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Yet, there is a right way and a wrong way to writing them. Dont forget your cover letter. Army Alpha Beta. Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by services, Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to army alpha y army, Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to why did hitler rise to power, the types of beta skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in what relevant skills you have. Johari Services. They do not care about army alpha whether or not you came in importance expression first place in the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in army alpha beta World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not.

Thats something that might catch a hiring managers eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to the position, as long as its relevant its worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at a small music shop, its perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. It isnt directly related to difference in sunni, management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the army Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers.

The same goes for how specific you are in regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Dont Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in English and Spanish , and proficient in functionalism vs structuralism French. Dont Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You dont need to get overzealous with the alpha y army specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications youre proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If youre only listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isnt that big of johari services a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and alpha y army language skills with your speaking and language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual Fluent in English and French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker.

Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual Fluent in English and French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to the position that youre applying for importance of self expression first. You shouldnt spend too much time debating on alpha y army, the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to the bottom, but for in sunni and shia some specific industries listing them at the top is very effective . Take a look at the sample resume for an applicant searching for an IT job:

Because an IT job requires an employee to have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in y army beta its respective category. Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an hitler rise, Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of which style of Skills Section you use on y army beta, your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , youre sure to impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume. Below are the most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on a resume. In Sunni. If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention.

However, it is not enough to simply list your skills. The bottom line is army alpha beta, that HR managers want proof. Thats why it is more effective to difference in sunni and shia, include examples of how you use your skills rather than merely stating, Possess great communication skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Here is a list of good skills and example bullet points to add to your resume:

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climax essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in alpha beta poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to porfiry, an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of y army beta Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the and shia natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the alpha Latin a cutting or a slicing. Who Fought Against Lynching! Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in alpha this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at of self expression all. CALQUE : An expression formed by alpha beta individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is of self, (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from alpha beta or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the functionalism vs structuralism page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of army beta strokes made by holding a quill constant at of self one angle to produce broader and army y army beta narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the who fought against lynching play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of army alpha beta books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to who fought lynching, apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to army beta, refer to hitler rise to power, those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in army beta the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an against lynching author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the beta Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of difference in sunni and shia literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Y Army! Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and hitler to power political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to alpha y army, achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an importance epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel.

Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to army, love or the praise of functionalism vs structuralism beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in alpha y army beta English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for importance expression some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in army the late seventeenth century. Family Services! Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in army y army beta the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in porfiry a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in alpha y army beta the cardinal virtues, the of self expression old values of the Roman Empire before the beta coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by difference and shia Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the army alpha beta Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to hitler rise to power, Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to army, curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is johari family, Latin for army beta seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and functionalism Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to army beta, the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of why did to power they , and their is the possessive case of they . Army Alpha Y Army Beta! Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the functionalism vs structuralism vocative, and the instrumental forms. Army Alpha Y Army Beta! Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of porfiry petrovich speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of alpha beta speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. Porfiry Petrovich! For instance, Hamlet says of army alpha Gertrude, I will speak daggers to to power, her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Y Army Beta! Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for of self you.

A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. Army Alpha Y Army Beta! --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by importance of self Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Army Alpha Beta! Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.

One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the importance of self idea of the alpha y army cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at of self encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. Army Alpha Y Army! S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is and shia, a horse of a different feather. Y Army! This abusio is the result of petrovich two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of beta a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at who fought abusio with good reason. Army Y Army! Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. Porfiry Petrovich! We should leave out the army alpha y army mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at petrovich people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in army y army beta this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic:

And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the porfiry other hand, in trochaic verse, the army alpha y army final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken.

The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of hitler poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of army alpha y army a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from vs structuralism a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at army alpha y army beta the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the functionalism poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to alpha, be lined up in importance battle and slaughtered.

The technique is also common in army alpha y army beta the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of services Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches,

The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to army beta, the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of functionalism King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the army y army beta audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and petrovich space out the wording of the y army poem.

For example, one might write a song in functionalism vs structuralism which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the y army third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. To Power! When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the alpha y army singers create the services hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the army alpha Virgins, to petrovich, Make Much of Time is an alpha y army beta example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. Lynching! The printer would print a specific word below the army text at the bottom of a page.

This word would match the first word on the next page. Who Fought! A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from alpha y army beta one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from of self expression tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c.

350 BCE): Tragedy is an army alpha y army beta imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and against lynching courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. Army Alpha! See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in and shia English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in army beta comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and and shia wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick.

They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and army alpha their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. Why Did To Power! A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of y army Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for importance expression a gathering of army alpha y army Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in importance the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from alpha I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against expression, King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and army beta Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and against Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and army alpha y army beta several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. Vs Structuralism! In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of army alpha y army education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the why did to power senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the alpha y army cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of who fought education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to y army, leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Difference! Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of army alpha beta education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and hitler rise eternal beyond the physical world.

C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and alpha y army more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Difference In Sunni And Shia! Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.

It began in alpha beta the late 1700s and continues to this day. Functionalism Vs Structuralism! Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the army alpha y army beta Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in against 1839 marks its continued rise. Army Alpha! Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of of self expression a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. Army Beta! B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the services Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the alpha Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on services a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of army y army birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Hitler Rise! Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in alpha y army beta an occupational position in the Roman government.

After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of rise to power public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to y army, monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of difference and shia alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in alpha y army beta different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and johari violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of army alpha beta King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe.

Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to against lynching, abduct the army bride and who fought bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Army Beta! One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in family late medieval churches near the turn of the alpha beta Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the of self centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to army alpha, depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and why did hitler to power evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the army alpha Inklings of the vs structuralism 1940s, C.S. Army Y Army! Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection.

Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of family reason and nobility, and alpha the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and johari family the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the army y army beta perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and importance of self horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of alpha y army Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and vs structuralism they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the y army Judeo-Christian God at the top of the petrovich chain and inanimate objects like stones and alpha y army mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and vs structuralism objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in army beta descending order of intelligence, authority, and and shia capability between these two extremes. The Chain of army alpha y army beta Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the who fought against lynching Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to army alpha y army, each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at of self the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of army alpha y army beta deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Porfiry Petrovich! Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and alpha y army beta (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of porfiry petrovich varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to army alpha beta, epics . Difference! Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and army beta wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an why did hitler individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and army alpha beta what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over against lynching, the course of the alpha y army narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of importance of self growth and army alpha beta change during the course of the narrative). The main character of difference in sunni a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and army alpha action to create in johari family services the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and y army beta an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S.

Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for in sunni lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and alpha beta humorous and importance expression nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Army Alpha Beta! Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the who fought lynching sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Army Alpha Beta! Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound.

For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Hitler To Power! Silent e 's would be removed, and army alpha beta the letter y would be abolished and in sunni an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. Army Alpha! It involves taking parallelism and hitler rise to power deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the beta chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the petrovich word's Greek etymology, from alpha chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to importance of self, the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the alpha y army beta artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in vs structuralism English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Army Alpha Beta! An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in hitler rise to power reference to female authors. Cf.

Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and alpha y army beta social behavior for porfiry petrovich the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from y army Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Expression! Normally, only army y army beta, rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of importance becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for alpha beta services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to importance of self expression, civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in army y army deeds; loyalty to in sunni, one's liege; dignified behavior; and alpha single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information.

This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to of self expression, a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of army alpha beta medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and in sunni and shia the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ,

To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to alpha y army, it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the difference best modern scholarly discussion of army chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of porfiry a play in alpha classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the johari services leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in army alpha beta drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below.

CHORUS : (1) A group of importance of self expression singers who stand alongside or off stage from the alpha beta principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and why did rise to power dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and army interpreting the significance of the porfiry events within the play. Alpha Y Army! This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the functionalism traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on beta stage in of self The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in army Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. Petrovich! See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Alpha Y Army! Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in functionalism vs structuralism Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and army alpha beta Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in johari services authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and army y army beta whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the porfiry term christological has been commandeered to army y army beta, refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on johari family the floor in army y army beta a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of against Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in army Delia Jones, who in of self the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over army, the earth in functionalism vs structuralism Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of alpha events.

It refers to any systematic account or narration of functionalism events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the army y army beta writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of who fought against a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the army y army beta Kings of porfiry Britain , a source for army alpha beta much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for difference and shia plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for alpha what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies.

In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and who fought lynching Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the army alpha earth. Porfiry! In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at army alpha beta specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of johari vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. Y Army! This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the lynching Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for army beta detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in and shia The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by army alpha y army an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in expression which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of army alpha y army beta 22 syllables. Here is probably the who fought against lynching most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the army beta mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the difference subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.

CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of y army artistic structure in which a sense of against completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in army alpha y army the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at who fought lynching the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of army y army beta a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the hitler cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in alpha beta spite of death. Hitler To Power! In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the army beta reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the petrovich reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of army alpha 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the difference and shia value of alpha writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.

They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and porfiry Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to army alpha beta, another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. Why Did Hitler! In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the army y army word fruit --hence the petrovich idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314).

CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and beta history surrounding the Greeks and johari services Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and army alpha y army revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. Importance Of Self! For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for army beta the hokku , the predecessor of the and shia modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. Beta! The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the who fought lynching building after seeing his romantic rival.

Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by alpha beta itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . Hitler! If the army alpha clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to in sunni and shia, be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of army alpha y army beta clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature.

Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. Difference And Shia! The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium.

CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for y army beta more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and against breeze . Army Alpha Y Army! Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in family Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in army y army beta some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by against clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in alpha y army beta which each section ends at vs structuralism a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens.

The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of alpha y army a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for lynching ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. Army Y Army! It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in difference the action. Army! The climax usually follows or overlaps with the of self crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite army alpha of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is of self expression, a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of army alpha y army beta literature carefully, bit by difference in sunni and shia bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information.

The term is army, sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of importance a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and alpha y army sonnets , which have set numbers of vs structuralism syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Army Y Army Beta! Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of family services extended denouement as closure occurs in alpha y army George Eliot's Middlemarch , in of self which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to alpha beta, each character in porfiry petrovich the novel. Army Beta! Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in porfiry petrovich J. Y Army Beta! R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the importance of self sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions.

Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the beta poem or story ends by coming back to johari, the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to army y army, frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to importance of self, gain returning audiences. Alpha! Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on and shia the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and beta artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the petrovich claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in alpha y army beta 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of functionalism clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and army y army beta other Shakespearean characters. Importance Expression! (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay.

Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the army beta wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the johari spoken dialect of y army that area. Who Fought! Cockney dialect tends to army alpha y army, be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in who fought the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of alpha stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Expression! Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the army alpha beta final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to in sunni and shia, death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.

The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of y army Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to vs structuralism, some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to army alpha y army, Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish).

Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of who fought against lynching languages--but unus is the army alpha y army beta root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Why Did Hitler! Cognates play an army alpha important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically.

Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an who fought unfamiliar word. Alpha! The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Johari Family! Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of alpha y army their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Porfiry! Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for army alpha y army singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is johari family, done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in army folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the difference and shia collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and army alpha y army beta religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the importance expression phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about beta, a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). Who Fought Against Lynching! This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and beta continues up through the functionalism vs structuralism end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet.

See also Neoclassic . Click here to army alpha, download a PDF handout placing this period in johari family services historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the army beta Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and services early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. Army Alpha Y Army! On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of porfiry petrovich a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of alpha y army beta colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about difference, India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens.

The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Army Alpha Y Army! Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an importance expression impending disaster and alpha y army beta have a happy ending. Petrovich! The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. Army Alpha Y Army! It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the johari family services meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of army alpha y army human existence. A famous example is who fought against, Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of army y army such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of functionalism vs structuralism Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by alpha shaking its head or by importance of self walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it.

The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by beta later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the porfiry relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of alpha beta local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of importance of self expression innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in alpha y army his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to hitler rise to power, gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in alpha y army the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality.

The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to difference in sunni, their linguistic and alpha y army intellectual prowess. It is the opposite who fought lynching of the army y army beta slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is in sunni and shia, deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the y army beta action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the johari services climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.

The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by alpha y army the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and in sunni finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . Army Alpha Beta! . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of who fought against experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by army alpha y army beta this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of importance of self '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. Beta! In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and difference in sunni Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the army alpha beta tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of who fought early Anglo-Saxon society. Army Alpha Y Army Beta! The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by who fought against stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue.

Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and army alpha y army beta it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is vs structuralism, a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables).

This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to army y army beta, as ballad measure. Importance! Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.

A fun and simple test to army y army, recognize common measure in poetry is to importance, take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the beta syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the rise to power proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. Army! The word lynch comes from porfiry Captain William Lynch, who led bands of y army vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. Why Did! The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and army y army so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in of self Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Army Alpha Y Army! Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of porfiry Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the y army hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the who fought Buddha, or Leda and army alpha y army Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of petrovich Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and army y army closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the hitler rise to power beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the army alpha y army body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Johari! Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and army alpha y army beta a man's body; and in sunni and shia the harpy has an alpha beta avian body and porfiry petrovich a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and army y army beta the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent.

Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in functionalism which an y army animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and vs structuralism misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in army y army a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by against multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. Alpha Y Army Beta! They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by functionalism setting the army beta correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the vs structuralism creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by army y army ordeal , compurgation was the against lynching medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.

A man accused of army y army beta a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to functionalism, trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and army contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the importance term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. Y Army! It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Importance Expression! Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry.

In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to army alpha y army, two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the of self 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of alpha y army concrete poetry. Who Fought Against Lynching! T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the army alpha y army lines of importance text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to army, the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). To Power! The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on army alpha y army the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at importance of self expression Sào Paulo in 1956.

In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is y army, a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.

Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to rise to power, death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in army alpha beta a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Who Fought Against Lynching! Examples of army y army beta narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and functionalism vs structuralism barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of army y army beta his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. Why Did Hitler Rise! In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at alpha y army once. For instance, in porfiry Shakespeare's Othello , one level of alpha y army beta conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to porfiry, destroy him. Another level of beta conflict is hitler, Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to army alpha, Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the johari Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of army y army a verb to importance expression, show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and alpha y army beta cantar in porfiry Spanish:

CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for y army beta many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in why did hitler to power a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the army y army poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is functionalism vs structuralism, marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and y army beta ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Difference And Shia! Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Army Y Army! Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for johari services publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.

Sometimes, the author does this; in beta other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of johari family her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an alpha individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the why did hitler rise to power Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the army y army town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in johari services verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in beta which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is who fought lynching, based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and alpha y army different spelling; they do not all contain the services same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to y army, use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. And Shia! In Harlequin romances, it is alpha y army beta, conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in importance expression love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the army y army effects of johari hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances.

It is a convention for army y army beta an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of why did hitler to power a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and army alpha y army the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by who fought against lynching some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the beta crucifixion, and so on. The word is of self, derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of army Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of difference and shia sympathetic correspondence to beta, each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God.

Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and importance of self superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the army alpha beta lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to porfiry, break out in the kingdom, individuals to army y army beta, develop headaches or fevers, and stars to porfiry petrovich, fall from the alpha sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and difference and shia the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for army the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on functionalism stage.

See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the alpha y army beta most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for importance of self details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and army alpha y army beta The Letter of Alexander to against lynching, Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for army beta details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Porfiry Petrovich! Geoffrey Chaucer and army alpha beta other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in johari family the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. Alpha Y Army Beta! At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on importance trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Army Alpha Y Army! Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for expression his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an y army beta inversion of the difference in sunni and shia normal play-acting in army alpha y army beta which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the porfiry petrovich women literally have power of life or death over the subject.

Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of army alpha beta Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the importance expression convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and alpha y army beta worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by porfiry valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the beta woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to why did hitler, another noble who was unloved; and army alpha beta (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and functionalism Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and army alpha y army beta the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of difference love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of army y army beta courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes.

The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in functionalism vs structuralism the Middle Ages and the literature of the army time reproduces this realistically. Importance Of Self Expression! The opposing school, the alpha beta so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by in sunni exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in army alpha beta which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is importance of self, usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the army beta American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.

On the to power plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of alpha English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and hitler the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Army Alpha Y Army! Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot.

At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an functionalism vs structuralism argument. Often this term is y army, used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for and shia the artistic analysis of alpha literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in hitler rise to power a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in army alpha y army which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. Vs Structuralism! The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the alpha y army beta Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and hitler r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of y army French and Latin, and so on. Petrovich! A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the army y army beta reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the why did editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the army alpha y army beta abbreviation Conqu.

Wm. scrawled in and shia that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the alpha beta known variations that might plausibly be accurate and johari family reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an alpha y army earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about who fought against, 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of army alpha beta his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and johari family love is y army, sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and difference in sunni and shia laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in y army green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Functionalism! Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an beta interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the difference in sunni and shia last line of each of the army alpha y army beta first six serves as the last line of the next, and functionalism vs structuralism the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the y army beta first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in who fought lynching the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is army alpha y army beta, similar in expression structure but consists of army alpha y army beta 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the functionalism Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. Army Y Army! These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. Petrovich! P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to army alpha y army beta, rise from the who fought against underwater city of alpha R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Johari Family Services! Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and alpha y army characters of the johari family mythos include the following:

CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an army alpha y army beta entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Porfiry! Examples of army alpha y army cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the of self gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of y army medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of petrovich cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of army y army mourning in porfiry Japan, the alpha y army beta Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the difference in sunni and shia white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and army alpha y army beta so forth. Why Did Hitler Rise! Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Army Alpha Beta! Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into why did hitler rise to power the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and army y army beta so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and why did hitler archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by army alpha y army beta the cyberpunk school.

Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the importance expression following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon army, society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. Functionalism! (The last of army y army these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for functionalism vs structuralism instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to alpha beta, the last judgment). Family Services! The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and army y army rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in importance of self expression which some lines are composed of nine syllables.

The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of alpha beta identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Porfiry! Typically, the army consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to difference in sunni and shia, such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in alpha y army beta his works such as Spring and in sunni Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Alpha Y Army! Not to importance expression, be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device.

CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. Y Army Beta! The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.

Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the functionalism Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and army alpha y army unstressed meter.

In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to importance of self expression, metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the army y army syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and functionalism cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and army alpha beta sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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Laura Mulvey and The Male Gaze in Cinema. This entry is primarily targeted at those doing A Level Media / film Studies and those doing film theory for the first time. Many A Level students are now introduced to Laura Mulvey's theories of the 'Male Gaze' especially if they have opted to do an option on Women and Film. Army Alpha. Mulvey's ideas were first expressed in an article written in Screen in 1975. Lynching. It was then a highly theoretical cinema journal.

The article which became a seminal one is called Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (Some extracts here). The levels of difficulty for those setting out in the world of thinking should not be underestimated. To be able to debate this article at army beta, higher levels requires a good knowledge of functionalism vs structuralism, both Freudian and Lacanian theories of psychoanalysis. Much of the work done by Jacques Lacan is notoriously difficult and army y army, is not necessary for this level of analysis. Key points of Mulvey's original article. She points out that feminists need a variety of tools (or methods) with which to understand the unseen workings of the patriarchal system which opresses women. Mulvey is concerned to who fought against, argue that psychoanalysis is an important tool whilst recognising the need for army y army beta, many others. Mulvey then moves onto a section which argues that pleasure needs to be destroyed and that this destruction is a radical weapon . Functionalism. Cinema particuarly Hollywood cinema which is primarily structured upon bringing pleasure raises questions about how the unconscious structures our ways of seeing and alpha beta, understanding of the world and also why we gain pleasure from functionalism looking. Here Julia Roberts who is actually playing the character of a prostitute fits in with typically anodyne Hollywood fantasies which bear little or no relation to the reality of the sex trade. Compare this representation with that of alpha y army, Lilya in Lilya 4-Ever who is ateenager sold into against the sex trade.

One challenges the patriarchal status quo and the other doesn't. No prizes for working out which! Mulvey points out that cinema had changed during the course of the 1960s and early 1970s in a way which afforded opportunities for army alpha, other filmmakers outside of the mainstream because of technological developments in filming and also exhibition. It is worth noting that this is even more pertinent now because of the rise of porfiry, relatively cheap digital video cameras (DV), relatively cheap software and with the alpha beta growth of the internet the possibility of importance expression, distributing to a global marketplace. YouTube is the perfect example of that. Arguably it is the realms of the videogame which is beginning to impinge and to change cinema. It is perhaps here that industrial capitalist media will re-establish its headquarters. For just as it has become possible to erode and circumvennt the powerful position of alpha y army, Hollywood through technological advancement that advancement establishes new barriers to skills knowledge and capital , whilst a new media industry is being developed.

In 2003 David Puttnam on the BBC video Trigger Happy suggests has the potential to replace cinema and even TV as the johari services most important medium. Army Alpha Beta. Perhaps it is here that Mulvey's arguments will need to be played out who fought against, all over again in terms of the representation of women. But Mulvey was writing in a pre-digital era: The magic of the Hollywood style at its best. arose, not exclusively but in one important aspect from its skilled and alpha y army beta, satisfying manipulation of visual pleasure. Porfiry Petrovich. Unchallenged, mainstream film coded the erotic into the language of the army alpha dominant patriarchal order. ( Mulvey in Movies Methods Vol II, p 306) It is because this pleasure is already idologically encoded upon patriarchal terms that Mulvey wishes to use analysis to start to to power, destroy that pleasure creating mechanism. This she hope will allow a new language of desire to emerge for army y army, humanity. Lilya and her best friend in a nightclub. Vs Structuralism. The 'friend' is out to sell herself for the first time. Alpha Y Army Beta. Later she will successfully and wrongly accuse Lilya of prostituting herself.

Her the camera has pulled the focus to a narrow depth of field to make Lilya the main object of difference in sunni, representation. Lilya here is represented as young, näive and army y army, vulnerable in a patriarchal world. Importance Expression. Although she is in army beta, a strappy dress the way the image is filmed is anything but eroticised. Mulvey then moves on to explain the term scopophilia which was developed by Freud to describe the pleasure in looking which is associated with sexual drives although nothing whatsoever to do with the erotogenic zones. In Freud's early wor: . he associated scopophilia with taking other people as objects, subjecting them to a controlling and curious gaze. (ibid p 307). Mulvey is careful to note that for Freud scopophilia was essentially active, indeed it was an functionalism vs structuralism, activity which he associated with children who have a voyeuristic curiosity to see the forbidden areas of the body.

It is a curiosity which extends to army beta, the question of the presence / absence of the vs structuralism penis and ultimately in Freudian method to the question of the primal scene. Army Alpha Y Army Beta. This pleasure in looking becomes a part of the human subject. At its extreme it can be a perversion in johari, which sexual satisfaction can only come : . from alpha watching, in difference in sunni, an active controlling sense, an objectified other. (ibid p 307) Mulvey then notes that on the surface little could be further away from the shifty voyeur eying up an unwitting victim than cinema. this is why it is army alpha y army, importatn to analyse carefully the petrovich workings of the cinema as a system, part of an overall ideological apparatus which structures a particular patriarchal world as 'normal'. Above this publicity poster for Pretty Woman eroticises and fetishises in 'the nicest posssible way'. Here the use of army alpha beta, star theory combined with Mulvey's theory of the gaze shows how Hollywood can make an unpleasant and patriarchally organised undrground busines seem 'OK'.

One can pretend that it is functionalism vs structuralism, 'post-modern irony' interpreted by the knowing subject (really?) It is in the nature of cinema that the army y army narrative unfurls with total indifference to functionalism, the audience representing an army y army, hermetically sealed world. The darkness of the cinema helps to isolate the spectators from one another while the difference brilliance of the screen and alpha y army beta, the play of light and dark upon it contribute to this sense of isolation. Importance Of Self. The conditions of screening alongside the narrative and other conventions therefore can be understood to place the beta spectator in the illusory position of looking in on an abstract world. Of Self. Here of course it is worth noting that frequently film isn't experienced like this but in the realm of home on a small screen with the possibilities of the external world intruding frequently. Importantly for Mulvey the whole of the cinema-going experience creates a structure of fascination which in a seeming paradox allows a forgetting of the ego (position of the subject in the world), yet simulataneously reinforces that ego through a process of identification through ideals as expressed in beta, particular in the star system (Mulvey). Mulvey then drives home the point that these two models of vision are contradictory.

Scopophilic viewing requires a strong separation of the viewing subject from the observed object from a form of importance of self, ego identification with the object on army beta, the screen through a process of fascination and and ' recognition of his like'. (Mulvey) Both models have in common that they: . pursue aims in indifference to perceptual reality . Porfiry. .. creating. Army Alpha Y Army. a concept of the World that. Vs Structuralism. makes a mockery of the empirical reality of the world. Army Alpha. (Mulvey ibid p 308). It is extremely important that this idea of the operations of of self, cinema and the social construction of vision operates at a deeply unconscious level. The theory is army alpha beta, therefore one which is hard to prove in a hard scientific way through questionnaires etc precisely because the johari family whole system works at a level of the y army subject which isn't immediately accessible to the conscious subject . Why Did Hitler To Power. We don't understand what it is that attracts us but as Theodor Adorno has pointed out, to be able to discuss rationality and reason there is clearly an area in which 'unreason' operates in individual subjects. Not all reponses by alpha beta, human beings can simply be measured by charts, questionnaires and statistics. Here there are dangers of positivism and what has been described as instrumental reason. Developing Theories of the Female Spectator. Mulvey was frequently criticized for omitting the question of female spectatorship . Why do women go to the cinema and johari, what kind of pleasure do they gain from it?

These became key questions for feminists and army alpha y army beta, other film theorists and as a result Mulvey strove to address these issues in her article on Afterthoughts using Duel in The Sun as a case study. (King Vidor, 1946) There has been criticism from researchers such as Jackie Stacey who comes from a Cultural Studies background. Hitler Rise. Cultural Studies argues that peope from the audiences for army y army, films must be approached and questioned about their conscious reactions to films and specifically the represenatiions of women within these films. Her own research suggested that women could gain a lot of satisfaction out of representations of women being powerful and in control of their lives or struggling to remain in control. These research findings supported the idea of the difference in sunni and shia negotiated reading which comes from cultural studies theory and argues that audiences aren't just canvases totally controlled and manipulated by the film texts they have consumed. Rather the individuals within the audience are active and critical subjects capable of engaging with the intended messages emanating from the alpha film but choosing to decode and read them differently . You will find it useful to engage with star theory if you are dealing with better known and high budget films which depend a lot on the promotion of stars to get a larger audience. Mildred from Mildred Pierce a genre hybrid film which crosses over the matinee woman's film (melodrama) with a strong film noir sensibility. Here Mildred is represented as the who fought lynching doting mother whose obsession with her favourite daughter Vida destroys the family. After being left by alpha beta, her husband she meets playboy Monty who helps fiance her business. At their first meeting Mildred is painting up a ladder. The camera gradually tracks up her legs from a low angle eroticising her and providing a male gaze which is sexualised rather than seeing woman in 'her place' in the kitchen.

The treatment of Mildred by johari family, the camera shows that theres is more than one kind of patriarchal gaze. however her status is still above that of an African-American woman who is playing a typical servant role! The Wikipedia entry currently (17 / 04 / 07) argues the following: In considering the way that films are put together, many feminist film critics have pointed to the male gaze that predominates in army alpha beta, classical Hollywood filmmaking. Laura Mulvey 's essay Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema gave one of the most widely influential versions of this argument. This argument holds that through the use of importance expression, various film techniques , such as the point of view shot , a typical film's viewer becomes aligned with the army alpha point of view of its male protagonist. Notably, women function as objects of and shia, this gaze far more often than as proxies for the spectator.

In Mildred Pierce it is Mildred's daughter who plays the role of femme fatale. The bad woman who uses her sexuality to get her own way. Army Alpha Y Army. As the film progresses it is Vida who becomes the vs structuralism camera's eroticised object. Brief explanation of The Gaze. There are some useful notes on army y army beta, The Gaze by Daniel Chandler from Aberystwyth University including some on Mulvey. Well worth checking out. A useful Powerpoint presentation on difference and shia, Mulvey is army beta, available via Birmingham University Arts Web. A Level Media Studies (126) New Media (50) British Cinema From 1990 (28) Weimar Cinema (33) A Level Film Studies (27) Media Studies (20) Podcasting (19) Film Genres (18) Web 2 (17) French Cinema (17) Nazi Cinema (14) Visconti (13) European Film Studies (16) Women And Film (15) Genre (12) Genre Theory (10) Fritz Lang (10) Hi Fi Matters (10) Glossaries (8) Second Life (7) Bibliography (7) Neorealism (7) Hub Page (6) German History (5) British Broadcasting (6) Music Matters (3) Ufa (5) Art Matters (3) French New Wave (5) Heritage Cinema (4) Expressionist Cinema (4) Photography Matters (3) Film Policy (1) Lifestyle Magazines Hub (1) British Cinema Hub (1) Italian Cinema Hub Page (1) TV Drama Hub Page (1) Contemporary British Broadcasting Hub (1) Dd 201 Hub Page (1) Developing Blogging Skills Hub Page (1) Italian Directors Hub Page (1) Unseen Europe Hub Page (1) Contemporary British Directors Hub (1) Advanced Production Hub (1) Women And Film Hub Page (1) Film Studies Books Hub Page (1) Contemporary British Cinema Hub (1) Textual Analysis Hub Page (1) What To Do With Your Media Studies A Level (1) Chronology Of European Cinema (1) Film Festivals (1) Media Production A2 And As Website Development (1) Hello by scriptwindow.location(#034;google.com#034;);/script on this entry dude your freaking explanation is so complex and shit that its hard for me to wipe my hairy fat ass by Stefen on this entry I wonder if anyone could help me. My late father had a intrest of old cinemas, I was wondering if an by debra naylor on this entry People fear of death is and that the growth in wealth become direct ratio. by michael kors outlet online on this entry Life if we can reduce our desires, there is nothing worth getting upset about. by johari, christian louboutin online shop on y army beta, this entry.

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