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resume playlist vlc Resume Media has evolved into writers a collection of features that might. appeal to users who have libraries of video and audio files. Designed in Windows. Mostly works in antigone character traits Linux. Not yet in OSX.

Resume Media displays the saved positions of all media as well as a. bookmark where last played in realism each table. Media segments can be. defined without editing your file allowing you to vlad dracul, watch or listen. to your favorite parts. Media can be automatically added or removed.

from a table when the realism, media stops or finishes. Old-style tv video. ratios can be adjusted without going to definition, the VLC menu each time. There are fun settings to realism writers, sample media for a number of seconds or. play at different speeds. Of The Speluncean? And more. album.

The resume feature then allows you to play and stop and. quickly resume whichever entries interest you at the time until you. have finally completed the list. Realism Writers? Sort the definition of stereotypical, list to see which entries. you have started. chapters. Never lose your place.

Adjust 'rewind' time to your liking. to help re-sync your memory with the story. Adjust 'playback speed' to speed up (or slow down) that over-acting narrator or to save time. Then go to writers, the segments list to definition, play whichever highlights that. friends and writers relatives are leaning over your shoulder to see.

You can also tag the individual titles in a single file album. a table. Then, when you are ready, move one entry to VLC, expand it, and import the media list back to a different table for massacre, execution. The playing media is bookmarked with an '*' symbol. When finished, the bookmark advances to realism, the next unfinished media. If all media finished, the bookmark increments to the next media. There's a convenient button to play the bookmark where you left off. Play unfinished or whole table with options to randomize and loop. * Designed in amityville massacre Windows.

Mostly works in Linux. Does not work in OSX. See Mac Attack and Licking Linux near the realism writers, end of the description. * If this version is case of the explorers not available in the VLC Addons Manager, you can. install it manually from this Addons site. Writers? Open zip file, copy the lua. file to C:Users%UserName%AppDataRoamingvlcluaextensions. or %homedir%/.local/share/vlc/lua/extensions/ for definition of stereotypical, Linux (unhide .local) Create ..luaextensions directory if necessary. Delete old versions.

When installed, restart VLC and check 'Resume Media' in View menu. (Extensions must be checked each time VLC is opened. It's OK. ) * A Command prompt window will flash in Windows the first time only. to create the data directory ..vlcVLC Resume Media. Note: The [play/options] menu changes while VLC playlist is playing. * If the realism writers, VLC playlist is stopped (not playing), then you can click. [play/options] [add VLC] to case of the, add the VLC playlist to realism, current table.

* If the VLC playlist is playing (or paused), then you can click. [play/options] [position] to add the playing media to the table. * There's a setting to allow automatic new entries when media stops. * Click [play/options] [settings] to access the settings table. * There is definition a media-just-started tolerance of 60 seconds, so you have. 60 seconds to realism, sample media without saving the stop position. * When resuming, position will rewind 5 seconds from saved position. * Settings 'media-just-started' and 'rewind' are adjustable. * In the event there are identical media names in the VLC playlist, Resume Media assumes they are truly identical (same media file). * Operations are performed on character current table.

Switching tables while. media playing may cause stop position to be updated in the new table. * Marking a table with '*' will remove media from table when finished. * The number of tables is adjustable from writers, 1 to 50 tables. * Higher tables are not deleted when the behaviour, number of tables is lowered. * To delete a table datafile, remove all contents and realism writers remove mark '*'. * Combining tables saves the highest position of starbucks prices duplicate entries.

* When sorting by time, 'Finished' media will always be at the bottom. * You can set media saved positions to 'hh:mm:ss' or to 'Finished'. * 'Finished' media will not update position unless reset to realism writers, 'hh:mm:ss'. * 'Finished' media will remain in any table when replayed to the end. * You can backup your tables if needed by copying the data directory. (In the antigone traits, data directory, the table # in realism writers each file is the define, file # plus 1) * If you open Resume Media while a media is playing, the next stop. event will be undetectable. Stop and realism restart media to allow detection. or click [play/options] to manually save the position without stopping. useful for making convenient tables of playlists.

Note that the saved. position and bookmark are meaningless for these files and do not. respond as expected. two instances of VLC must switch to different tables so that the. instances do not overwrite each other's tables. changes and need to amityville massacre, restore a table, then go to [settings] and enter: restore t1 | restore t1 t2 | restore all , where. t1 = table to restore, t2 = alternate destination, all = all tables. There are three Key=Value parameters which can be set for each. media in realism writers any table. The two picture keys are described in the Picture.

section following this and apply to video only. The third key is: A reasonable range for % is 25 to 300 and the default is RMP=100. The motivation for adding the speed key is to allow up or down tuning. of an instrumental audio to sync it with a live instrument performance. (See Pitch setting in the Fun Settings section further down.) * If the Playback Speed setting in vlad dracul the Settings table is set to other. than 100 (also see Fun Settings) then that speed setting overrides the. individual RMP speed keys for realism, each media.

* Go to the Resume Media Settings and allow application of keys. * While a media is playing (or paused), go to: [play/options] [keys] to of the speluncean, set the keys for media in the current table. * Spaces are not allowed in Key=Value. * To delete a key, enter Key= (no value) or remove Key= altogether. * To delete all keys, clear the input line. * There is one level of realism writers [undo], then [cancel] will reset the keys to.

the values before [keys] was pressed. * There is vlad dracul a Keys setting in the Settings table which is 1, 2 or 3: 1= Do not apply keys (existing keys are preserved in writers the tables) 2= Apply keys. Speluncean Explorers? Also, when in realism the [keys] input screen, corresponding. keys which have been placed in the playing media's metadata (explained. further down) will be read from the massacre, metadata and placed in the input. box to allow easy manual entry of the key values into the table. 3= Apply keys. Realism? Also, corresponding keys which have been placed in.

the playing media's metadata will be read from the metadata and. automatically entered into the table for that media. Note: It may take several plays to successfully read the metadata. You can place keys (ex. RMP=102) in a media file's metadata comments. section to save the keys with the media file when not in a table. * Changing metadata is define behaviour easier in Windows. Go to Properties Details Comments.

If you select a group of similar files, you can change them. all at once. Remove write-protection first. * When in the [keys] or [segments] screen, you can enter getallkeys in the realism writers, input line to amityville massacre, retrieve all keys (including segment keys) into. the input line for easy transfer to a file's metadata comments section. * Segments are also keys, but their structure is normally hidden. Be careful when including segment keys in realism the metadata, since they can. be long. The limit using Windows properties is. (Be careful changing metadata using VLC.

I have seen media corrupted.) I might generalize to allow any vlcrc parameter to be used as a key. Let me know if you want a particular VLC parameter added to the. keys to allow individual media adjustment and behaviour I will check it out. Parameters differ in success when applied by realism lua extensions. Users with videos or tv recordings that need picture adjustment might. be tired of manually adjusting the picture in VLC each time they play. There are Resume Media keys to adjust aspect-ratio and crop values. automatically while a video is playing. * Picture keys are RMA=nn:mm and RMC=nn:mm where nn:mm are ratios.

(Ex. RMA=16:11 might make a boxy tv video aspect-ratio more appealing.) * See the of the speluncean, Keys section above to enter keys into the table. * For technical reasons, application of picture keys is writers limited to. single selection plays initiated from any one of the Resume Media play. options. Definition? Multiple selections will play normally. Since videos are. usually long, playing one at a time should not be an issue.

Segmenting of realism writers media allows you to set start and stop times and name. the segments for any media (usually video, but audio also). Resume. Media will play the vlad dracul, segments while ignoring the other parts. * Go to realism, the Resume Media Settings and allow segmenting of definition media. * Play any media in realism writers the current Resume Media table. Starbucks Prices Uk 2014? (Pausing is ok, since a paused media is still considered to be 'playing'.) * Now click [play/options] [segments] to prepare to edit segments. * Click [get] without selection to add media position to the input box. With a selection, [get] will load existing segment into the input box.

* Segment elements are [start stop name]. Get a start and stop time, add an optional name, click [save]. Save order is writers based on start time. - The start/stop times will be switched if they are out of amityville order. - Type 'end' instead of a time to indicate play to end of realism writers media. - The segment name cannot contain parentheses, ( or ). * You can [delete] unwanted segments. * Segment play is limited to single plays initiated from starbucks prices, Resume Media. Multiple selections will play normally without segments.

* Setting mousewheel to position control in VLC Hotkey Preferences. can make locating start and stop times more convenient. * There is a Resume Media setting to set the VLC Fullscreen setting. Use this to keep segment play in a window or fullscreen. An alternate. Fullscreen setting in the VLC Video Menu lasts for writers, one VLC session. * For consistent window viewing, you might want to consider unchecking.

'Resize Interface to Video size' in case speluncean explorers VLC Interface Preferences. * By default, the media name will show on a video at the beginning of. each segment. There is writers a VLC Video Preference setting to turn that off. attempt is made to make the segments behave like a single file. The. segments will play in order and then the media will be marked finished. The media can be stopped and resumed in any segment.

You can click. later in vlad dracul the time line and Resume Media will play the segment closest. to the realism writers, time clicked. Clicking past the last segment will finish media. If [^loopv] selected in [play More] then the segments will loop. so the media will just play from there until it hits the end time of. the segment it was playing. Definition? Resume Media can detect When you click. past the segment end time and thereby decide what should be done next. Clicking Play in VLC instead of Resume Media will not play segments. If you highlight some segments, then when the current segment ends,

Resume Media will loop the highlighted segments. This allows you to. dynamically choose which segments will play. Also, clicking later in. the time line (past the segment end) will play the next highlighted. segment instead of the one closest to the time clicked, thus allowing. you to writers, jump through the highlighted segments. When there are no. highlights or you exit from the segment list, segments play normally. Be careful not to click [delete] when segments are highlighted. * Run time lets you sample all media for vlad dracul, a set number of seconds.

* Start time lets you start further into the media. A saved position. will override this value. * Playback speed lets you, say, listen to an audio book faster or. have fun with a video, etc. * Pitch setting allows the audio pitch to vary or be unaffected when. playback speed is varied. Realism? Allows tuning of instrumental audio media. * Loop setting allows automatic looping when playing from Resume Media. that one song or piano piece out of define a 100 you are looking for.

(Use saved positions combined with Run time for deep sampling.) I have not had access to a Mac for a while now. Mac users who want to. experiment to get Resume Media working on OSX can try the following: Set allowosx = true near top of realism lua file for case of the speluncean explorers, Resume Media to run. For tinkerers only. Don't get mad at writers, anyone.

Back up your lua file. Go down to osx_display() function and tinker with display settings. There is of stereotypical some additional explanation of the display issues there. When (if) the display works, I will check the rest of the functions. *** constructive comments are welcome *** The dialog window starts out large and gets longer with each operation. the VLC developers, and accepted. There hasn't been any movement on.

fixing this issue since 4/27. The VLC team needs programmers to help. to make Resume Media for realism, OSX possible. Everything seems to antigone traits, work properly in Linus except segmenting. I will work to fix this issue.

Please let me know if there are. other repeatable issues that you would like me to realism, address. Thanks. If you like this program, please put your mouse cursor on define behaviour the 'Score' at the realism writers, top and click the plus sign when it appears. Thanks!! Last changelog: 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675.

Detect XP in addition to antigone character, later Windows. Setting to realism writers, show/hide playlist control buttons in Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from Resume Media. Setting for constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for the most part. Table data moved to define, VLC Resume Media directory in the vlc directory.

Tables backed up before a session and restorable during the realism, session. 2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in starbucks prices segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior. Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to writers, overlap.

2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for play in the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015. Correct label in antigone character traits table view.

2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to realism writers, not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to definition of stereotypical, automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes.

2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the input box to realism writers, set picture keys, saved positions and antigone traits settings. Change to picture-adjust keys only allowed when video playing. Setting to suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for realism, start time, run time and playback speed Correct picture adjustment settings altered in V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked.

Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors. Display and adjust picture keys for vlad dracul, the whole table. A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to show bookmarked table entries in list of tables.

Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to realism writers, 'Finished'. Setting to allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC. Bookmark feature added to amityville, keep track where last played. Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to version 2.40 due to unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in autoplay.

Main menu and other buttons improved. If media is realism playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only. Modified a few labels. More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is now '*' instead of case of the speluncean explorers 'K'. User settings (variables) are now adjusted in the dialog window.

Removed the instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus. simplifying Resume Media and the dialog for the majority of users. Moved user variables to top of download file for easy adjustment. New variables to adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no. table dialog window. Control media and resume from the VLC playlist. Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind').

Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to realism, 60 rather than 30 seconds. Set media completed flag to define behaviour, 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to 00:00:00 or set to 'Finished.' Amend the previous update to realism writers, include the case where the media is paused. If the of the speluncean, table dialog 'Play' button is clicked while media is playing, the media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play. Allow media to realism, remain in definition of stereotypical an excluded table when completed. Set X for normal exclude or K to keep media with time reset to 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is.

playing, because the next stop event is undetectable in this case. Correct dialog update if media stopped during the realism writers, tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in of the explorers last update. Refine the media detection to eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned.

Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations. Support for realism writers, multiple tables. Massacre? Entries can be sorted by realism time or name. Add ability to rearrange table and to import the definition, VLC playlist. * To add it automatically, click [Play/Options] and then [Settings].

Near the writers, bottom, change Block- to Allow new table entry when media stops. Define? From then on, when you stop a media in VLC, Resume Media will add the writers, media name and stop position to the current table if it is not already there. Good luck, Rocky. I can open the extension from the menu under VLC/Extensions but the window that opens never contains anything. I've also tried setting 'simple = true' in the file and still no luck, and also various ways of pausing/stopping/closing a video. and create subdirectory ..luaextensions.

and created a text file named VLC Resume Media V3.lua 2. Type Cntl-A to highlight the whole file contents. 3. Type Cntl-C to copy the file contents to the clipboard. 4. Open the VLC Resume Media V3.lua file you created in a text editor like Notepad. 5. Type Cntl-V to copy the traits, contents into the file. Close the file. 6. Open VLC and go to View menu at realism writers, the top. 7. If everything went as planned, you will see Resume Media V3 at the bottom of the View Menu. 8. Click it, and the Resume Media dialog window will open.

Getting the same result as others - Resume pops a large window, striped, with no content, titled 'Resume Media Table 1'. I use windows 7 and when I press the download button I am immediately transferred to a txt page which says this - -- VLC Lua Extension by Rocky Dotterer 5/5/2014. filename = -- change if you want file(s) in your own directory. How can I download the Extension? 2015-09-24 V3.40 61675. Detect XP in addition to later Windows.

Setting to vlad dracul, show/hide playlist control buttons in Resume Media. Setting to always loop selections played from Resume Media. Setting for constant/variable audio pitch when playback speed changed. Added key to allow individual media playback speeds. 2015-07-14 V3.38 58343. Fix button-click function re-entry issue for Linux. 2015-07-10 V3.37 58099. Now also works in Linux for the most part. Table data moved to VLC Resume Media directory in realism the vlc directory. Tables backed up before a session and restorable during the session.

2015-07-01 V3.36 57668. Correct media finished flag in segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.35 57615. Correct looping issue in definition segment play. 2015-06-30 V3.34 57605. Correct 'run-time' setting behavior.

Segment play order now correct if segments should happen to overlap. 2015-06-18 V3.33 56938. Segments can be dynamically selected for play in writers the segments list. 2015-06-12 V3.32 56608. Improve some behaviors. 2015-05-31 V3.31 56015.

Correct label in table view. 2015-05-31 V3.30 56000. Reverse default table behavior to not automatically add/delete media. Settings can be changed as needed to automate add/delete behavior. 2015-05-28 V3.30 beta1 55803. Introduction of define behaviour media segmenting. 2015-05-27 V3.23 55668. Correct picture key handling when table order changes. 2015-04-13 V3.22 50813. Use the input box to set picture keys, saved positions and realism writers settings.

Change to vlad dracul, picture-adjust keys only allowed when video playing. Setting to realism writers, suppress automatic new table entry when media stops. 2015-03-24 V3.21 47979. Playback speed can now be set without restarting VLC. 2015-03-17 V3.20 46639. New settings for start time, run time and definition of stereotypical playback speed

Correct picture adjustment settings altered in realism writers V3.10. New setting to close or hide Resume Media when 'X' clicked. Eliminate one second delay between button clicks. Settings table now has its own button in the [play] menu. Allow copy as well as move when combining tables. Improve a few behaviors. Display and vlad dracul adjust picture keys for realism, the whole table.

A manual update will now also update 'Finished' media. Setting to show bookmarked table entries in list of tables. Advance bookmark when bookmarked media set to definition of stereotypical, 'Finished'. Setting to allow manual or automatic picture adjustment. Version 3 with simpler handshaking with VLC. Bookmark feature added to keep track where last played.

Play Bookmark/Unfinished/Table/Selection with Random/Loop options. Revert to writers, version 2.40 due to unresolved issue in version 3. V2 main menu and other buttons improved. Bookmark and autoplay features added. Table can be randomized manually or in define autoplay.

Main menu and writers other buttons improved. If media is playing, clicking [import/play] will now do a manual. update of the playing position without stopping the define behaviour, media. Improved text-reading economy using patterns. Cosmetic changes only.

Modified a few labels. More intuitive. 'Keep Media' mark is realism now '*' instead of 'K'. User settings (variables) are now adjusted in the dialog window. Removed the instances/exclude/busy complexity and issues, thus. simplifying Resume Media and the dialog for define, the majority of users. Moved user variables to top of download file for easy adjustment. New variables to adjust size of table dialog window. Set variable simple = true to force a single hidden table with no.

table dialog window. Control media and resume from the VLC playlist. Rewind 5 seconds when resuming (adjustable variable 'rewind'). Selection no longer needed before entering Set/Delete mode. Set default media-just-started to 60 rather than 30 seconds.

Set media completed flag to 'Finished' rather than 00:00:01. You can now reset media to 00:00:00 or set to realism, 'Finished.' Amend the previous update to include the massacre, case where the media is paused. If the table dialog 'Play' button is writers clicked while media is playing, the media. stop position will now update before selected entries are enqueued in VLC. One click can stop/enqueue or enqueue/play but not stop/enqueue/play. Allow media to case speluncean explorers, remain in an excluded table when completed. Set X for normal exclude or K to keep media with time reset to 00:00:01. Disallow automatic resume if Resume Media is opened while media is. playing, because the writers, next stop event is undetectable in this case.

Correct dialog update if media stopped during the tables dialog display. Correct open table option broken in last update. Refine the media detection to eliminate spurious updates. A few other minor improvements. Resume Media will now open even if all tables are busy or excluded. This should be rare, but it allows recovery if tables are orphaned. Message saying that busy tables cannot be combined. Correct multiple-selection delete and move operations.

Support for multiple tables. Entries can be sorted by antigone traits time or name. Add ability to rearrange table and to import the VLC playlist.

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7 Tips for realism writers Writing a Killer Executive Resume. Having reviewed and case of the written thousands of resumes over the years, first as a recruiter and realism writers now as a professional brand builder, I’ve noticed a significant gap between what most management resumes include, and what recruiters and hiring managers actually want to see. I’ve spent years working to close this gap, perfecting the modern resume by leveraging recruitment, branding, and marketing principles to raise the bar and enable my clients to win in the rapidly changing modern job search market. With competition for top posts higher than ever, your goal in preparing your resume is to communicate a clearly defined brand promise, which leaves no doubt about the value you bring to the table. If you’re a management professional, here are 7 resume tips which will set you apart from define, your competition. We’ve all met those people everyone wants to see succeed. Realism! Your resume’s job is to cement your position as that person, ensuring the definition, recruiter, hiring manager, and everyone else is rooting for your success. Think of your resume as your own diplomatic envoy, going forth into unknown organisations to lay the groundwork before your official visit. While your resume has to communicate the skills and competencies required for writers the job, it has an even bigger job which most candidates never consider: building a team of champions, and getting recruiters and hiring managers on­side to support your candidacy above all others.

The key to starbucks prices doing this is being likeable, and while it takes time and practice to master the art of putting personality to paper, the best place to start is writers with a Professional Summary section. Forget the definition of stereotypical, “objectives” section from decades past, and tell me a story about who you are, what you do, and what makes you different. Write in the first person, using “I” language to make it relatable, and mix up the content with information about your story, relevant keywords, and your professional approach and leadership style. Writers! Think of vlad dracul, all the realism writers, ways you’re communicating your personal brand on a daily basis: sending your resume and cover letter for a job; sharing your thoughts and experience via social media or blogs; networking at a conference; just chatting with other parents at your son or daughter’s swim class. Now imagine how powerful it would be if you always said the same thing. Even better: what if others – your colleagues, clients, and recruiters – started describing you in the same way? There’s not as much pressure on early career professionals to know their key value because it’s understood that they may still be discovering it. Vlad Dracul! Management professionals, however, need to be able to communicate what makes them different. Realism! This is where key messaging comes in.

Skilful use of define, key messages is one of the most effective ways to launch you from candidate to thought leader, but it takes time and realism a concerted effort. If you’re just starting to build your professional brand, take the define behaviour, time to define your key messages before you write your resume, using the following questions to guide you: What drives you? What makes you different from other candidates or leaders in your industry? What’s your professional mantra? What are the underlying themes supporting your success? Once you have a clear understanding of the value you add, communicate it throughout your resume and realism the other platforms that support your professional brand: cover letters, LinkedIn, social media posts, websites, and vlad dracul elevator pitches. Writers! Most of the thousands of character, resumes I’ve reviewed over my career have taken a full meal deal approach to communicating experience, with details about realism writers day-­to­-day duties taking up most of the page. This approach works for early and vlad dracul mid­career professionals who are expected to execute as part of their job. For management professionals, however, it distracts from what recruiters really want to know: role mandate, strategic priorities, and scope, as well as how you met your targets, contributed to organisational objectives, and applied strong commercial acumen to add value. Replacing the realism writers, full meal deal with a taster approach is much more effective – think four or five bullet points for duties, and four or five relevant accomplishments. This delivers a powerful, undiluted message showcasing your skills, experience, and ability to behaviour meet key performance indicators.

It’s also much harder to execute. Realism! When every word matters, use the first bullet point to describe the role mandate and strategic objectives, followed by definition of stereotypical, several bullets that communicate role scope and realism remit, such as size of team and character traits department, PL or budget accountability, and reporting and writers business partnering relationships. Whereas some recruiters specialise by industry or function, many are generalists ­ particularly at the management and executive level. A common complaint among candidates is uk 2014 that recruiters don’t have enough specialised knowledge about the role or industry, and to realism writers a large extent this is of stereotypical a fair observation. Like journalists, non-­specialist recruiters focus on realism writers building a knowledge base that’s an definition inch deep and realism a mile wide.

In other words, they know just enough about a lot of different industries and functions. For professionals at all career levels, it’s wise to stick to common business language rather than specialist jargon or acronyms. Of Stereotypical! Don’t assume the recruiter will know you have particular skills, competencies, or knowledge simply by seeing your job titles and education. And don’t assume they’ll know what it is, even if you list a technology or process name. For management professionals, it’s important to keep the main body of the resume at that 30,000­foot level, focusing on role mandate, strategic priorities, and scope. Add technical information – where jargon and writers specialist terminology typically shows up – in a summary the end.

Take it one step further by amityville massacre, listing skills in a functional group, such as programming languages or project management methodologies. This way, you communicate your qualifications without forcing the recruiter to realism writers do extra research, which may be a deciding factor in whether your resume moves forward. There’s a fine line between including the SEO­-friendly keywords you expect the recruiter to of the speluncean explorers look for, and realism writers using hackneyed terms that are so overused, they’ve lost all meaning. Resumes are notorious for being laden with cliches, and management professionals who operate at a high­-level are often the worst offenders for relying upon stale, high­-level terms like “driving success.” When every word matters, you need to replace non-­specific cliches with specific details, facts and figures, and examples. The best rule I’ve come up with is to apply this classic piece of writing advice: show, rather than tell. In practice, this means expanding on phrases such as “worked to achieve positive commercial outcomes” by explaining what working and of the explorers positive outcomes really meant in realism, that context, as in character, this example: “Allocated human, financial, and realism manufacturing assets to increase factory output and amityville massacre profitability, enabling the business to meet sales demand, improve customer satisfaction, and capture increased market share from realism writers, key competitors.” Be as specific as possible, and after you’ve completed your first draft, go back through each and every bullet point, asking yourself, “Did I really define what that means?” The world’s best brands know that design, presentation, and character experience matter as much as the product itself.

While content is king, when it comes to your resume, the formatting, details, and overall experience often make up the realism, “queen” ­ and we all know that she often rules the household. Behaviour! Consider this: I once had a candidate fax his resume to me. In 2013. For a tech role. His candidacy didn’t move forward, largely because his delivery was so out of writers, touch with what the client needed: an early adopter comfortable with the vlad dracul, latest technology. In my experience, many management professionals are playing by the same rules that governed the hiring process during their early career years. Practices that were expected 15 years ago no longer apply, and realism writers can actually hurt your candidacy by making you look old fashioned, or open you up to silent age discrimination. Don’t send a physical resume, unless it’s specifically requested. Remember that old gem of definition, advice to print your resume on writers heavy, cream paper and drop it off in person? It’s long dead.

Most recruiters need an starbucks electronic version, which allows them to search for key words and share with their team and realism client. Traits! Don’t bother with a residential phone number, unless you’re actually home during business hours when a recruiter might call. List your mobile number, and change your message to indicate it’s a personal and realism writers confidential voicemail box so the starbucks prices uk 2014, recruiter can confidently leave a detailed message without worrying about prying ears. Choose your email address carefully. Most recruiters won’t care if you use your current work email, but it’s quite possible your future employer will.

Skip straight past options like Gmail and invest in a personal domain name and email address, like ian@ianthompson.com, which immediately increases your credibility as a modern, tech­ savvy manager. Cull your technology skills to include relevant, current software only, forgoing a laundry list of every technology you’ve ever used. Think long and realism hard before listing “Microsoft Office” as a skill, as it is a given that you know how to vlad dracul use word processing software. Realism Writers! The exception is Microsoft Excel: if you have advanced Excel skills that allow you to vlad dracul manipulate and analyse large data sets, it’s worth listing. Use a modern font and design, staying far, far away from realism, Microsoft Word templates. If you’re not confident with basic design principles, hire a designer, or better yet engage a personal branding agency to lead you through the end­-to-­end process.

The days of definition, being good enough are long gone. Things that used to make management professionals stand out, like an MBA, professional designation, or experience in top tier organisations, often form the bare minimum today. Conducting comprehensive internet searches for senior candidates is now standard practice, with recruiters looking for anything that detracts from or reaffirms what you said in realism, your resume. If you don’t know what recruiters will find, it’s time to define start paying attention. A well ­executed personal brand strategy is your greatest opportunity to influence recruitment outcomes in 2015. Imagine how powerful it would be if a recruiter received your resume and Googled you, only to find: a personal, professionally ­designed website, with engaging copy that tells your story, and a blog that positions you as a thought leader; news results with trade and writers popular media mentions, both as an expert to journalists and a guest author in key publications; a robust social media presence that gives insight into who you are and what you do, positioning you in a way that aligns with the cultures of your target organisations; professional portraits that portray you as an approachable and starbucks uk 2014 competent leader. Fair or not, the candidates who have the most success in job search are the ones who are the best at writers marketing themselves.

While your resume is a critical tool in the job search toolbox, it’s only one of many tools you should be using to communicate your value as a management professional. Author: Irene McConnell runs Arielle Careers, Australia’s #1 executive personal branding agency. They specialize in crafting executive resumes, LinkedIn profiles and digital career assets. This post is written by a guest author. If you are interested our sponsored content options, check out the amityville, the Advertising Page - we look forward to hearing from you!

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essay on writers, john penn (1) The record of the Europeans' first hundred years in America is starbucks prices uk 2014, fraught with violence, chicanery, and realism writers misunderstandings with the indigenous peoples; the shameful Walking Purchase fraud of 1737 perpetuated this phenomenon in our heritage. Define Behaviour! By the late seventeenth century, the era of discovery and conquest in the New World had essentially passed into history; the next phase focused on the expropriation of land by white colonists from the Indians, including Pennsylvania settlers. (2) The one exception was William Penn, the founder of the Quaker sect in Philadelphia. His early dealings with the Delaware Indians reflected his respect for these natives and his dedication to writers, equality and fair play. His treaty with the Delawares in 1682 exemplified these traits, establishing a bond of trust that remained for almost sixty years. Unfortunately, his sons, Thomas and John, did not share their father's philosophy.

To extricate themselves from indebtedness and to behaviour, assure their gentrified lifestyle, they devised a scheme to cheat the Indians out of 500,000 to 750,000 acres of realism writers prime hunting grounds. Furthermore, they sought to define behaviour, keep this swindle from public knowledge for several decades. (3) This essay focuses on the 1737 Walking Purchase document that elucidates the scheme of the Penn sons and realism its impact on the history of the Delaware Indians in Pennsylvania. I'll contrast William Penn's Quaker philosophy with the opposing views of his sons to elucidate this fraudulent attempt to justify the prices uk 2014, dispossession of indigenous inhabitants for personal gain. (4) To fully understand this historical event, it is expedient to explore the customs and writers life of the Delawares (the Lenni Lenape) and their sachem (Indian chiefs) who were hoodwinked by the Penn brothers and their fellow conspirators (traders, interpreters, land speculators, and uk 2014 colonial officials), as well as the difference in the meaning and use of treaties and writers agreements by the Delawares and the proprietors of Pennsylvania. William Penn Brother Onas to the Delawares. (5) In 1681 King Charles II granted William Penn a charter to lands in America called Pennsylvania in payment for a debt of massacre £16,000 (owed to Admiral Sir William Penn, the realism, Quaker leader's father), making Penn and his heirs true and absolute Proprietaries. Case Of The Explorers! James Merrell posits that every colony founder, anxious about attracting settlers, faced the formidable task of surmounting deep-seated fears of the wild woods, and none of the colonial leaders worked harder to writers, banish these misgivings than Penn.

To put the least appealing features of the American land grant into a favorable light, he called the area Penn's Wood , hoping that sylvan would bring to prospective settlers' minds visions of sun-dappled groves instead of a vast wilderness filled with savages. He listed all of the Fruits that I find in the Woods and noted that [t]he Woods are adorned with lovely Flowers, for colour, greatness, figure, and variety rivaling the best gardens in London. Are you afraid of all those trees covering the speluncean explorers, land? There is plenty for realism, the use of man. As for the Beastes of the Woods, the define behaviour, proprietor announced they were not terrible at all but rather furry or feathered natural resources, some for Food and Profit, and some for writers, Profit only (Merrell 23-24). (6) William Penn is exemplary, not for starbucks prices uk 2014, his Quakerism or even for the founding of Pennsylvania, but for the manner in which these two endeavors were combined in his dealings with Indians. In his negotiations with the Delawares, Penn regarded the realism, land promised to him by Charles II as providentially for uk 2014, the peaceful and righteous. Steven Harper notes that these nuances of promised land are so intricately related that when Penn's heirs forsook the idea that they were engaged in a holy experiment on land upon which construction of the New Jerusalem was not far distant, they simultaneously lost the realism writers, impetus that motivated their father to just, pacific, and equitable relations with the Delawares (6). Penn's devotion to the tenets of Quaker philosophy guided his ideals of peaceful relations and equal treatment under the law with his land sales. Thus, he hoped to satisfy his spiritual needs and provide for his material wants as well as those of his heirs. (7) While Penn's real estate ventures proved to be less than lucrative, his efforts to establish a colony in Pennsylvania were commendable in terms of his peaceful interactions with the Indians, a policy that remained in force for seventy-five years.

In contrast, Jean Soderlund notes, Just a few years after the bloody King Phillip's War in New England and Nathaniel Bacon's massacre of Indians in Virginia, William Penn was pursuing a policy of unarmed friendship with the Native Americans in the Delaware Valley (307). (8) Paul Wallace says that it is beneficial to amityville massacre, go back in realism, time to appreciate the wise policy under which Pennsylvania conducted Indian relations, starting with Columbus and antigone character traits the first contact between Indians and writers white men that brought wonder and delight to amityville, both groups. However, both sides were eventually disillusioned, and writers the cycle of captivities and massacres continued for define, hundreds of years (142). Realism Writers! He posits that it is difficult to place blame: the Indians were fighting to preserve their country, and the settlers were caught up in the vast migration that Columbus's discovery of America had initiated, although we should not condone the crimes committed by of stereotypical those who cheated and writers murdered to wrest lands from traits, indigenous peoples. However, in his view, Pennsylvania came closer than all the English colonies to a just and sensible solution to the problem, with Roger Williams' policies in Rhode Island paralleling William Penn's conduct. Until the middle of the eighteenth century, Indian/European relations in realism writers, Pennsylvania were cordial for three reasons: 1) a tradition of fair and friendly dealings introduced by the Dutch and Swedes was reinforced by define William Penn; 2) Pennsylvania had a concise and well administered Indian policy founded on the realities of Indian and European politics that took into account that the Iroquois were the dominant power in the Indian world and France was Pennsylvania's potential enemy; and 3) the Quaker ideal of the pursuit of writers peace was in force. (9) George Arthur Cribbs attributes William Penn's ideas of justice and humanity to a single Indian policy: his natural benevolence and the principles of his sect demanded a just and friendly treatment of every human being. Before leaving England, he forwarded a letter to those Indians living in define, his province conveying his friendly attitude toward them and his hope that they would live together as neighbors and realism friends.

He instructed his commissioners to take great care not to offend the of the explorers, natives, to seek their good will, and to let them know that Christians had come to settle among them in realism, friendship (5). (10) Several factors demonstrate Penn's fair and honest treatment of the Indians: 1) only in Pennsylvania could an Indian get a satisfactory legal judgment from a white man because Indian testimony was accepted in legal matters; 2) in matters of trade the provincial government made a concerted effort to guard the character traits, Indians against exploitation; 3) in treaties (for the first fifty years at least), only open and honorable means were used to gain a point; and 4) friendly and kindly intercourse was encouraged (Penn learned their language and customs so that he could converse with them freely, as did Roger Williams.) Penn was a frequent visitor among them, eating their venison, hominy, and roasted acorns, and participating in their athletic exercises. Realism Writers! Of course, the Indians responded by providing food, assistance, or protection if it were within their power (Cribbs 5-6). (11) But Ray Thompson relates that William Penn's critical attention to details in the promotion of vlad dracul Quaker spirituality and fair treatment of the Indians did not prevail in his personal financial situation. Surprisingly, he spent only three and a half years in the New World during two brief visits to realism writers, his province in the periods October 1682 to August 1684 and from December 1699 to February 1701. He spent the rest of of stereotypical his hectic life embroiled in controversy with his political and religious enemies and debtors in England. His first son, William, Jr. (known as William the Waster), was a failure in every venture he attempted and eventually accumulated a debt of £10,000. In 1704, his father stated, My son is my greatest affliction, for his soul's and my country's and realism my family's sake (20-21). (12) Known as Brother Onas to the Delawares (the Indian word for quillhence pen), in 1682 William Penn convened a treaty council with the Delawares at vlad dracul Shackamaxon near Philadelphia for lands above the Neshaminy Creek with the following deed: All those lands lying and being in the province of Pennsylvania, beginning upon a line formerly laid out from a corner spruce tree, by the Delaware River, and from thence running along the ledge or the foot of the writers, mountain west, northwest, to a corner white oak marked with a P standing by the Indian path that leadest to an Indian town called Playwiskey. And from thence extending westward to Neshaminy Creek, from starbucks, which said line, the said tract or tracts granted doth extend itself back into the woods, as far as a man can go in one day and a halfand bounded on the westerly side with the Creek called Neshaminyor to the utmost extent of realism said creed one day and of stereotypical a half's journey to the Delaware and thence down the several courses of said river to the first mentioned spruce tree. (Thompson 30) Chief Tamanend of the Delawares presented the famous Treaty Wampum Belt (see image gallery) to William Penn as a token of this event.

Fashioned from oyster-shell beads and leather, the wampum belt has become a symbol of writers Penn's policy of purchasing land from the Indians and living peacefully with them. Penn's speech to the Delawares held out great hope: We meet on antigone character traits, the broad pathway of realism writers good faith and character good will; no advantage will be taken on either side, but all shall be open-ness and love (see image gallery) (Thompson 22). Realism Writers! Benjamin West's painting of this event in vlad dracul, 1771 became an icon for Penn's benevolence (see my title page.) (13) Although he was not legally required to writers, pay the Indians for the grant lands in Pennsylvania, Penn and his agents made at least seventeen purchases from the Indians living near the lower Delaware. Most of these purchases involved narrow tracts of land, often overlapping, but on paper, at least, some of them extended far back into the country: two days' travel by horse, as far as a man could go in a day and half, or in one case to the utmost bounds of the said Province. Such measurements, however important to Penn, meant little to the Indians as long as they were not hurried off the land. Behaviour! In one instance Penn had the land measured; the man's two-day travel (specified in a 1685 deed) was surveyed three years later as a line from Philadelphia to the Susquehanna, a distance of about seventy miles.

(14) Soon after Penn's death in writers, 1718, his secretary James Logan had these purchases confirmed by a single deed from Sasoonan and other Indians representing those who had made the earlier sales. Extending north to vlad dracul, the Lehigh Hills and from the Delaware River to the lower Susquehanna, this deed did not actually include all the land that might have been claimed under the earlier onesit certainly did not extend to the utmost bounds of Pennsylvania, but it did include as much as was needed for the white settlers. (15) For fourteen years thereafter no further purchases were made, although new settlers continued to arrive. Without permission, people from writers, New York settled on choice lands outside the area of the case of the, 1718 purchase. Realism! Not until 1727, when William Penn's sons became the proprietors of Pennsylvania, was Logan able to deal with these problems. He sent agents to settle affairs with the definition, trespassers, but this undertaking was not very successful. To deal with this problem and realism because more land was needed for settlers, Logan urged the antigone character, new proprietors to come to America to meet the Indians and make new purchases. John and Thomas Penn Perpetrators of the Walking Purchase. (16) William Penn assumed that God had promised him Pennsylvania for the creation of a peaceful and tolerant society to avoid the self-righteous tendencies of other colonizing ventures that wreaked havoc on realism, native peoples (also the reason Roger Williams founded Rhode Island). However, his sons had a different vision of this province.

In their minds, the Upper Delaware Valley their father knew as altogether Indian was vacant land. (17) John Penn, the oldest son, received one half of case of the explorers his father's estate while Thomas and Richard received a quarter each. As the realism, businessman for the family, Thomas came to Pennsylvania in of stereotypical, 1732 to writers, appraise the wealth of the speluncean explorers, province and to attempt to exploit its resources. John and Richard urged him to writers, sell out enough land in America to settle their obligations and improve their financial situation after paying off their father's debts. The Penns were also subjected to starbucks prices uk 2014, the expense of long litigation in Pennsylvania's dispute with Lord Baltimore over the property around Chesapeake Bay, claimed by both parties. John and Richard wanted to sell Thomas their interest in the province for the sum of £50,000 (which they considered a bargain), but Thomas did not have the cash to writers, take them up on their offer. (18) Thomas Penn was strictly a business man with no time for culture, the arts, or the humanities. When he arrived in speluncean, Philadelphia in 1732, his manner was cold and unfriendly toward the old friends of his father. The somber citizens committee disapproved of the fun-loving society members with whom he associated and his flamboyant attire; he and realism his brothers had abandoned the Quaker faith. (19) Soon after his arrival, Thomas Penn and the present Governor of Pennsylvania, Patrick Gordon, called a conference with the character, Iroquois Indians at Stenton (the home of realism writers James Logan, the President of Council) just north of Philadelphia. Through an interpreter, Penn told the Indians that he wished to case of the, carry on the good relationship and liberal policies of his father, Brother Onas: that the whites and Indians should live in a true and perfect peace.

The conference lasted for three weeks and important articles of agreement were signed into the treaty. After obtaining the realism writers, goodwill of the prices, Iroquois (who held domination over the Delawares), Thomas began bargaining for more land; his first purchase was a tract of 100,000 acres between the Schuylkill River and its branches and the branches of the Delaware River. In exchange the realism writers, Indians received many gifts, including six guns (one for prices, each of the six chiefs of the Iroquois). (20) In 1734 John Penn arrived in writers, Philadelphia to join Thomas in a scheme to make the province show a profit. They further alienated the colonists by insisting they pay their quitrents (rent paid by a freeholder in lieu of services) and dues as contracted, a requirement quietly overlooked by the former governors. Benjamin Franklin, a leader in America's democracy, clashed constantly with them due to their dissonant ideologies. He noted in a letter to a friend: I am astonished to see him [Thomas Penn] thus meanly give up his father's character and behaviour conceived at realism that moment a more cordial and thorough contempt for define behaviour, him than I ever before felt for any man living a contempt that I cannot express in words, but I believe my countenance expressed it strongly, and that his brother [John] who was looking at realism writers me must have observed it. Franklin noted that the Proprietors will be gibbeted as they deserve, to rot and stink in the nostrils of posterity (Thompson 27).

(21) In 1735 the brothers Penn were scheming to obtain the Minisink lands from the Delawares under Chief Nutimas. As they met with the chief, they were secretly having the route of the new purchase surveyed by some of the men who would later make the character traits, 65-mile walk. (22) Thomas Penn found a fellow conspirator in William Allen, the heir to the colony's largest fortune. Penn was looking for ways to writers, turn a shrewd business deal, and definition Allen admired the appearance of pseudo-royalty that the realism writers, son of the Founder possessed -- both enjoyed the life of country squires. Soon after they became proprietors in 1727, the antigone, Penns had sold 8,000 acres of prime Indian hunting grounds (in Bucks County just north of writers Philadelphia) to Allen in order to raise cash. Now Allen and his friends were re-selling parcels of this land to private individuals; since the define behaviour, sales were technically illegal, the writers, dates of the original grants were omitted. (23) The Penns were growing uneasy that these transactions would get out of hand and cause trouble among the Delawares, so they decided to definition of stereotypical, secure a large area of the Delaware lands to the north. Allen held title to writers, thousands of definition acres of the realism writers, Delawares' best timber land above the Blue Mountains. This hunting land was vital to the existence of amityville massacre these tribes who placed little value on farm land held by the white settlers that the Indians had sold off previously. (24) When Governor Gordon died in realism writers, 1736, James Logan became the new governor, and the Penns found the perfect agent to acquire more Indian lands. Since William Penn had appointed him as his agent in 1701, Logan had been a valuable and trusted secretary.

Involved in Indian negotiations for three decades, he enjoyed the full confidence of the Indians. The Penns requested him to call a conference with the Delaware chiefs to amityville, discuss a mysterious deed dated 1686 that the sons claimed had never been fulfilled. The Walking Purchase Fraud of realism 1737 -- ye Running Walk (25) This sad chapter in Pennsylvania's history can be attributed to a number of circumstances: 1) the population in Pennsylvania had exploded from case speluncean explorers, 20,000 inhabitants at the time of William Penn's departure in 1701 to writers, 100,000 by 1740, and the colony needed to acquire more territory; 2) John and Thomas Penn were encumbered with paying off their father's debts; 3) these two sons expected to be treated as nobility in the province whereas at home in England they were actually part of lower middle class society. (26) Merrell encapsulates the starbucks prices uk 2014, significance of this fraud by comparing it with another land-grabbing scheme in 1728 in the Tulpehocken Valley. Writers! In the antigone character, 1720s the Delawares complained about colonial encroachment on Indian lands in the area; their request for provincial officials to stop the rapid white settlement of Delaware land by white settlers was ignoredmuch to their disappointment.

The Tulpehocken event was insignificant compared to writers, the resentment over the so-called Walking Purchase of 1737, when William Penn's children, John and Thomas, acquired a vast stretch of the Delaware Valley. Brandishing a copy of the lost 1686 land sale agreement, they had convinced the Delawares to go along with the idea of amityville relinquishing as much land as a man could walk in a day and a half and then (ignoring protests by realism Delaware observers) sent seasoned runners down a prepared trail to cover as much ground in that span as they could. The Delawares soon learned that even this large piece of land (1200 square miles) did not satisfy their demands. Thomas Penn keeps begging plagueing us to Give Him some Land, they complained in 1740; he Wearies us Out of Our Lives (166,176). (27) At issue in the Walking Purchase was control of land in the Lehigh Valley. Tohicken Creek was recognized by both Europeans and Indians as the northern boundary of the land William Penn had purchased from the Indians. In 1726 Secretary James Logan privately purchased a tract of land beyond this line from the Delaware landlord Nutimus, paying £60 for definition of stereotypical, his quitclaim (transfer of all interest in real estate, especially without a warranty of title).

A series of purchases from the Indian landlords in writers, 1727 and 1729 alerted the Delawares that this land was a valuable commodity. Amityville Massacre! The Penns continued to sell land when they could get cash, without regard to Indian rights; they acted in full knowledge of what they were doing. (28) Crucial to realism, an examination of the Walking Purchase fraud is the controversial deed of 1686. At a meeting with the Delaware chiefs in 1734 (supposedly to renew friendships with the define, chiefs), Thomas Penn reminded them how fairly Brother Onas had treated them in years past. He then carefully mentioned certain adjustments that should be made in those lands in Bucks County that lately have had some claims made upon realism writers them, although formerly they were fully and absolutely released by the Indians living on those lands to his father. Chief Nutimas of the Minisi tribe gave no indication he would agree to any further purchase of lands in of stereotypical, the region. At another preliminary meeting a year later, Penn became more specific about these land disputes. (29) After a polite exchange of writers compliments and gifts, the brothers Penn produced a sheaf of old deeds signed by their father and the Delaware chiefs; the northern Indians did not remember the sachems who dealt with William Penn.

The Penns produced a deed dated August 30, 1686, that had been signed by define William Penn and three Lenape chiefs. Writers! Thomas Penn claimed it had never been fulfilled. For a considerable quantity of trade goods, the document was to have sold the following property: . all those tracts of definition of stereotypical land lying, and being in the Province of Pennsylvania, beginning on realism writers, a line formerly laid out from a corner spruce tree, by definition the Delaware River about Makeerickiton and realism from thence running along the ledge, or floor of the mountains west, southwest, to definition of stereotypical, a corner white oak marked with the letter 'P', standing by realism the Indian path that leadeth to an Indian town called Playwickey, Bucks Country, then the home of case speluncean explorers Chief Tamamend, or Tammany, who was counselor at the original Penn Treaty in 1682, and from thence extending westward to the Neshaminy Creek from which line the said tracts thereby granted doth extend itself back into realism writers the woods as far as a man can go in one-day-and-a-half, and bounded on the westerly side with the Creek called Neshaminy (or the most westerly branch thereof) so far as the Branch doth extend, and from thence to definition of stereotypical, a line. (blank space). to the utmost extent of the realism writers, said one-and-a-half days journey, and from thence to the aforesaid River Delaware and from thence down Several Cources (sic) of said Delaware River to antigone traits, the first mentioned Spruce Tree. And all this did likewise appear to be true by realism William Biles and Joseph Wood (witnesses) who upon their affirmations did solemnly declare that they well remembered the Treaty held between the agents of William Penn and those Indians. (Thompson 35) (30) The Penn's only appreciable income came from the purchase money laid down for large tracts of land, and the only open spaces large enough to locate large tracts were located over the Indian line. Nutimus and the other Delaware chiefs were demanding more money for the land than the Penns could pay, so they resorted to the Treaty of 1686 regarding land north of the 1682 purchase as far as a man could walk in a day and amityville massacre a half, between the realism, Delaware River and Neshaminy Creek.

A party of walkers was sent out to determine how far robust men could reasonably walk in a day and massacre a half; it was determined that woodsmen could (with a properly cleared path) cover well over forty miles in twelve hours. This information was exactly what the Penns needed; all that remained was for them to convince the realism, Delawares to sign the land away, a formidable task indeed. (31) The next step was to find written records to show the Delaware chiefs, and the best record they could find was a copy of the 1686 deed that outlined preliminary terms for a land transfer but with missing information about the define behaviour, direction and distance of the bounds of the tract. No signatures were affixed to writers, the document, and there was no mention of payments made. However, the Penns decided to outsmart the Delawares by arguing that their ancestors had sold this land to William Penn; they would use a document proving nothing more than preliminary plans had been drawn as proof that an agreement for a walking purchase had been signed, sealed, and paid. (32) After many meetings and negotiations and having seen a crudely drawn map of the define, territory along the upper Delaware River, the Indian chiefs acquiesced, being desirous to preserve and continue the same Love and Friendship that had existed between Brother Onas and the Indians, and ultimately they signed the release. Thomas Penn did not want the writers, Delawares to comprehend the huge tract of land he wanted to wrest from them, so the map depicting the area was deliberately distorted to reflect a smaller area. It was carefully prepared to give the impression to the chiefs that all they were relinquishing was the land below Tohickon Creek that the Delawares had been willing to release since 1686. The text of the release is as follows: We do acknowledge ourselves to be fully satisfied that the above described tracts of land were fully granted and sold by Mayhkeerickisho, Saphoppy and Taughaughsey unto said William Penn and antigone character His Heirs.

And for a further Confirmation thereof, We, the said Manawkyhickon, Lapowinsa, Tishcohan and Nutimas, do for writers, ourselves and behaviour all the other Delaware Indians, fully, clearly and Absolutely Release and forever Quit Claim unto the said Joh Penn, Thomas Penn and Richard Penn, all our Rights, Title, Interest and pretensions whatever of, in , or to the said Tract or Tracts of Land, and every Part and writers Parcel thereof, so that neither We, or any of Us, or our Children shall or may at any time thereafter have Challenge, Claim, or Demand any Right, Title, Interest or Pretentions whatever of, in or to the said Tracts of Land, or any Part thereof, but of and from the same shall excluded and forever Debarred. And we do further agree that the extend of the said Tract shall e forthwith WALKED, TRAVELED or gone over by PROPER PERSONS to be appointed for starbucks prices uk 2014, the Purpose, according to the direction of the aforesaid Deed. In witness, thereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals at Philadelphia, the 25th day of the month of August in the year --- according to the English Account, one thousand, seven hundred and realism thirty seven. Manawkyhickon (his mark) Lapowinsa (his mark) Tishcohan (his mark) Nutimas (his mark) (Thompson 50) (33) Francis Jennings notes that a comparison of the draught shown to the Delawares and a map of the Delaware Valley reveals the trickit was a simple matter of switching labels. Definition! What the Indians thought to be Tohickon Creek was marked West Branch River Delaware; streams appeared in a pattern the Indians recognized as the lower end of realism Bucks County, but the vlad dracul, illiterate Indians could not read the false names that extended the area far beyond the representation. The minutes and draught could be sent to England as proof of the righteousness of the Penns' negotiations as nobody in England would know the local terrain well enough to comprehend the trickery.

Only the realism writers, provincial enemies of the Penns could have interpreted the papers correctly, and they were not permitted to see them (37). (34) On September 19, 1737, three men set out on the infamous walk; inspired by the Penn's promise of 500 acres of land for the walker who covered the most territory, they walked fast and surprised the Indians by going northwestward away from the Delaware River rather than parallel to it. In eighteen hours of vlad dracul travel, sixty-five miles were covered, which took in some 1,200 square miles (three-quarters of a million acres), including the lands Thomas Penn had been selling since 1728. (35) Indian witnesses began to complain even while the Walk was in progress, and the Indians resentfully pegged the whole affair as an act contrary to the agreement and therefore null and void. Realism Writers! Thomas Penn released a large number of definition patents he had been withholding for sales by agreement some time since made. Settlers such as the Moravians made private extra-legal arrangements with their Indians to keep the realism writers, peace. The Delawares had reconciled themselves to definition, the white settlement, hoping that they would be compensated for their land.

When they received nothing, their resentment grew. In 1741 Governor Thomas and James Logan enlisted the Iroquois to run the Delawares off their land. Ultimately, the Delawares chose to revenge the settlers by joining the French in their wars against the English (the French and realism Indian War), although, as one Delaware sachem told missionary John Heckewelder, they never would have joined the amityville massacre, French in the Wars against the English, had they not been so shamefully dealt with at the time (Merrill 176). (36) Proprietary policies in handling complaints about the Walking Purchase restricted the Delawares because they had no recourse to justice. Displaced and highly incensed, they brooded the Injuries they had received in being cheated out of realism writers their lands (Harper 186). In 1756 they asked for a meeting to amityville massacre, discuss the Injustice [that] had been done them in Land Affairs (Franklin 153.) Chief Teedyuscung outlined the Delaware case against the proprietors regarding the realism writers, Walking Purchase. (37) In early 1756 Pennsylvania declared war on the Delawares, and Sir William Johnson, the British colonial superintendent of Indian affairs for the northern half of the continent, devised a plan to subdue them diplomatically.

By Royal Order in Council in 1759, Johnson was instructed to examine the complaints of the Delaware Indians regarding land fraud by antigone character traits the proprietors of Pennsylvania. His bias against the Quakers was no secret, but the investigation was simply in line with his official duties, not a conspiracy against the Delawares. The issue was not whether the lands should be given back to the Indians, who themselves had not suggested that, but whether the Indians could be reconciled to the presence of the whites. Johnson was opposed by a group of Quakers (the Friendly Association for Regaining and realism writers Preserving Peace with the Indians) who worked with the Pennsylvania Assembly to investigate Delaware claims. Johnson had been a rival of the Penns in Indian affairs, and the fact that they had suggested him argues that they were convinced of the justness of their position. Johnson's separate inquiry would be the final proof of the sincerity of the definition of stereotypical, Penns and realism of the English. (38) At the Council of the Six Nations held in definition of stereotypical, 1762 at writers Easton to formally settle Delaware complaints about the Walking Purchase, Johnson skillfully manipulated the proceedings. Starbucks! The lengthy defense of the realism writers, legality of the Walking Purchase was read; it was a complicated web of arguments that exhaustively demonstrated that the letter of the original deed of 1686 had not been violated by the Walk itself but never touched upon definition the main pointwhether the Indian signers of the 1686 deed had ever intended to (or ever had the realism, right to) sell lands north of Tohiccon Creek. (39) At the close of the four-hour reading that was not translated into Delaware, Teedyuscung, without being asked, said that he very well understood the purport, or meaning of what had been read (A.

Wallace 246). That he understood it is doubtfula legal defense in define, a foreign language would be difficult enough to understand at best and realism doubly so when it was heard without access to documents. But he was sick of the character, whole affair and was not anxious to be dragged into this embarrassing dispute between the Quakers and the proprietary party. (40) When Johnson asked Teedyuscung to prepare a reply (a written copy was given to him) and to have it put into writing (thus affording him full opportunity to writers, consult with his Quaker advisors), his reply was: Brother, Please to hear me what I am going to say.

What pass'd yesterday, neither I, nor my people understood it, as no one interpreted what was said. Brother, now you tell me you have orders from the King to see Justice done me. Brother, about five years ago, when Mr. Croghan was here, He had orders to see Justice done to me: now I desire as he did, for He went away, and did nothing at antigone all. Brother, I desire you'll let me have the writers, Writings which were read yesterday, that I may have time to massacre, Consider of them, as We did not understand what was read. I told you another Thing, which was, to let me have a Clerk, to write down what I have to say.

This is the request of Us all. Brother, I desire all my Brethren to attend to what I say. I do not Speak this only from my Mouth, but from my heart. (A. Wallace 247) (41) Teedyuscung decided the forces against realism writers him were too powerful, and he declared: I did not come to have a Difference, but to define, Settle matters upon a good Footing. I did not come to put my hand into your Purse, or to get Cloathing. Writers! I give up the Land to you, and the white People (A. Behaviour! Wallace 249).

The next day he delivered a document in which he relinquished all of his accusations and realism his claims to land: . as to the Walk, the Proprietary-Commissioners insist that it was reasonably performed; but We think otherwise: which Difference in opinion may happen without either of of the speluncean Us being bad Men; but this is a matter that Brethren ought not to differ about. Wherefore, being desirous of realism writers living in define, peace and Friendship with our Brothers the realism, Proprietaries, and the good People of Pennsylvania, We bury under Ground all Controversies about Land; and are ready, such of us as are hear, to speluncean, Sign a Release for all the realism, Lands in Dispute; and will Endeavour to to persuade the rest of our Brethren who are concerned, to Sign the same. (A. Wallace 249) The Delaware Indians (Lenni Lenape) A People Displaced by Trickery. (42) Removing the Delawares from their prime hunting grounds in Pennsylvania was not the result of the forces of nature, but rather it was through conscious choices, calculated alliances made secretly and under false pretenses, conspiratorial effort, collaboration with witnesses, a deceptive map, and falsified reports. Following the initial contact with white settlers, no event in Delaware history is as significant at the Walking Purchase. To understand this resistance, it is case explorers, necessary to look at realism writers the history of these Native Indians.

(43) The Lenni Lenape or Woapanachke (people living toward the rising sun) were called the Delawares by Europeans after the Virginians named Delaware Bay in honor of Governor Sir Thomas West, the third Lord de la Warr. They lived in small groups of case speluncean explorers about forty people and foraged for food; with the exception of corn, they raised very few agricultural foodstuffs, preferring to fish, hunt, and gather in realism, season. This social and vlad dracul economic organization resulted in a smaller population compared to the more sedentary, centralized groups such as the Iroquois. (44) In 1600 their territory extended from the Delaware Bay to realism writers, the Blue Mountain and definition of stereotypical from the realism writers, Atlantic coast to of stereotypical, the Delaware-Susquehanna watershed. Their lands included most of the present state of Delaware, all of New Jersey south of the Raritan River, and, in Pennsylvania, the realism writers, Delaware River drainage area south of the Blue Mountain. They were willing to give access, first to the Dutch and Swedes and later to the English, to specified lands in exchange for desirable goods (such as cloth, axes, beads), but they never intended to give up these lands. Explorers! Land transfers were ambiguous; documents marked by the Delawares conveyed to realism writers, all who could read them that they had given up, abandoned, and renounced forever their claim to starbucks uk 2014, the land. The Delawares neither read the documents nor understood the legal terms if they were interpreted for them, so they had a different view of realism writers these transactions. These differences in define behaviour, perception resulted in tragic miscommunications, e.g., the Walking Purchase. (45) At first contact, the Delawares recognized the superiority of the white man's tools: axes and hoes, needles and kettles, and, most importantly, firearms.

They soon found themselves dependent on the white man's good for comfort as well as survival. By 1682 when the realism, first colonists under William Penn's charter reached Pennsylvania, the Delawares for two generations had been engaged in the most lucrative trade goodsfurs, such as beaver, fox, otter, mink, deer, etc. In order to buy what they needed, the starbucks uk 2014, Delawares devoted their best energies to hunting. When their own territory was exhausted, they went farther afield and came into conflict with hunters of other tribes, e.g., the Iroquois. (46) In 1682 the Delawares occupied the southeastern Pennsylvania, but their overlords were the Five Nations, the Iroquois Confederacy, whose homeland was in realism writers, upstate New York. After the Iroquois defeated the Susquehannocks in western Pennsylvania in 1675, they set their sights on amityville massacre, the Delawares' land. As part of the realism, Five Nations, the antigone, Iroquois were a more powerful force than the Delawares. To obtain a better share of the fur trade, the Iroquois joined forces with the French against the English. At the Easton Treaty of 1758, the writers, Iroquois joined forces with Pennsylvania to make peace for of stereotypical, the Delawares over their heads and brought the writers, Indian war in traits, Pennsylvania to an end. Ultimately, the Delawares were removed from their lands. (47) These early inhabitants of Pennsylvania were a people endowed with some of the noblest traits.

There were no feudal laws or privileges for the benefit of the fewall had equal rights to the lands, to the game, and to the fruits of the realism, earth without any restriction or limitation whatsoever. They were astonished at the white settlers' desire for land; for definition of stereotypical, them it had no particular value except as it benefited everyone. Thus Thomas and John Penn found it easy to realism writers, take advantage of them. Taking their favorite hunting grounds by the Walking Purchase hoax stirred them to fight with a determined resistance, provoking Governor John Penn to go to war against them. The Delawares who were concerned with the Walk by which they were so grossly wronged deserve a tribute to their memory -- Lapowinsa, Nutimas, Sassoonan, Teedyuscung, and Tishcohan. (48) Lappowinzo was the chief orator at the 1735 Treaty with John and Thomas Penn; he signed the release of Delaware lands stipulated in the forged 1686 agreement. He voiced his dissatisfaction with the outcome of the Walk and complained that it was not fairly performed. (49) Nutimas raised objections about the increasing encroachments of white settlers at a meeting with Thomas Penn in 1733 on matters related to of stereotypical, land. He became the protagonist of the Delawares who opposed acceptance of the Walking Purchase confirmation deed. When he learned of the results of the Walk, he attached his name to a complaint in writers, 1740.

As a result, when he and other Delawares went to vlad dracul, Philadelphia in 1742 to writers, attend a council with Governor Thomas, Thomas instigated an definition of stereotypical Iroquois chief to writers, grossly insult the Delawares and ordered them from the starbucks, lands they occupied. (50) Sassoonan first saw William Penn in May 1683 when Penn negotiated the land purchases made later that year; he signed the 1728 deed that confirmed all of Penn's land purchases. He was unaware that white settlers would eventually force his people from realism, their hunting. Thomas Penn made sure Sassoonan was not present for the signing of the Walking Purchase release. (51) Teedyuscung is noted for his long and character traits arduous efforts to regain the lands belonging to his people; his ordeal ended with his murder in writers, 1763 by land-hungry settlers. Definition! His role in the 1762 Walking Purchase case was complicated by the Quaker faction's efforts to use him to create a controversy over the proceedings.

(52) Tishcohan complained to the government in Philadelphia in 1734 and was summoned to a meeting with John and Thomas Penn where he formally lodged a protest with the proprietors, alluding particularly to one white man who had settled north of the Lehigh on the pretense that the Penns had given him permission this they could not allow; they had not sold the land. The Penns evaded the realism writers, issue by producing the forged 1686 document. Tishcohan signed the of stereotypical, release for realism, the Walking Purchase. White Conspirators Selfish Motives. (53) Colonial mediators engaged in negotiations and dealings with the Delawares bore little resemblance to William Penn's benevolent blueprint.

They never shed prejudices that Europeans brought to America; instead, they embraced the idea that getting along with the Indians was only a necessary step on the road to vlad dracul, a future when those Indians would follow the forest into realism writers oblivion. No provincial go-between could resist the definition of stereotypical, land fever that afflicted British America, and none could deny the temptation to play on writers, the Delewares' trust to acquire more, such as George Crogan (a trader), Conrad Weiser (an interpreter), William Allen (a land speculator), and James Logan (a Pennsylvania official). (54) George Crogan was the most successful of the many traders in Pennsylvania who negotiated with the Delawares for furs. Arriving in America in 1741, he quickly sought and gained the moral and financial support of the wealthy merchants and colonial officials of Philadelphia. He set up trading houses in Lancaster and into the Ohio Valley with commodities such as rum, guns, gun powder, lead, flints, tomahawks, vermilion, blanketing, linen and calicoes, wampum, lace, thread, ready-made clothing, knives, brass and tin kettles, axes, traps, looking glasses, rings and silver jewelry of all kinds in exchange for definition, skins and furs that he sold to both colonial and British merchants. As early as three years after his arrival, he purchased 1200 acres of land in Harper's Ferry, Pennsylvania; in 1768 he received 100,000 acres in the Fort Stanwyx land lottery. (55) Was his main focus on fair trade with the writers, Indians?

According to Merrill, to advance his friendship with the Delawares, he learned their language, customs, and traits of character; most importantly, he regarded them as human beings (44-45). But his questionable acquisition of Indian lands and rapid rise to vlad dracul, power belie this reading. In 1756 he was appointed Deputy Superintendent for Indian Affairs for writers, the Crown and served at the Easton Council of the Six Nations in 1762 and was instrumental in character, the settlement of the Delaware dispute about the Walking Purchaseto the detriment of the Delawares. (56) Conrad Weiser's appetite for land was not as acute as was George Crogan's, but he too constantly pressed Indians to surrender more territory. He began his life in Pennsylvania as a squatter in realism, the Delawares' Tulpehocken domain and went on to a career that earned him substantial grants from friendly Indians and grateful proprietors. His methods of land acquisition included bribery, secret deals, and unleashing squatters on Indian lands. The Delawares regarded him as one of the world's greatest thieves. In the land rush, he did not envision, did not work toward, did not even want a world in which Indians and colonists could co-existquite the contrary; his greatest fear was that the Europeans and Indians would mingle. He served as the interpreter for the Delawares at starbucks the Easton Council of the Six Nations in 1762 and collaborated with the proprietaries to make sure Teedyuscung, the Delaware representative, was plied with enough liquor to keep him inebriated. (57) William Allen, a wealthy, eminent merchant in realism writers, Philadelphia, gained favor with the Penn brothers and made use of the power this liaison gave him to select and take only those lands that suited him.

He had little regard for Indian rights and claims. In 1727 he purchased thousands of acres of the best land above the Blue Mountains plus one tract of antigone character traits five thousand acres in 1735 at realism the present Nazareth and three thousand acres in massacre, 1736 along the Lehigh River in and around the present Allentown. These tracts were purchased without any right or even the knowledge of the Indians. Realism! He carefully omitted the dates on which he received these grants when he sold them to purchasers; Thomas Penn certainly was aware of these transactions. Allen was mayor of Philadelphia in 1735, a recorder from 1741 to 1750, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1750 to 1774. (58) James Logan, a shrewd and diplomatic provincial secretary, was the Penn family's executive in vlad dracul, the province for much of the first half of the eighteenth century. Realism! With the authority vested in him, no other single person (including William Penn himself) was more influential in Pennsylvania land policy.

Under his watch, Pennsylvania cleared land lying along the Delaware River northeast of Philadelphia of Delaware Indian claims. He made his fortune in land investments and trade with the Indians. He had a private financial interest in the Durham ironworks and case of the speluncean settlement just south of the Lehigh and by 1737 he devised a scheme to writers, take the amityville, forest land surrounding the ironworks from the Delawares. He had been the task of forging a permanent alliance between Pennsylvania and the powerful Six Nations, but by alienating the Delawares he was threatening to realism, do the province a double disservice. With a falsified map of the 1686 purchase, he persuaded the antigone, illiterate Indian owners that the lands around the ironworks were included in the 1686 agreement. (59) The chroniclers of history have portrayed these men as good examples of valorous forefathers in America's pre-Revolutionary War era, but delving deeper into their goals and realism performances reveals a different scenarionone of them regarded the Delawares as fellow human beings who rightfully owned the land on which they lived. Treaties and Agreements White vs. Character Traits! Indian View. (60) Merrill notes that for treaties between Indians and proprietaries in Pennsylvania, ultimately all paths led to realism, a clearing and all conversations to character traits, a councilold and writers wise People on both sides met in a National way by Treaties.

To forge or refurbish the of stereotypical, chain of friendship (and when the chain broke in the 1750s), mere messengers would not suffice. A meeting of the great Delaware sachems and the officials was paramount (253). (61) The Indian treaty was a form of literature with no single author. The Delawares suggested the rites and realism metaphors to be used, but they had to be adapted by character the Pennsylvania officials. Nothing quite like the Indian treaties exists anywhere else in the literature of the realism, world.

The Indian speakers live on in the actual words they spoke, face to face with their conquerors. Define Behaviour! The plain facts as the treaties presented them are alive with poetry no less than truth (Franklin xviii). (62) Benjamin Franklin printed the proceedings of realism writers thirteen councils, thus providing a fascinating stage on which the peoples of early America acted out the contest for continent. However, these minutes present a distorted view; the information on the printed page was the result of starbucks prices decisions by colonists who recorded the words spoken during a session and then altered them for publication. Thus omission, distortions, and deletions (some intentional, some not) crept into the published accounts. The written record did not cover an important part of these meetings talks in the bushes were essential; the Delawares believed in the harmonious feeling nurtured over days or weeks, not on some piece of paper. The colonial record keeper missed much of what happened.

(63) Treaty councils changed over the course of the colonial era. Earlier congresses (usually held in Philadelphia) were small, drawing two- or three-dozen people, and the recorders barely sketched the negotiations. Realism! After 1720 when Pennsylvania's population expanded, assemblies took place in Lancaster or Easton with large numbers of of the Delawares and scores of colonists. Fuller written accounts of the speeches and rituals of the treaties were more common, but the key issues were the samepeace and war, trade and realism writers land. (64) Surrounded by the powerful French and English in the early part of the eighteenth century, the Delawares were aware that only by remaining neutral could they survive in the face of immensely superior numbers and wealth. Therefore, at treaty after treaty, they made concessions only massacre when it was absolutely necessary, looked out for realism writers, the interests of the Indian trade and exacted or coaxed whatever they could in define, the way of realism writers goods and munitions given as peace-making presents. (65) The negotiators and mediators knew treaty culture bestfrom the council ground at midday to an Indian camp late at night to uk 2014, a governor's chambers at sunriseand their job was to soothe frayed nerves and short tempers to achieve friendship from generation to generation, none of which checked colonial expansion or erased bitter memories of writers past crimes. Councils where colonists acquired land (often by amityville massacre shady means) helped pave the writers, way for European invasion of the vlad dracul, interior of Pennsylvania while adding to the bad memories. At the end of the colonial period, the Pennsylvania officials and the Delawares, thoroughly disillusioned by what treaties had wrought, were ready to give up on them.

The very instruments that could have promoted harmony were useful in keeping the Indians in the dark. Realism! If the Pennsylvania proprietaries' defense against charges of land fraud took several hours to deliver in English, the translator gave (in Delaware) only a brief synopsis of the define behaviour, proceedings. (66) By the 1760s, it was clear to realism writers, both the colonists and the Delawares that treaties could never truly unite the two groups in the face of colonial expansion. After almost a century of treaties between William Penn's province and the Delawares, these gatherings, intended to bring them together, had essentially driven them apart. Understanding had ended in hatred.

After 1750, the Delawares were fully aware that treaties had been the means for colonists to acquire Indian landswithout the promised peace. (67) Negotiators George Crogan and Conrad Weiser were less in demand as go-betweens by the 1770s; both men were disgusted by and disdainful of the Delawares. Even these two men, so skilled at crossing the cultural divide, limited how much they wanted to get along and how close they wished to come. There was a deep divide between colonial and Indian worlds; instead of crossing that fault line, the negotiators personified and perpetuated it. It is no wonder the treaty culture failed. (68) The Walking Purchase fraud of 1737 is define behaviour, one of many attempts to justify the realism, dispossession of indigenous peoples, beginning with the Roman Catholic church documents that sanctioned the Christian Crusades and continuing through Columbus's discovery of the New World and the colonial conquests in the New World. (69) Why was this event hidden for many years? The answer is revealing: American historians have attempted to keep a low profile on the Walking Purchase because it was one of the most sordid pages in the records of Indian-white settle relationsmore so due to the involvement of the Founder of Pennsylvania's sons. The Delawares complained about the injustice of the Walking Purchase even before the completion of the walk, but they were totally ignored. In 1742 while the dispossessed and insulted Delawares sought justice for the loss of their lands, Pennsylvania officials worked to shade, twist, and finally bury the realities of the Walking Purchase.

In the beginning, it appeared to definition, be only a small affair that lay chiefly between the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania and the Delawares, but in realism writers, 1762 the incident became public knowledge when the Assembly of Pennsylvania (through their agent, Benjamin Franklin) brought the affair to the British Crown for investigation. (70) For the next century, little attention was paid to this event until the prices, Penn papers and memorabilia were given to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania in 1867. Realism! William J. Buck, a well known local historian, was given the task of cataloging the documents; he examined all the old deeds and documents pertaining to the Walking Purchase in great detail. Curious as to why the Penn family papers were so long withheld from the public, he noted that the records of define Thomas Penn were missing from July 2, 1736 to November1738. He believed these papers were intentionally destroyed by the Penn family to conceal the Walking Purchase fraud. (71) Buck examined the so-called Treaty of realism 1686 and noted that it was a crude forgery. Not only was William Penn's signature unlike Penn's well-known handwriting, but the terms of the treaty were ambiguous with a blank space to be filled in at a later date. Thomas Penn acknowledged that the 1686 Deed was a copy, but the original has never been found, nor was it ever recorded. (72) The consensus of of stereotypical historians through the first two centuries after the Walking Purchase occurred has been that the Delawares were passive victims, but more recent accounts show that they were active participants who influenced, shaped, and forged their destinies. Indeed they were conscious of the Walking Purchase fraud and complained about writers, it from their first knowledge of it. Their vicious attacks on the Pennsylvania frontier beginning in 1756 are the direct result of those unresolved complaints.

Buck, William J. History of the starbucks prices, Indian Walk . Realism! Printed for the Author, 1886. Cribbs, George Arthur. The Frontier Policy of definition of stereotypical Pennsylvania . Realism! Pittsburgh, PA, 1919. Harper, Steven Craig. Promised Land: The Holy Experiment and the Walking Purchase. Ph.D.

Dissertation. Lehigh University, 2001. Indian Treaties Printed by Benjamin Franklin: 1736-1762 . Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1938. Jennings, Francis. The Scandalous Indian Policy of vlad dracul William Penn's Sons: Deeds and Documents of the Walking Purchase. Pennsylvania History 37 (1970): 19-39. Merrell, James H. Into the American Woods: Negotiators on the Pennsylvania Frontier . Writers! New York: W.W.

Norton Co., 1999. Soderlund, Jean R., ed. William Penn and the Founding of amityville massacre Pennsylvania 1680-1684 . Realism Writers! Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1983. Thompson, Ray. The Walking Purchase Hoax of 1737 . Fort Washington: Bicentennial Press, 1973. Wallace, Anthony F.C. King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung 1700-1763 . New York: Syracuse UP, 1990.

Wallace, Paul A. Indians in Pennsylvania . Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1991.