t write off all the publications on this list. Another option would be to ask the members of our Facebook community #8212; they may have some ideas! TWL Assistant Editor. If you write conservatism-based pieces, the perfect place for you is

They are a brand new website that is less than 3 months old and they already have 250,000/day, and Essay on The Mystery it#8217;s growing rapidly. They don#8217;t pay for the first 10 articles, but after that, they do. We are always looking for Impure Science: Activism,, more like-minded writers to join us. Find us on facebook at Conservative Push Group and one of the editors/staff will direct you on how to get started. The site primarily supports Ted Cruz, but that#8217;s only one facet. There are categories for everything, including lifestyle, opinion, pro-life etc. Many of the authors, myself included, are getting exposure, especially for Essay Mystery Behind Holes, new writers. The writing on Persuasive, the site is exquisite and we are all like a family.

Come on by and Black check us out. I can#8217;t wait to about System and Sexual Function see what you submit. #128578; try Pick Me Up Magazine. They have a digitized version, too. Mystery Behind Holes? Your list was very helpful-thanks! Thank you for this fantastic list Lisa and for going above and beyond by including the sample essays. This is a very valuable post. I#8217;m not quite sure if I#8217;m here in the right forum (but since I#8217;m here, I may as well continue!) I#8217;m fairly new to #8216;online#8217; writing (I have a total of 10 articles submitted and Essay published online, through 3 different sites).

At some point in on The Behind Holes time here, though, I hope to bring my writing to Bowden a bit of a #8216;higher#8217; level. On The Mystery Behind Black Holes? I have a cousin that has had quite a colorful history in employment, and life in The Nervous and Sexual general, and I am pondering writing about some of these events. He has been an underwater welder (and had gotten the #8216;bends#8217; at Essay on The one time); he#8217;s been a logger here in the rugged U.P. of Michigan (and still does this in his #8220;off#8221; time), and is an airline pilot at Spirit Airlines now (current, but pretty much in the retirement side of about Function, his career). On The? I was thinking about asking him if I could write up something about Essay on AIDS, Activism, and the of Knowledge, this colorful past (and current life, for that matter) that he has had. Can you offer any ideas or advice about Essay on The Mystery, this? Any help would be appreciated. I don#8217;t really know where I want to Essay about Effective Use of Media go, or can go, from this point. Thank you for your time. Jeff, I would look at publications that focus on careers and personal finance. I#8217;ve written a few pieces for The Billfold, which is anything-goes when it comes to jobs, making ends meet, interesting careers, and so on. I always find myself chuckling at The Billfold, too.

It sounds like he#8217;s done a bit of traveling to participate in these lines of work, so you might consider travel sites or regional publications. Essay On The Mystery Behind Black Holes? Think of it as bringing an unexpected line of work or way of life into the light! Good luck- sounds like fun! I believe the New York Times sill has its column Lives, which accepts personal essays. There#8217;s also Global Comment, where they accept a lot of Persuasive Methods are Counterintuitive, different articles, including personal essays. They pay $50 for Essay on The Holes, featured posts. Helpful list! I would add, it has great stories! TWL Assistant Editor. Thanks for sharing this opportunity, Karin! TWL Assistant Editor. Diversification Examples? awesome list.

What are the odds of getting into Tge Sun, or Brevity, or Creative Non-fiction? This is a great place to Mystery Holes start. Thank you. I#8217;m not sure of the odds, Gloria #8212; but if I find a resource, I#8217;ll share it here! TWL Assistant Editor. Coach Bowden Essay? I would encourage you not to Mystery Behind Black worry about the Why Vaccination Persuasive, odds- just submit! I once mentioned that I was looking for Essay on The Black Holes, #8220;smaller#8221; or #8220;more niche#8221; places to pitch than some of my favorite, big-time websites. A colleague asked me what I had to lose by pitching the #8220;big guys.#8221; I didn#8217;t have an ethnocentrism answer for her. #128578; Great point, Lisa #128578; TWL Assistant Editor.

You might want to on The add #8220;; to your list. They pay minimimum and are difficult but6 have published several of my essays. Boston Globe Connections pays $500. Ethnocentrism? I published there in August 2014. Great experience with the Essay on The Black, editor. Thanks for sharing, William! TWL Assistant Editor. I just submitted a piece to Veronica Chao at the Globe for the Connections column. Essay About Effective Social In The? How quickly did she/they get back to you after submission? I heard back four days after sending my submission in Essay Behind Holes and Veronica is the correct person to send your submission to.

What I loved was the custom artwork that goes with your piece. Good luck! Thanks, William! I sent it four days ago, but know she just got promoted to Editor of the Sunday Magazine, so I#8217;m hoping her response-time was pushed back and that I#8217;ll still hear from her. I read your Connections piece. I can see why it was accepted. Wonderful writing and ethnocentrism in america such a fresh idea! hello william, thanks for your post. Behind? I#8217;ve a piece i#8217;ll love to send to No Needles: Why Vaccination Persuasive Methods are Counterintuitive Global connection but i don#8217;t know how to Mystery start because this is my first and i want to make it right.

Can u help me pls. Not sure exactly what you are looking for in terms of help. But your post should be around 650 words and revolve around some type of Essay Effective Use of Media in the Public Library, personal connection that you have made (parent, child, friend, loved one). Send it to and just include a brief bio. Best of luck! Beautiful essay by you.

Loved reading it. Fantastic list and resource. On The Mystery? Thank you! TWL Assistant Editor. We are always looking for great writers as well at BonBon Break.

Thanks for Bowden Essay, sharing, Val! TWL Assistant Editor. I just finished a personal essay. Thank you for the super list. I love the other magazines chiming in with a call for submissions. We#8217;re happy to hear from other magazines as well #8212; it#8217;s great to see so many options for personal essays! Good luck with your submission!

TWL Assistant Editor. You#8217;ll also get a free copy of on The, The Freelance Writers Pitch Checklist.

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Compare Ballet And Jazz Dance Essays and Research Papers. varieties of on The Mystery Black, jazz dance reflect the diversity of American culture. Jazz dance mirrors the social . history of the American people, reflecting ethnic influences, historic events, and cultural changes. Jazz dance has been greatly influenced by social dance and popular music. But, like so much that is from America, the history of about, jazz dance begins somewhere else. Essay On The Mystery! The origins of jazz music and dance are found in the rhythms and movements brought to America by African slaves. The style of African dance is earthy;. African American , Dance , Jazz 2758 Words | 7 Pages. Origins of Jazz Dance in American Culture The varieties of jazz dance reflect the Essay about Effective Use of Social Media Public Library, diversity of . Essay On The Behind Black! American culture. Jazz dance mirrors the social history of the American people, reflecting ethnic influences, historic events and cultural changes. Jazz dance has been greatly influenced by social dance and desired music.

Like so much that is diversification examples, from America, the history of Essay on The Mystery Behind Black, jazz dance commences somewhere else. The origins of Jazz music and dance are found in the rhythms and Essay on Science: AIDS, Activism, Politics of Knowledge movements brought to America. Concert dance , Dance , Dixieland 1294 Words | 4 Pages. ? Dance is a way people can interact with body. If its just to get in shape or just for the love of it.

For instance dancing helps with those . who are troubled or are in Essay on The Mystery Holes stress. By dancing people will start to do it. Why Vaccination Methods! Cause dance is a wonderful hobby enjoyed by many people throughout the Essay on The Black Holes, world. Besides being lots of fun, dancing is good for you, both physically and mentally. Anyone can learn how to dance . it's all a matter of learning how to move your body. The variety of forms of Coach, dance is Essay Holes, overwhelming. Acro dance , Ballet , Concert dance 2385 Words | 10 Pages. Compare and Contrast of Classical Ballet and Modern Dance.

Compare and Contrast of Classical Ballet and Modern Dance Dance is one of the most beautiful, . expressive forms of art known to mankind. It expresses joy, love, sorrow, anger, and the list truly goes on for all the possible emotions that it can convey. Dance not only examples can express how one feels, but it can tell a story or even be used to praise a higher power. Dance has intricately played an important role to every culture over the course of time. Two forms of Essay on The Mystery Black Holes, dance that have not only stood against. Ballet , Dance , Dance therapy 1836 Words | 5 Pages.

Compare and Contrast Chinese Classical Dance and European Classical Ballet. Title: Compare and contrast Chinese classical dance and European Classical ballet . Essay The Nervous And Sexual! Introduction: The main . topic of my research paper is Behind Black, comparing and contrasting the on Impure Science: AIDS, Activism, and the, difference between Chinese Classical dance and Essay Mystery Holes European Classical ballet . Diversification! The questions I will develop in the paper included as follows. The first one is the difference of movement between Chinese classical dance and European Classical ballet . The second one is the difference of Essay Mystery Holes, performance between Chinese classical dance and European. Ballet , China , Classical ballet 926 Words | 3 Pages. Dance Appreciation Erin Leigh 11-10-2005 Jazz Dance Jazz . dance mirrors the social history of the American people, reflecting ethnic influences, historical events, and cultural changes (Kraines, 2005,1).

When I was younger I used to Essay Impure AIDS, and the Politics take dance . Essay Mystery Behind Black Holes! I hated ballet , liked gymnastics, and thought tap was okay; but I loved jazz . Coach Bowden Essay! I took jazz dance three times a week and on The Mystery never complained; it was my life. People all over the world are familiar with jazz dance . Ethnocentrism! Jazz. Acro dance , Bob Fosse , Broadway theatre 2196 Words | 7 Pages. Dance , the Essay Mystery Behind Black, art of precise, expressive, and graceful human movement, traditionally, but not necessarily, performed in accord with musical . accompaniment. Dancing developed as a natural expression of united feeling and action. The Origins of Dance The earliest history of human dance is Impure Science: Activism, and the of Knowledge, a continuing mystery. From the evidence of illustrated ceramic fragments, some archaeologists have speculated that dance originated some 5,000 to 9,000 years ago in early agricultural cultures located in a swath. Competitive dance , Contra dance , Dance 1386 Words | 5 Pages. LeJeune October 12, 2014 English 101 Types of Essay on The Mystery Holes, Dance Styles When a person dances they create a series of rhythmic and . patterned body movements that are usually performed to music.

Rhythm and Proponents' tempo of the music and movements of ones body creates different variations of dance styles. Shoes and outfits help to identify what type of dance is being performed. Essay Holes! Every dancer has their own style. Main types of dance are jazz , ballet , or modern dance . The Nervous Function! Dance is not just a female dominated activity. Many men. Acro dance , Ballet , Concert dance 933 Words | 2 Pages.

comparing and contrasting jazz choreographers. ?Name: Tutor: Course: Date: Comparing and contrasting Jazz choreographers There are a variety of dancing styles in the world today. Some . jazz dances originated from the African American vernacular dances in the 1950s. Some jazz dances can be traced back to the Caribbean communities. Over time, jazz dance has evolved and become a sophisticated type of dance that requires intensive training to attain perfection.

Today, modern jazz choreographers, define the art and the genre as it exists, however. Acro dance , Bob Fosse , Choreography 1214 Words | 4 Pages. ? Jazz dancing involves movements that are specially choreographed to West-African music compositions. Essay On The Black! The movements are termed as . Essay The Nervous System And Sexual! jazz , which is basically an umbrella term, and set to Essay on The Mystery Black 'blues' notes, polyrhythms, improvisations, the 'swung' note, and syncopation. The Jazz form of dancing actually relates to several dance styles that are related, such as ballet , tap, and Essay the African-American rhythms-and- dance styles. This dance form originated in the late 1800s. The trend took time to catch on. Acro dance , African American , Competitive dance 738 Words | 3 Pages.

Jazz Dance : Then and Now Jazz has been around for centuries, starting in the 1600s with the rhythms and Essay Mystery movements . brought to America by African Slaves. Being forced into America, Africans from many cultures were cut off from their families, languages and diversification examples tribal traditions. Essay Black! African cultures intermingled creating a new culture with both African and European elements. African dance has rhythms and movements such as vocal soundings, hand clapping, and foot stomping and tapping. All of these were woven. Bob Fosse , Dance , Jazz 962 Words | 3 Pages. Contemporary Ballet Ballet is a formalized kind of Bowden, performance dance which originated in the Italian . Renaissance Courts of the 15th century and further developed in France, England, and Russia as a concert dance form. One of the genres of ballet is Contemporary. It is defined as a form of dance that is influenced by both classical ballet , modern dance , lyrical, and jazz (Wikipedia). It takes its technique and is used of point work from Behind Black classical ballet , although it permits a greater.

American Ballet Theatre , Ballet , Classical ballet 853 Words | 3 Pages. When school is out, dance students have more time to dedicate to training. Choosing a summer intensive program of study can be a challenge, . though. How do you know if the program you are considering is a good fit for you? Dance Informa spoke with faculty from The Joffrey Academy, Cary Ballet Conservatory, Straz, Jr. Center for No Needles: Proponents' Persuasive the Performing Arts Next Generation and Patel Conservatorys Dance Department to learn more about what constitutes a great summer program and how you can be prepared to get. Ballet , Chicago , Dance 1452 Words | 5 Pages. What is Essay Mystery Behind Black Holes, dance ? Why do we love to diversification examples do it, and Black Holes more importantly where did it come from? Dance is the diversification examples, way we move our bodies to the . rhythm and sound of the music. Its not just a form of exercise; it is a passion, the feeling of Behind Black Holes, expressing yourself through movement.

It is art. There are several types of Essay on Impure of Knowledge, dance such as jazz , ballet , hip hop, lyrical, contemporary, African, along with many other genres. I will give you a general history from where dance came from, and then be more specific when I talk. Acro dance , Ballet , Concert dance 1136 Words | 3 Pages. Origins and on The Holes history of dance Main article: History of dance Dance does not leave behind clearly identifiable . About Effective Use Of Media In The Public! physical artifacts such as stone tools, hunting implements or cave paintings.

It is not possible to say when dance became part of human culture. Black Holes! Dance has certainly been an important part of ceremony, rituals, celebrations and entertainment since before the birth of the earliest human civilizations. Archeology delivers traces of dance from prehistoric times such as the 9,000 year old Rock. Ballroom dance , Ceremonial dance , Competitive dance 1100 Words | 4 Pages. Types of Dance Ballroom Dance : The Ballroom dance is one of the most entertaining and elite styles of in america, dancing. Essay On The Mystery Behind Holes! In . the earlier days, Ballroom dance was only for the privileged class of people. About Effective Media In The! This style of partner dance originated in Germany but is Essay Mystery Black Holes, popular all over the world. Today, the popularity of Ballroom dance has spread to many corners!

This dance includes many other dance styles (Tango, Waltz,Foxtrot, Swing, Cha-cha, Rumba, Samba, Salsa, etc.). There are many dance techniques that have been. Ballet , Classical ballet , Concert dance 1016 Words | 4 Pages. ART OF DANCE NAZ OZBASATAK Giselle Giselle is considered one of the . great Romantic ballets . Romantic era was late 18th and early 19th centuries. The period mainly does not follow rational movements but rather Romantic ideas in art influence the Social Public Library, ballets . Ballets in Romantic period focus on the conflict between man and Essay on The nature where as others try to bring difference to Essay ballets from other nations. On The! Ballerinas stand in Essay on Impure AIDS, Politics the forefront.

Ballet , Classical ballet , Dance 795 Words | 3 Pages. Dance Paper ARTS/100 February 28, 2011 Dance Paper Dance is used as a form of Essay on The Holes, expressing how you feel . through the Bowden, movement of your body through music. Through the different styles of dancing, it can be slow paced, fast paced, mellow, seductive, fun and enjoyable at the same time. The different styles discussed in this paper will show that jazz , ballet , folk, ritual and modern dance are different but similar. Whatever style of dance you choose they all have repetition, form and rhythm. Acro dance , Ceremonial dance , Competitive dance 1644 Words | 5 Pages. Art of Dance Dance is a beautiful form of art that uses the body as its canvas. Classical ballet is a form of . theatrical entertainment that originated among the aristocracy of the sixteenth and seventeenth century royal court of France. In its original form it was performed by Essay on The Behind Holes, trained dancers as well as by on Science: Activism, Politics of Knowledge, members of the court themselves. Essay On The Mystery! Ballet performances were meant to tell silent stories that were often mythical and majestic.

Ballerinas did not use words to tell these stories, but instead relied. American Ballet Theatre , Ballet , Ballets Russes 1200 Words | 4 Pages. * Ballet is a specific academic dance form and technique which is Coach, taught in ballet schoolsaccording to Mystery specific . methods. There are many ballet schools around the Essay about and Sexual, world that specializein various styles of ballet and Essay on The Behind Black different techniques offered. Essay Science: Activism, Politics! Works of dance choreographedusing this technique are called ballets , and Mystery usually include dance , mime, acting, and music(usually orchestral but occasionally vocal). Ballet is best known for its unique features andtechniques, such as pointe work, turn-out of. Ballroom dance , Dance , Dance music 1415 Words | 4 Pages. Ghost Dances Christopher Bruce Theme ---- Political opression in Impure Science: AIDS, Chille His influences include; 1) Being asked to create a piece in memory . of those lost due to chillean political opression.

2) Folkmusic by Inti-illimani. 3) South American traditions, such as the dead living on within other people and Essay on The Mystery Behind Black Holes mask dances . The piece has 7 sections and 11 dancers (5 women and 6 men) Dance style - Folk dance , ballet and modern. Accompaniment: Traditional folk music by Essay on Science: Activism, of Knowledge, inti-illimani. Costume: By. Dance , Dance music , History of dance 916 Words | 4 Pages. Development of Ballet and Pointe Beginning its development in the 1500's-1600's, the Essay on The Behind Black Holes, concept of dance emerged into a beautiful . art, known as ballet . Ballet now proves itself the basic structure to Why Vaccination Persuasive all dance genres, and Mystery Black new styles of dance continue to surface as history continues to write itself. On Impure Activism, And The Of Knowledge! Ballet also represents a new age for women, tired of being in the background and wanting to make a name for women in the arts.

Having great success, women now end up as the majority in ballet and even have. Ballet , Ballet shoes , Choreography 2354 Words | 7 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- History of dance ------------------------------------------------- . Dance does not often leave behind clearly identifiable physical artifacts that last over millennia, such as stone tools, hunting implements or cave paintings. It is not possible to say when dance became part of human culture, which can be called as the Mystery Behind Black Holes, history of dance . ------------------------------------------------- Joseph Jordania recently suggested, that dance , together with rhythmic music and body. Contra dance , Dance , Dance music 1662 Words | 7 Pages. ? Dance is something that everyone knows about, but not many people understand. As an avid dancer and competitor for over ten years, Ive . learned to embrace the examples, many forms of dancing in Essay this world. Its hard to put a single definition on dance it is graceful, it is feminine because there are just too many types of examples, dancing, each with a unique style. What I can say right now, is Essay on The Mystery Behind Black Holes, that dance is a discipline that requires immense control of the Persuasive Methods, body to accurately communicate the on The Behind, intent of the dance. Ballet , Dance , Dance music 820 Words | 6 Pages.

difficult sport of Essay on Impure Science: AIDS, of Knowledge, dance is commonly overlooked. Shanna LaFleur once said, It takes an athlete to dance , but an artist to be a . dancer. Dance expresses strong feelings and emotions through graceful or sharp, powerful movement, revealing to the audience every bit of passion behind it. On The Mystery Behind Holes! Countless forms of dance exist in the world. Jazz , ballet , and tap are the most common. When a person thinks of dance , they think of pink tights and tutus. Bowden Essay! Dance consists of so much more than that. Jazz , one of the most. Bone fracture , Dance , Dance music 887 Words | 3 Pages. History of Dance Speech INTRODUCTION: Once upon a time there was dance ! In dance there are many forms. There is . Ballet , Jazz , Tap, Hip hop, partner dancing, modern, and country and western.

Dance originated many, many years ago. People used it to express emotions and on The Behind Black Holes stories. As time went on about and Sexual, so did new dance techniques. Ballet came into the world around the 15th century Italian Renaissance and it slowly became the backbone for all dancing styles. As Albert Einstein said dancers are the athletes. Ballet , Centuries , Dance 1020 Words | 3 Pages. Classical and Contemporary in Behind Black Holes the Same World Classical ballet is one of the most complex and beautiful forms of expression.

This is Essay System and Sexual, because it . has had many years to on The Holes develop and Essay on Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge evolve. Mystery Holes! Some people believe the art has evolved so much that we have lost the classical aspect of the art form. Most dance companies perform more contemporary works than classical works. This is because more and more people are drifting farther away from diversification classical ballet . One reason for this could be that dancers are not being. Ballet , Classical ballet , Contemporary ballet 1351 Words | 4 Pages. What Is Dance ? Dance is a type of art form in which people use their bodies to express themselves, and usually a . dance is accompanied by Essay Mystery Holes, music. When dancing, a person often tries to diversification express different ideas and emotions with her movements.

Some types of dance can also be used for Behind storytelling. Bowden Essay! Since dancing is a very physically demanding art form, most dancers must work very hard to Black stay physically fit. Examples! This will often include a strict diet, along with a rigorous exercise routine Careers in Dance . Acro dance , Choreography , Dance 1501 Words | 5 Pages. ?Lm89Jazz Jazz is a genre of music that originated in Essay on The Mystery Black African American communities during the late 19th and early 20th century. It emerged in . many parts of the United States in the form of about Effective Use of, independent popular musical styles, and it is linked with African American and European American music. Jazz since its birth have changed and faced with improvisations starting from ragtime till the modern style of the jazz . The birth of Jazz in Essay Mystery Black the multicultural society of America has led intellectuals from around. African American , Bluegrass music , Blues 1000 Words | 4 Pages. The Case Study Of Ballet Philippines. Problem Statement The Ballet Philippines gets its funds from two major sources: ticket-selling and subscription packages or sponsorships. . No Needles: Why Vaccination Proponents' Methods Are Counterintuitive! However, the on The Behind Black, revenues it obtains from these sources are not sufficient to support the about Effective Media Public Library, expenses of the company.

The expenses involved in ballet are quite high. These include the costs of Essay on The Behind Holes, costumes, shoes, tours, performances, training, and examples artists' compensation. The hard truth is that Ballet Philippines is not financially sustainable. The root of Essay on The Mystery Behind Holes, this problem. Ballerina , Ballet , Dance 1323 Words | 4 Pages. Classical and ethnocentrism in america Contemporary Ballet. Assignment #2 Classical and Essay Behind Black Contemporary Ballet After seeing examples of both classical ballet and contemporary . Diversification! ballet , I enjoy watching classical ballet more because I take pleasure in watching fairytales come to life. Classical ballet does just that and much more. Classical ballet is generally structured on Essay on The Mystery Holes, a narrative pretext. It is important that the audience has an understanding of the basic storyline so as to fully understand the complex combination of movement, music and storytelling that.

Ballet , Choreography , Classical ballet 1268 Words | 4 Pages. Live, Love, Dance Every year each kindergarten student at Saint Romans Catholic School present to their class and parents what they want to . On Science: Activism, And The Of Knowledge! be when they grow up. As I sat at my desk and listened to each of my classmates presentations, I noticed that they were all the same. Many of the boys wanted to Behind Holes be a fireman or a police man and many of the girls wanted to be a doctor or a vet. While I was looking around the room at Essay about Effective Social Media in the Library all the Essay on The Mystery Black, other kids costumes, I heard my teachers voice. Ballet , Ballet shoes , Cheerleading 1360 Words | 3 Pages. Fashion or Fashionable Dance : Either way, it works! A Concept Paper Presented to Prof. Robert Rodriguez Division of Essay Effective Use of Social Media, Humanities, College of . Arts and Sciences University of the Essay on The Black, Philippines in the Visayas, Miagao, Iloilo In Partial Fulfillment of the No Needles: Persuasive are Counterintuitive, Requirements For the Course in Communications 2 By Nohr Malynne Tabares February 5, 2013 Theres an exciting fashion trend happening dance . The dance and fashion industries seem to be increasingly joining forces, with dance companies commissioning. Dance , Fashion , Irish dance 1708 Words | 4 Pages. Late last Saturday day night, on April 14,2012, I attended the very first dance concert at John Anthony Theater at Collin College Spring Creek . Campus.

This concert was performed by Collin Dance Ensemble, which is a vibrant company that performs innovative contemporary modern dance . Their goal is to Essay on The Behind produce dance works at examples the highest level of Mystery Behind, artistic excellence. The dance company attends and performs at the American College Dance Festival annually and has been selected for the Gala Performance at the. Audience , Ballet , Collin County Community College District 1307 Words | 5 Pages. The Dance Captain is a member of the company who maintains the artistic standards of on AIDS, Activism, Politics, all Choreography and/or musical staging in Mystery Behind a production. . The Dance Captain shall always work in tandem with the Stage Manager in on Impure AIDS, Activism, Politics conveying and maintaining the creative intentions of the production. The Dance Captain is a member of the company who maintains the artistic standards of all choreography and/or musical staging in a production. The Dance Captain shall always work in tandem with the Stage Manager in conveying. Choreography , Dance , Dance studio 1841 Words | 5 Pages. The Similarities Between Classical Music and Ellington's Jazz. debasing of the Jazz genre as a unworthy equal to Essay Mystery Black Holes it's predecessor, European Classical music.

This can be seen in various statements about about The Nervous and Sexual . Jazz , such as Boris Gibalin commit, The Jazz Mania has taken on the character of Essay Mystery Black Holes, a lingering illness and must be cured by means of forceful intervention.1 This conflict can be traced through out the history of Essay Effective in the Public, Jazz , as Classical composers have relatively disregarded this new type of music. Before Duke Ellington's Cotton Club performances, Jazz play on the radio. Blues , Classical music , Jazz 2444 Words | 6 Pages. in 1983 is on The, based on Catalan folk tales. No Needles: Why Vaccination Proponents' Methods Are Counterintuitive! The work explores the hardship and sorrow of the Catalonian people as they struggle working in the barren, water . stricken Catalonian land. Throughout Jardi Tancat you can see the presentation of contemporary dance , with a background of classical techniques; this is evident through the training accompanied. Throughout the performance you can see the influence of social, historical and cultural climate. Also the on The Mystery Black Holes, choreographers background, philosophical underpinnings. 19th century , Ballet , Catalan language 842 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and No Needles: Proponents' Persuasive Contrast the Baroque Music and Jazz. Four Seasons It is Essay on The Behind Black, difficult to define Jazz music, as there are many different styles and movements.

A brief definition of Jazz . would be: American music that originated in New Orleans around 1900 and characterized by propulsive syncopated rhythms, polyphonic ensemble playing, improvisatory, virtuosic solos, melodic freedom, and a harmonic idiom ranging from simple diatonicism through chromaticism to atonality. Diversification Examples! 1 But this does not tell everything about Jazz . Jazz developed from Ragtime around 1900 and. Baroque music , Counterpoint , Harmony 1859 Words | 7 Pages. How Dance Has Affected Me If I had to give one reason why . dance has changed my life, I would say that it's because it gave me so much within the numbered dance we had together. When I was 5 years old I asked my mother if I could join ballet . I had been growing obsessed with it for Essay on The Behind Black the past year of my life. I loved to watch videos of Essay about Use of Media Public, ballet recitals that my cousin Lucy had performed in.

I was extremely jealous of her. Holes! She was. Cheerleading , Dance , Social dance 1263 Words | 3 Pages. Rite of Spring, an Illustration of Modern Dance. ?Parth Patel May 2, 2014 Dance 111 Final Paper Pina Bausch's Rite of Spring With over Essay on Science: and the Politics of Knowledge 7 billion people living worldwide, there is one . thing that everyone can appreciate and that is dance . Essay On The Behind Black Holes! No matter your race, gender, religious background, etc. On Science: AIDS,! dance is one of the few things that everyone can enjoy.

Despite being around since the beginning of Essay on The Mystery Black, time, dance has a way of evolving into various forms to on AIDS, Activism, and the captivate viewers, which is why it is one of the most beautiful forms of art that we as a population. Dance , Doris Humphrey , Igor Stravinsky 829 Words | 4 Pages. Ballet is one of the most beautiful, graceful dances known to the dancing world. From the Essay, tutu to Essay on Impure Science: AIDS, the pointe shoes the need to Essay on The Mystery Holes . Examples! see the expression of the steps given. Black! Being able to see how the illusion of a flying princess is one of the most mysteries that come with a ballet show. The history of Ballet has evolved into one of the most well-known type of dances in Essay Function the world this is from only the men having roles in the ballet to women being able to Essay Behind express emotion. History Then: Ballet started in.

Ballet , Dance , Pointe shoes 1455 Words | 4 Pages. HISTORY OF BALLET The history of ballet could be traced back before the 16th . century when it was first presented in France at the court of Catherine de Medici in diversification 1581 ( Ballet History, 2012). It was a presentation of movement, music, decor, and special effects initiated and Essay on The Mystery Behind Black Holes organized by ethnocentrism in america, the violinist Balthasar de Beaujoyeux ( Ballet History, 2012). The said presentation was entitled Le Ballet comique de la Reine, the highly influenced the English court. Ballet , Ballet d'action , Ballets Russes 1499 Words | 5 Pages. Colombia has several folkloric/traditional music styles/ dances . Essay Black Holes! One of the Essay Impure Activism,, most popular is the Cumbia. Cumbia have spread to other countries. . When danced in shows for the public the on The Holes, dancers wear clothing that were used in old times: Men would wear white pants and shirts, a hat (usually the style that used to be hand made), a large colorful handkerchief, handmade style sandals, and a machete (a large knife used to on Science: and the Politics of Knowledge cut plants). Women would wear colorful long skirts (often black with decorations and. Colombia , Cumbia , Dance 943 Words | 3 Pages.

Prof. Silvia Ballet Discriminatory Diversity Everyone cannot make it into the entertainment business. Specifically not everybody can become . a dancer. It takes pure talent, and the natural ability to be great at dancing. On top of Essay Mystery Behind Black, that many professional dance companies want the whole package. Yes dance companies choose people based on talent, but they unfairly make decisions on whom they want in their company based on discriminatory diversity. Why Vaccination Are Counterintuitive! I know many great dancers who will dance circles around. African American , American Ballet Theatre , Ballet 1510 Words | 4 Pages.

Emily Whittaker Cause amp; Affect Rough Draft Word Count: 1,081 (Essay itself) Ballerinas: Behind the Tutus and on The Black Glamor When people attend the . exquisite performances of ballet recitals most are captivated by their form, how they maneuver ever so gracefully like a leaf falling from a tree in Proponents' Methods are Counterintuitive the autumn months, their beauty and Mystery Behind how on Essay Effective Social Public Library, stage they can appear to on The Behind Black Holes be anything they desire. However, behind the glamor, the slippers, the makeup, lies an Function, eminent issue affecting these performers. Ballerinas. Anorexia nervosa , Ballerina , Ballet 1311 Words | 4 Pages. High school dance isnt your typical studio.

the basics of dance , but teams will differ based on Essay Mystery Behind Holes, who they are dancing for. High school dance teams are more team oriented and . are better for the dancer than being on a studio dance team. About In The Library! First off, the amount of time the dancers spend with each other and the bonds they make differ from Essay Holes studio to dance team. Ethnocentrism! They styles each use also differ, from the on The Mystery Black, technique they use to the types of dance themselves. The Nervous Function! Lastly, the way each competition is run and how the Mystery Behind Black, judges judge each type of dance differ. I myself. Acro dance , Cheerleading , Competitive dance 2154 Words | 7 Pages. Ballet from No Needles: 16th Century France to Russia By: Jamie Gorman History of Dance 10/29/2010 I have chosen to write my . paper on ballet . I will begin with sixteenth century court dance and will work up to classical ballet in Russia during the late nineteenth century.

I have researched the topics of footwork, location, monetary support, style, the dancers, cultural influences, costumes, shoes, and gender roles. In Italy during the sixteenth century, ballet was common place in the court circles. Ballet , Choreography , Dance 1579 Words | 5 Pages. The History of on The Mystery Behind Holes, Ballet The first experience of watching a ballet , for me or any little girl, can be fascinating and . exhilarating. Wondering how a dancer can be so steady on her toes as she spins in circles and leaps through the air. Watching a ballet , there is a feeling of wanting to be graceful, as well as the warm sensation felt by a little girl as she slips into dream land.

My mom had taken me to my first ballet when I was 11 years old. When we returned home home, she signed me up for classes. Ballerina , Ballet , Choreography 1108 Words | 3 Pages. Kulenovic Period 4 The History of Ballet Ballet is a form of dancing performed for diversification examples theatre audiences. Like other . dance forms, ballet may tell a story, express a mood, or simply reflect the music.

But a ballet dancer's technique (way of performing) and special skills differ greatly from those of otherdancers. On The Behind Black! Ballet dancers perform many movements that are unnatural for Coach the body. But when these movements are well executed, they look natural. The beginnings of ballet can be traced to Italy during the. Ballet , Ballets Russes , Dance 1399 Words | 4 Pages. ?LaShante Cox Dr. C. Essay On The Mystery! Dance History 9/29/14 PEARL PRIMUS How were the struggles for acceptance in modern dance concert similar . for Persuasive are Counterintuitive Edna Guy and Pearl Primus?

How were they different? Refer specifically to the critics reviews referenced above. Does race or cultural heritage of a dancer/choreographer in on The Mystery Behind Black twenty first century performance venues affect the critics interpretation of the in america, dance works evaluated? What stereotypes are operating in Essay on The Mystery Behind Black dances performed today? Can you find specific examples. Ballet , Black people , Dance 1626 Words | 5 Pages.

Alvin Ailey American Dance Theatre. American Dance Theater June 11th 2012 Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater is based in New York City and The Nervous System Function is personally my . Essay Mystery Behind! favorite dance company, their choreography is just incredible and Essay The Nervous I love to watch them perform. The company was founded in 1958; this was incredible because of the intense prejudice taking place at this time, not only were they a black company but they created a unique new kind- of dance mixing together for the first time; ballet , traditional African American dance , and. Alvin Ailey , Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater , Ballet 1329 Words | 4 Pages. explore the history and development of Jazz as a popular musical style. It will identify ways in which this knowledge can inform brand . management thinking. It will examine the essential links between the on The Black, past and present and appreciate its value as a brand management tool. It will reflect upon the role and importance of diversification examples, history in Behind Holes connection to Jazz music and describe how this knowledge can be as a brand management tool.

It will explore where the Bowden, genre of jazz began, how it developed, what influences. Bebop , Blues , Dizzy Gillespie 1870 Words | 6 Pages. Speaking Through the Essay on The Mystery, Movement of Dance. Speaking Through the Movement of Dance Summary: Many people think of dance as human communication at its most basic level. . Some form of dance can be found in every culture, regardless of its location or stage of development. It is easy to see that dance is a natural, universal human activity. But what most people overlook to see is diversification examples, that dance can be found as a form of writing just like any other genre out there.

So this explains how and why dance is a form of writing, and goes specially. Choreography , Dance , Dance music 956 Words | 3 Pages. Cohen. What is Mystery Holes, Dance ? pg 1 -Understand the three basic art theories being discussed -Aristotle is responsible for about The Nervous System and Sexual Function what part of Western . Essay On The Black Holes! Storytelling/Narrative -Focus on Essay on Impure and the Politics, the arguments of Martin, Levinson, Goodman, Sparshott 2. Sklar. Essay Mystery Behind Holes! Five Premises for a Culturally Sensitive Approach to Dance pg 30 -Understand the five premises and their importance to discussing dance cross culturally -Be able to define Empathic Kinesthetic Perception 3. Dils and on Impure Science: AIDS, of Knowledge Albright. Looking at World Dance Pg 92 -Understand. Charleston , Competitive dance , Dance 833 Words | 4 Pages. India portal | * v * t * e | Dance in India comprises the varied styles of dances in the country. As with other . aspects of on The Behind Black Holes, Indian culture, different forms of dances originated in different parts of India, developed according to the local traditions and also imbibed elements from Essay about Use of Social Public other parts of the country.[1] Sangeet Natak Akademi, the national academy for performing arts, recognizes eight distinctive traditional dances as Indian classical dances , which might have origin in religious activities. Bollywood , Dance , Dance in Essay Behind Black India 2109 Words | 7 Pages. I. Ballet Philippines II.

Executive Summary The case is about the Essay Effective Social Media, ballet performer status in the Philippines and also . the turnover and salary of the performers and how to deal with the turnovers in lack of promotions. III. Background of the Case Founded in 1969 by Alice Reyes with the Essay on The Mystery Behind Holes, support of on Science: Activism, and the, Eddie Elejar and Essay Behind Holes the Cultural Center of the Philippines, Ballet Philippines (BP) is widely recognized today as a cornerstone of the Filipino cultural identity. Its audience represents. Ballet , Classical ballet , Glossary of ballet 938 Words | 3 Pages. his technical ability with various dance bands, he was still relatively unknown in the early 30's when he began to focus exclusively on the . Clarinet while Swing music began to grow in The Nervous Function popularity. While we may carefully analyze the two pieces to Essay on The Mystery Behind satisfy our curiosity regarding musical evolution in in america Jazz , we should also not lose sight of the fact that these are two very enjoyable styles of music.

From the lively swing orchestras inspiring large audiences to dance , to the softer Bossa Nova sound which. Artie Shaw , Big band , Bossa nova 1094 Words | 3 Pages. mathematics, and physics behind ballet . Ballet originated in on The Holes the Italian Renaissance courts during the 15th century. Noblemen . and women attended special events, such as wedding celebrations, where dancing and music were considered an elaborate spectacle. Dancing masters taught the steps to the nobility and the court participated in the performances. In the about Effective Social Media, 16th century, Catherine de Medici, an Italian noblewoman and the wife of King Henry II of France, funded ballet within the French Court. A century. Angular momentum , Ballet , Classical mechanics 1548 Words | 5 Pages. ? IN-DEPTH ASSIGNMENT Dance , when you're broken open. Essay Mystery Holes! Dance , if you've torn the bandage off.

Dance in about System Function the . middle of the fighting. Dance in Essay on The Mystery your blood. No Needles: Persuasive! Dance when you're perfectly free. Famous philosopher Rumi made an excellent point especially when concerning the lives of Rudolf Nureyev and Mikhail Baryshnikov. They both danced through war, they danced through heart ache, and they danced through tears. Even though Nureyev, born March 17, 1938, lived through an earlier period of time than Baryshnikov. Ballet , Dance , Mikhail Baryshnikov 1635 Words | 5 Pages. American Music and Culture : Jazz Dance.

Culture: Jazz Dance Jazz dance , is defined as . any dance to jazz accompaniments, composed of a profusion of forms. Jazz dance paralleled the on The Behind Holes, birth and spread of jazz itself from roots in black American society and was popularized in ballrooms by the big bands of the swing era (1930s and 40s). It radically altered the style of American and European stage and social dance in the 20th century. The term is sometimes used more narrowly to describe popular stage dance (except tap dance ) and examples jazz -derived. Acro dance , Concert dance , Dance 2081 Words | 8 Pages.