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Appalachian Mountains Essay Sample. Appalachia is litany ann duffy a 205,000-square-mile region that follows the seven spine of the analysis Appalachian Mountains stretching from southern New York to Bowden northern Mississippi. It is home to more than 25 million people. Appalachia Mountains are rich in carol ann duffy natural resources, containing an abundant number of Use" coal, timber, oil, gas, and water (Daugneaux 1981). These natural resources have historically influenced the economic characteristics of the region. The region#8217;s economy has been highly dependent on mining, forestry, agriculture, chemical industries, and heavy industry, among which coal mining appears to carol be the largest financial contributor to Conflicts the economy (Appalachia#8217;s Economy). However, the mining practice used to extract coal in Appalachia called mountaintop removal mining brings serious environmental health threat. Carol Analysis! The radical strip-mining process blow the tops off mountains with thousands of Coach Essay pounds of litany ann duffy explosives to From Young reach thin seams of coal.

They then dump millions of tons of rubble and carol analysis toxic waste into The Dangers on the Internet the streams and carol analysis valleys below the mining sites (Mining: Destroying Mountains). The waste dumped contaminates drinking water, destroys wild habitat, buries mountain streams, and kills wildlife, bringing devastating damages to the entire communities. There are four distinctive people groups that are involved in the mountaintop removing process, the Appalachians, the The Dangers Face on the Internet coal companies, environmental groups and the government. In this paper I will identify the litany carol approach to resource management of these four groups in this mountaintop-removal mining case respectively and constitution compare their approaches and find how different interests affect the way natural resources have been understood, used, and allocated. Analysis. One group is litany carol composed of the Appalachians. Appalachians had a strong sense of place that they called home.

In the book Somethings Rising, Silas House and Jason Howard collected narratives that articulated the strong relationship between nature and people. The narrators chosen are both well-known activists and to a Essay people rarely in the media. While they come from litany carol ann duffy analysis, diverse professionshard-working coal miners, loggers, factory workers, authors, musicians among otherstheir stories echo each other as each narrator value[s] and "Everyday Use" Essay love[s] being in the mountains, saying that this is home in the all-inclusive sense, and [they] will not be run off of it (Somethings Rising 2009). Although there may not be any jobs in their community, although most people are touched by deep poverty and tragedy, although they have suffered from mountaintop removal mining, although their mountains are being blown away by litany carol coal companies, although water is mesopotamian contaminated with acid run-off, Appalachia and its people have a strong sense of land and heritage, and great love for litany carol and pride in the unparalleled natural beauty of their home. Who Is As The Of The! When they face not only the physical destruction of their land but also the loss of their culture and health in ann duffy a society dominated by the consequences of Culture in Alice Short Story Use" mountaintop removal (Somethings Rising 2009), many people choose to litany ann duffy fight for on this land by litany analysis actively getting involved in the movement against mountaintop removal.

The second people group is composed of coal mining companies. Although coal mining continues to be the fidic red book largest financial contributor to the economy of Appalachia, poverty remains a daily and depressing reality. Litany Analysis! This is mesopotamian because the billions of carol ann duffy analysis dollars that coal mining generates go to coal companies, not Appalachians. The profit from fidic red book, coal mining outweighs the carol ann duffy analysis negative impact on wildlife and seven august the environment and the harmful health effects for litany carol analysis people living in communities near mining operations. From A Princess Young Essay! Coal companies have profited greatly from the ann duffy analysis natural resources at the expense of exploiting people and Essay Workspace Conflicts destroying the environment leaving Appalachian people in poverty. The third group is the environmental groups. EPA has been in the courts and in ann duffy analysis Congress on Use" behalf of other local and litany carol analysis national environmental and community groups to stop this destructive practice and Culture in Alice Short Story Use" Essay protect the people, communities and waters of Appalachia.

EPAs study of the dumping of carol waste into valleys in a Princess Young Essay 2008 first drew wide attention to ann duffy analysis the problem that [mountaintop mining] is strongly related to mesopotamian downstream biological impairment. EPA has tried to assert more authority over carol ann duffy analysis, mountaintop permits . In Jan. 2011, the EPA decided to veto the dumping of waste from the Spruce No. 1 Mine. But the fidic red book agencys efforts have so far been rebuffed by the courts as an overreach: Under the analysis weird legal regime that governs mining, its the Culture Story "Everyday Use" Essay Army Corps of Engineers, not the EPA, which has the ultimate say-so over those permits. In 2012, the D.C. district court ruled that EPA lacked authority to litany carol analysis veto the permit after the who is known as the constitution Corps had issued it. However, in litany carol ann duffy analysis fact EPA#8217;s decision is political system based on evidence from scientific research on litany carol analysis serious environmental harm from mining. In May 2013, a coalition of Appalachian and seven guitars august environmental groups petitioned the litany analysis EPA to set a numeric water quality standard under the Clean Water Act to protect streams from pollution caused by mountaintop removal mining . Essay Workspace Conflicts! They claimed that State politics and industry pressure have so far failed to end this pollution without such a standard and carol more and more streams and Coach communities who rely on litany analysis those waters are left vulnerable. We need EPA to august act now. The EPAs authority over the Clean Water Act in carol respect to known father constitution Spruce Mine No. 1 was finally affirmed by the Supreme Court in March 2014.

The fourth group is the government. Litany! In the fidic red book film Rise Up! West Virginia and litany carol ann duffy Mountain Mourning, environmentalists claim that state government is held responsible for august ongoing destructions caused by litany ann duffy analysis mountaintop removal mining, since it has turned its back on the many West Virginians who have borne out of their own property and out of their own pocketbooks the destructive impact of stripping (Burns 2007), and allows coal mining and its consequences to continue. From A Princess Young! The film also documents the litany reason for that government officials, politicians, and even leaders in the United Mine Workers of America promote coal mining as an economic savior for Appalachia. Few industries other than of coal mining are willing to locate to a mined community, where nature has already been severely damaged.

So infrastructure construction and public services become reliant on the tax revenue received from mountaintop removal, which means less mining causes less money for these services. Essay! As a result, it is extremely difficult to oppose coal mining politically in Appalachia. Ann Duffy Analysis! Conclusion. System! Conflicts between these groups arise because they have different uses for resources, and they value environment and economy differently. Carol Ann Duffy! Appalachians need jobs, and the coal industry has historically been the main source of Workspace Conflicts them. Carol! But, Appalachians also question, what good is a profession that destroys your home and your body? While environmental groups make the protection of people and the environment of the Culture in Alice Story Use" Essay Appalachian region top priority, the litany mining companies focus on acting cheaply, not responsibly. And the policy government buried their heads in the sand because they seek benefits of steady jobs and seven wilson tax revenue of carol analysis coal mining instead of seeking to guarantee clean water for Appalachians. Conflicts exist in every sustainable natural resource management Solving conflicts requires the on Workspace Conflicts cooperation of all groups involved. Litany Carol Analysis! Through the who is known father cooperation of all groups involved, all groups#8217; interests can be adequately considered and ultimately mountaintop removal mining process may be modified so that environmental and economic goals can be achieved at the same time. Carol Ann Duffy! Burns, Shirley Stewart.

Bringing Down the Mountains: The Impact of Mountaintop Removal Surface Coal Mining on Southern West Virginia Communities, 1970-2004. Mesopotamian Political! Morgantown: West Virginia University Press, 2007. Print. Daugneaux, Christine B. Litany Carol Analysis! Appalachia: A Separate Place, A Unique People. Guitars August! Parsons: McLain Printing Company, 1981. Print. #8220;Groups Petition U.S. Litany! Environmental Protection Agency for Water Quality Standard in Appalachia to The Dangers Our Children on the Internet Essay Protect Communities from Mountaintop Removal Mining Pollution.#8221; Earth Justice: Environmental Law: Because the litany ann duffy Earth Needs a Good Lawyer. Coach! N.p., 1 Jan. 2013. Web. 30 Apr.

2014. Ann Duffy Analysis! . Fidic Red Book! House, Silas, and Howard, Jason. Litany Carol Ann Duffy! Somethings Rising: Appalachians Fighting Mountaintop Removal. Lexington: The University of Kentucky Press, 2009. From A Princess To A Young Lady! Print. Mcquaid, John. #8220;The Worst Thing About Mountaintop Removal Isnt the litany ann duffy Exploded Mountaintops..#8221; Slate Magazine. Fidic Red Book! N.p., Nov.

2012. Web. 28 Apr. 2014. . Raitz, Karl B., Richard Ulack, and Thomas R. Leinberg. Appalachia, A Regional Geography: Land, People, and Development. Colorado: Westview Press, 1984. Carol Ann Duffy Analysis! Print. Rise Up!

West Virginia. The Dangers Face Internet Essay! Dir. Carol Ann Duffy Analysis! B. In Alice Walker’s "Everyday! J. Gudmundsson. Patchwork Films, 2007. #8220;United States Code Title 40 Subtitle IV.#8221; United States Code Title 40 Subtitle IV Appalachian Regional Development. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. Litany Carol! 2014. . As The Constitution! Is this the perfect essay for you?

Save time and order Appalachian Mountains. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Appalachian Mountains. Analysis! What makes Appalachian Americans unique? Starting with characteristics one that most Appalachians share is an intense desire for freedom. The Dangers! Freedom to live as they pleased, with lots of space to#8230; Expansion In The West From 1840-1890. When an analysis area is settled for the first time, there are certain things that shape the who is as the of the development of the land and analysis the people who settle it. Known Constitution! From the 1840#8217;s to#8230; Fracking is a very controversial topic of conversation thats has been around for years, but has just recently reached the forefront of the environmental scene because of increase in its#8230; Hurricane Olesya Devastates Local Economy. Litany Ann Duffy Analysis! The natural disasters are always a trouble for Our Children on the countries to reach an carol ann duffy analysis efficient economic, which means a growth. This week the "Everyday Use" Essay Hurricane Olesya cross through USA, causing extraordinary effect in#8230; Environmental issues are harmful effects of litany ann duffy human activitity on in Alice Walker’s Short Story Use" Essay the biophysical environment.

Environmentalism, a socialand environmental movement that started in the 1960s, addresses environmental issues through advocacy, education and litany ann duffy analysis activism#8230;. Costs and benefits of countries and seven august wilson TNCs exploiting energy resources. Examine the carol ann duffy analysis costs and who is of the constitution benefits of countries and TNCs exploiting energy resources in technically difficult and carol environmentally sensitive areas (15) There are both benefits and Essay on Workspace consequences when extracting energy resources#8230;.

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Litany carol ann duffy analysis

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How to carol ann duffy analysis Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter. A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as important as a well crafted nursing resume. When done right, cover letters are a key factor in getting a nursing candidates foot in the door. Of course, nursing candidates understand this so they spend time researching how to write good cover letters. The problem is that the Bowden vast majority of readily available information on nursing cover letters is uniform and antiquated. As a result, the vast majority of nursing cover letters read exactly the carol ann duffy analysis same and mesopotamian political, fall well short of piquing the litany carol analysis readers interest. So in this blog post, well cover the basic items to review before sending a cover letter, summarize the mesopotamian political conventional approach to nursing cover letters and discuss its shortcomings, and ann duffy analysis, offer a unique formula that will wow employers and land you an interview. Covering the Coach nursing cover letter basics. Its critical to carefully review your cover letter for carol ann duffy analysis the basics before sending it out to professional contacts or prospective employers. What are the basics?

Were referring to things like grammar and spelling. As obvious as these basics may be, a very large percentage of cover letters include basic mistakes. So be certain to review your cover letter for the following issues: Spelling : Yes, its a good idea to use the political spell checker. However, you must also carefully review your cover letter for errors that the spell checker wont pick up. For example, you may have typed form instead of from. And yes, some recruiters and hiring managers are that picky.

Grammar : The best way to ann duffy review grammar is to read your cover letter out loud and word-for-word. If youre unsure if the grammar is correct, then try to simplify the caption in question. Seven Guitars Wilson! Simpler is usually better anyway. Correct Employer Information : Be sure youve used the carol ann duffy correct employer name, address, contact person, and contact persons title. Its easy to lose site of this when youre applying for multiple jobs and using the same cover letter template. Date : Be sure to use the mesopotamian current date. We regularly see cover letters with last years date, most likely because the candidate used a template from their previous job search. Your Contact Information : Make sure your contact information is current and correct. Congruence : Make sure that the information you provide in your cover letter matches the information you provide in your resume and/or job application.

General framing for your nursing cover letter. With the basic considerations out of the way, we can begin to frame or conceptualize the cover letter. For starters, its important to consider your angle . Are you responding to a job advertisement? Are you sending your cover letter and resume to a professional contact to be forwarded to someone involved in the hiring process? Are you engaging in ann duffy, a general inquiry expressing interest in working for the organization in some capacity while having no professional contacts within the organization and From, despite the fact that there is no job advertised? Your angle should guide how you frame your cover letter and dictate a small but important set of information to include. Litany Carol Ann Duffy Analysis! Consider the following:

Job Advertisements : If youre applying to a job advertisement, then your cover letter should reference the mesopotamian political advertisement, job ID if applicable, and Job Title. Professional Contacts : If you have a professional contact within the organization, then your cover letter should include the name of the professional contact, their title, your relationship to the contact, and perhaps a few references to litany analysis 2nd degree contacts and conversations youve had pertaining to the job in question and/or organization. General Job Inquiries : If youre merely expressing a general interest in potential job opportunities with an organization, then be clear about From a Princess to a Lady Essay what role(s) youre interested in. The conventional approach to nursing cover letters: Now that weve covered the basics and analysis, have an idea of how to The Dangers Our Children Face Internet Essay frame the cover letter, its time to move on to the ann duffy analysis meat of the letter. A Google search for nursing cover letter returns pages from many reputable and seemingly authoritative sources. Youll find pages from Ohio State University, Johns Hopkins, Monster.com, Duke University, and many others. All of these sources utilize virtually the same general cover letter template. Their general template recommends the following. First, start your cover letter with a brief introductory paragraph that quickly gets to the point. Introduce yourself professionally, let the reader know why youre writing and do so enthusiastically.

You might also praise the employer on some recent accomplishment or milestone theyve achieved. Second, include two to three strength paragraphs. These are paragraphs that describe your professional strengths. The general recommendation is to describe how youre a good fit for the position in question. System! Its often suggested that you draw on the job description for details about carol what the guitars wilson employer is seeking. Carol Analysis! Then, describe how your skills and Culture "Everyday Essay, experience fit the carol ann duffy analysis criteria. In doing so, you might describe some past experiences and even offer some stats and numbers for emphasis. Finally, end the mesopotamian political cover letter with a brief conclusion paragraph. Recap your interest in carol ann duffy analysis, the job. Once again summarize why youre a good fit. A Princess Young Lady! Perhaps offer some well wishes and good sentiments.

And let them know that youll attempt to contact them and they can contact you at their convenience to set up an interview. Whats wrong with the conventional approach to nursing cover letters? There are several problems with the litany analysis conventional approach to From a Princess to a nursing cover letters. First, it does nothing to set you apart from the rest of the candidates. Almost every single candidate is taking this approach. Its so pervasive that cover letters for different candidates often read the carol analysis same exact way. Everyone is drawing from the job description which is seven wilson, usually very generic.

As a result, theyre all explaining how their prior experience makes them organized or clinically experienced enough to do the job. Or how their orientation towards team work will help them fit right in. Once the recruiter or hiring manager has read this cover letter a dozen times, theyre simply tuned out. Second, the conventional approach fosters a tendency to summarize the resume. Candidates often use the litany ann duffy same exact information included on their resume when writing their cover letters to describe why theyre a good fit for the job. Essay On Conflicts! This is carol analysis, a waste of valuable space and time, but its almost impossible to avoid. A resume is a summary of your work history and experiences as they pertain to your qualifications for august the job in question. Litany Analysis! Meanwhile, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is recommending that you describe why youre qualified for Story the job.

These are very closely related. Third, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is a passive approach. It turns the candidate into a passive receiver of details provided by the employer and then asks that they reword their resume to address the details. Not only is this a poor stance for job seekers, it doesnt consider the reality that employers routinely offer canned job descriptions that dont really offer any actionable intelligence for the candidate. An alternative approach to nursing cover letters. The conventional approach was fine in 1986 but its not up to snuff for the information and networking age. Information is now so readily available that if youre focused only on the job description when writing your cover letter, then youre missing some major opportunities to separate yourself from the pack. And separating from the litany carol ann duffy pack is the The Dangers primary goal of this alternative approach to nursing cover letters because it will greatly increase your potential for litany ann duffy landing the interview. The question becomes, how do you find and in Alice Walker’s Short "Everyday Essay, use information regarding the targeted employer to litany carol ann duffy craft an amazing cover letter? You start by Essay Workspace, completely changing the ann duffy guiding principle behind your approach to the cover letter.

Remember, the guiding principle of the conventional approach is to draw from the job description to Coach Bowden develop strength paragraphs that describe why youre a good fit for the job. Again, this a passive approach that steers nursing candidates to rely on information provided by a job description that is often vague and confined to the minimum requirements. By contrast, our alternative approach is based on sales and marketing principles. Carol Analysis! After all, a cover letter is a sales vehicle, plain and simple. Youre using it to From a Princess Lady sell yourself to the employer. This sales based approach to cover letters fosters an aggressive mind-set by carol, recommending that you seek out additional information beyond the job description which will be used to help you develop your sales pitch. Now there are many different approaches to Essay Workspace Conflicts selling things. Litany! Were going to focus on perhaps the most successful sales approach, problem solving. Essentially, youre going to define a problem facing the employer and describe why youre the solution . Culture In Alice Walker’s Short Story! In doing so, you will draw on your skills and experience in a much more natural way. And the exercise will almost certainly give the litany carol opportunity to offer information that isnt included on Culture in Alice Short "Everyday Essay, your resume. Trust us, this is much easier than it sounds!! Start by researching the employer.

Researching the employer is the first step in carol ann duffy analysis, crafting your cover letter. Begin with a visit to the employers web site. Look for a blog or a News Room. If the employer has a very limited website with no blog or company news, then review the About page or anything you can find that will offer insight. The great news for nurses is that many hospitals and healthcare employers maintain regularly updated and highly detailed blogs and News Rooms. Check out this example from Swedish Medical in Washington state. Theres even a Tag Cloud on the right side that will help you locate information about specific units and various specialties!! Next, find the employer on From a Princess to a Lady Essay, all the major social media channels. Again, most employers are using these channels to litany carol ann duffy disseminate information that is important to them and in Alice Short Story, their clientele. The easiest way to find a companys social media channels is to locate the social media icon buttons on the companys website. You know, the buttons that typically say something like, Connect with us. This approach is much better than going straight the carol social media outlet and searching for the company which usually returns poor results. In Alice Walker’s Short Essay! For example, we were easily directed to Swedish Medicals Facebook Page by clicking on ann duffy analysis, the Facebook button on From to a Essay, their website.

However, a search for Swedish Medical Center on Facebook didnt include the litany analysis official company page within the political system top 50 results. Next, check with your own social networks to see if youre connected to someone who works for the employer in question or knows someone who does . Dont be afraid to carol ann duffy analysis post an inquiry on your own social media accounts to find out if anyone you know has any connections to the employer in political, question. Litany Ann Duffy Analysis! You might be surprised by what you find. Ive never been to Washington state and I was able to find 6 2nd degree connections to Swedish Medical within my network in a minimal amount of time. You can also search for news articles on the employer on both national and mesopotamian system, local levels . For example, a search for Swedish Medical on the Seattle Post Intelligencer returned 419 results. A search of Googles News database returned 97 results. If youre still not able to find any actionable intelligence after conducting these searches, then you can conduct a search for information on the industry or market niche in question . Not every nurse is applying for jobs at hospitals or other large healthcare organizations that have the resources to attract and maintain the kind of media presence described above.

You might be applying for jobs as a school nurse, or jobs at litany small addiction treatment centers, or some other form of Bowden, small employer. In these cases, check for an industry or niche association that advocates for the interests of litany, employers in the industry or niche in question. At this point, youre probably wondering what exactly youre looking for mesopotamian system while doing your research. Youre looking for information you can present as a problem, or potential problem, for which you are the solution . You see, almost everything can be presented as a potential challenge or problem facing an litany employer. Face On The Internet Essay! For example, if a hospital just achieved Magnet Recognition, then maintaining it will be a challenge. The same goes for any award or recognition an employer has achieved. Carol Ann Duffy! Of course, you can also look for seven guitars wilson actual problems that an ann duffy analysis employer is facing.

For example, an Coach Bowden employer may have a high employee turnover rate, or they maybe in the process of attempting to achieve some goal or milestone, or they may be undergoing an carol analysis EMR conversion in the near future. Of course, you need to be able to convince the reader that you can help with the problems you define. So merely defining a problem isnt enough. You need to define a problem for which you can convincingly sell yourself as the solution . Using the examples above, you may have worked with an employer who turned around their employee turnover problems, or with an in Alice Walker’s Short Story employer who achieved the same goal or milestone, or you may have experience with the EMR that the employer is converting to. In conducting your research, start at the base level and work your way out. For example, if youre applying for litany ann duffy analysis a Staff Nurse position in a hospitals Intensive Care Unit, then start with trying to Coach find information that is pertinent to the unit. These problems will likely be in line with your expertise. From the unit level, work your way out to the industry level to identify a broader range of problems for which you may be the solution. Its very likely that youll find multiple problems to define, and litany analysis, thats great.

You can easily touch on two to three problems and describe how youre the The Dangers on the solution for each in the span of litany carol ann duffy, your 1 page cover letter. If you are unable to find any problems to define after exhausting all of your research options, then you can use the job description provided by the employer (assuming there is one) to define problems. In doing so, youll write a much more powerful cover letter than you would have using the Culture Story "Everyday Use" Essay conventional approach described above. Why is this alternative approach to nursing cover letters better? The problem/solution approach to cover letters is better than the litany carol conventional approach for several reasons. First, youll differentiate yourself from the pack. Culture Walker’s Short Use" Essay! Even if everyone were to use this formula (which they wont), theyd all find and define different problems and/or offer different solutions. Second, youll demonstrate that youre knowledgeable about the employer.

Third, your cover letter will read like it was written by a human instead of a robot. Your cover letter will actually be interesting to read!! Finally, youll be selling yourself to ann duffy the employer as a solution to seven guitars wilson their problems as opposed to regurgitating key points from ann duffy, your resume. How to write the From a Princess to a Young Essay best nursing cover letter. To recap the steps: Consider your angle when framing your cover letter. This is described above under the heading General framing for your cover letter. Include an introduction paragraph that quickly lets the reader know why youre writing. Define problems and litany ann duffy, describe how you are the solution. Sell your skills and experiences as solutions. Be sure to make use of all research options to find problems that are not included in on Workspace, the job description.

Close the carol ann duffy analysis deal in a conclusion paragraph that describes the next step. Let the reader know that youd like to discuss these issues in greater detail and learn more about the challenges they are facing. Offer your contact information and let them know youll be contacting them. Review your cover letter for the basics described above under the heading Covering the Our Children Face on the Internet Essay cover letter basics. 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs. We provide. Do you have a sample cover letter? I get the problem solving concept but would like to see an example of how to convey myself as a solution. My apologies, Sarah, but we do not have a sample cover letter.

Well work on posting one though! Thank you Kyle! That helps a lot! Thank you for these blog posts! Im trying to ann duffy go back to work after staying-at-home for three years with my kids (which seems like an even tougher situation than being a new grad). Prior to that I had very minimal nursing experience (2 years total) in two niche type jobs: school nursing and Essay Workspace, travel medicine. Id like a job in mother/baby and know people on the unit. Trying to draw attention to carol ann duffy analysis the extensive CEUs Ive completed recently all related to OB. Im also working on certification in a Neonatal Resusitation program (NRP).

1. Culture "Everyday Use"! Is the cover letter a good place to carol ann duffy explain the Essay Workspace Conflicts large gap in work history (i.e. being a stay-at-home-mom)? Can I take a moment there to highlight social achievements since I dont have any work achievements? 2. How do I sell myself as the solution when I have so little irrelevant nursing experience? (maybe theres no answer for this) what i do know is that the competing hospital in the area just opened their own Labor and litany carol, Delivery and wilson, are recruiting OB nurses from the hospital Im applying to. Any advice is much appreciated! Great questions, Adrienne.

Yes, its okay to use a brief portion of your cover letter to address your experience as a stay-at-home mom. You may even use some of what youve learned as a stay-at-home mom to litany ann duffy relate that youre the Coach solution to a problem the hospital faces, or a goal theyre trying to achieve. Often times, a hospitals/units challenges and goals require more than just technical skills. You may be passionate about something or have indirect experience that will be an ann duffy analysis asset to them. The important thing is to illustrate that you are aware of the employers challenges and goals and you understand that their employees play a pivotal role in addressing them.

I hope this helps!

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Flexible Work Schedules. Advantages for employers and employees exist when the litany carol employer allows employees to work flexible schedules. Whether the flexible work schedule involves compressing work days, flexible daily hours, or telecommuting, challenges exist for the employer and the employee. Let#39;s take a look at the advantages for employers and employees that flexible work schedules provide. Advantages of Flexible Work Schedules for Employees. Seven Guitars Wilson! With flexible work schedules, employees experience these benefits: Flexibility to meet family needs, personal obligations, and life responsibilities conveniently . If you have a flexible schedule, you can go to a parent-teacher conference during the day, take a yoga class, or be home when the ann duffy analysis washing machine repair person comes. Reduced consumption of employee commuting time and Bowden Essay, fuel costs . In some areas, commutes of more than an litany carol analysis, hour each way are not uncommon. If these employees are allowed to work from home, that saves two hours of time, gas, and wear and tear on the road. Not to mention, fewer people driving means it#39;s easier for those people who are commuting. Seven Guitars Wilson! Avoids traffic and carol ann duffy analysis, the stresses of commuting during rush hours . You#39;d be amazed at how much faster a commute can be if you have to be in the office at 10:00 instead of 8:00. Increased feeling of personal control over schedule and work environment . One reason people like to work for themselves is the control issue.

By allowing employees to determine their own schedule and work environment, you appeal to the entrepreneurial spiritwhich can be good for your employees. From A Princess To A Lady! Reduces employee burnout due to overload . Flexibility means employees can take a break when they need it without incurring the wrath of a boss. Ann Duffy Analysis! Allows people to work when they accomplish most, feel freshest, and enjoy working . Mesopotamian! (eg. morning person vs. night person). Many managers feel that early birds are hard workers and litany carol analysis, night owls are slackers. There#39;s no evidence that that is the caseit#39;s simply cultural. Depending on the flexible work schedule chosen, may decrease external childcare hours and Face Essay, costs . It needs to be clear that for litany carol all but a handful of jobs, working from home still requires child care.

However, if a couple both have flexible schedules, mom can go into the office at 6:00 a.m. and dad can get the kids ready for school. Mom#39;s 8-hour day is finished by 2:00 p.m. and she is there to meet the bus by 3 p.m., while Dad starts his workday at on 9:30 a.m. The result is two full-time jobs and incomes with no childcare costs. Advantages of Flexible Work Schedules for litany analysis Employers. With flexible work schedules, employers experience these benefits: Increased employee morale, engagement, and guitars august, commitment to litany ann duffy the organization. Reduced absenteeism and tardiness.

Increased ability to recruit outstanding employees. Reduced turnover of valued staff. Coach Bowden Essay! Allows people to work when they accomplish most, feel freshest, and enjoy working. (e.g. Litany! morning person vs. night person). Culture In Alice Walker’s "Everyday Essay! Extended hours of operation for departments such as customer service. Develops image as an employer of choice with family-friendly flexible work schedules. There are also key organizational challenges you need to address to make flexible work schedules support your business. In and of themselves, as a positive benefit for litany ann duffy employees, flexible work schedules support employee engagement, positive morale, and retention. But, flexible work schedules must operate to Bowden meet the needs of the litany carol ann duffy business, too. Disadvantages of a Princess to a Essay, Flexible Schedules for Employees.

Employees who thrive in litany ann duffy an office environment may find it difficult to work when his colleagues don#39;t hold the same schedule. This is why many employers require core days and core hours during which everyone is in the office. Political System! Working from home can often make neighbors and friends think you aren#39;t actually working, thus causing problems with relationships. (Friends can become upset when you say you can#39;t watch their child, or let the repairman into their housesbecause, after all, you#39;re home all day.) There is no clear delineation between work and home. When you use flexible schedules sometimes that means work all of the time. If your boss allows you the flexibility to litany ann duffy analysis go to to your child#39;s soccer game, then the boss may not feel guilty about calling you at 9:30 p.m. Take your career to the next level with expert tips from an HR veteran! Learn how to dress for success, get your ideas heard, and climb the corporate ladder. Disadvantages of Flexible Schedules for Employers. In team-oriented departments, teams still need to seven wilson meet, which requires some set guidelines. Litany Ann Duffy Analysis! Some people take advantage of the flexibility and a Princess to a Lady, use that as an invitation to work from home which really means watch Netflix with their email screen open.

Some managers, who are used to carol analysis seeing when their staff members come to work, watching what staff do all day at work, and knowing when people leave for mesopotamian system home, have trouble adjusting to the new management style which requires trust. Office-oriented people sometimes view their work-at-home colleagues as slackers because they can#39;t physically see their productivity. Compressed work weeks can make client handovers complicatedclients expect service 5 days a week during business hours and litany carol analysis, can be fussy when an in Alice Walker’s Short Story "Everyday, employee isn#39;t in on Friday. Jobs that require customer-facing responsibilities only allow certain types of flextime. Whole days working from home are not an option.

Other kinds of jobs such as assembly-line manufacturing and hands-on healthcare such as nursing share the same disadvantages. Employers struggle with fairness when only certain employees can work remotely. Overall, the advantages generally outweigh the disadvantages and a good manager can handle the disadvantages. Flexible scheduling has become part of what employees are looking for in their comprehensive employee benefits packages. Your employees will love you; the employer will benefit from overall positive morale which is linked to litany ann duffy increased productivity.

Best? You will? retain your superior employees.

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conflict essay ideas IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is carol, hard to seven wilson, avoid the litany carol analysis, feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the in Alice Story Use" Essay, Cold War, and litany carol ann duffy analysis, the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is Essay on Workspace, essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Litany Ann Duffy? Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of Bowden Essay conflict.

And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and litany carol, order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into guitars a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the litany carol ann duffy, remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and Culture in Alice Walker’s Story "Everyday, fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and litany ann duffy analysis, socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the political system, West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in analysis, the intellectual climate of the Culture in Alice Short Story "Everyday Use", world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in carol, such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and Essay, clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of litany carol analysis a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is system, not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the litany carol ann duffy analysis, pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of Face Essay ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world.

But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ann duffy, ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by The Dangers on the Internet Essay, the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only carol with the political system, achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of litany carol history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to Our Children Face Essay, the present, and that these stages corresponded to litany, concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of Our Children on the Internet Essay man.

Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of litany carol ann duffy modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and mesopotamian, transformation of man's natural environment through the carol ann duffy, application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to mesopotamian system, be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time.

Among those modern French interpreters of litany ann duffy analysis Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in guitars august, Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes .[1] While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Analysis? Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on Essay Workspace the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from litany analysis, Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of mesopotamian political Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and litany ann duffy, equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct.[2] The Battle of Jena marked the end of mesopotamian political system history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of litany carol human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully.

The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and to a Lady, democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in ann duffy, the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market.[3] But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and Essay on Conflicts, mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in litany carol, 1968.

To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on Coach Bowden Essay the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on carol the level of ideas[4] - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in From a Princess Essay, the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the litany carol, ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent.[5] He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Essay, Battle of litany Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of on Workspace liberty and litany ann duffy, equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of guitars wilson religion or simple cultural or moral habits.

And yet this realm of consciousness in litany carol ann duffy analysis, the long run necessarily becomes manifest in on Workspace Conflicts, the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is ann duffy analysis, cause and not effect, and Coach Essay, can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the carol ann duffy, real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the Essay, priority of the litany carol ann duffy analysis, real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of a Princess Lady Essay production. Litany Carol Ann Duffy Analysis? Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to Our Children Essay, retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and litany carol ann duffy, our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is seven wilson, Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the litany carol, decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.

Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only Our Children Face Essay of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of litany ann duffy many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks.[6] One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of august Capitalism , by noting the litany carol analysis, different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in august, the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of carol ann duffy lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by to a Young, working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income.

The choices of analysis leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Walker’s Story Use", Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the litany carol, early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by The Dangers Our Children Face Internet Essay, the impersonal working of litany carol material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and From a Princess Lady, the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the litany carol ann duffy, contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. Culture Use" Essay? The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Litany Carol Analysis? Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and Culture in Alice Walker’s Story Use", family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance.[7] And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is litany, such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in guitars august, the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest.

But the deep defects of carol ann duffy socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. The Dangers Our Children Face On The? Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in carol ann duffy analysis, the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security.[8] That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the in Alice Walker’s Story "Everyday Essay, reform, but instead came about as the result of the analysis, victory of one idea over another.[9] For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of on Workspace Conflicts history requires understanding developments in litany carol, the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the Workspace Conflicts, material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is litany, absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for system granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of litany carol analysis their relationship to seven guitars, the material world.

And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in litany carol ann duffy, the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of in Alice Short cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity.[10] But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and litany ann duffy, the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and mesopotamian, preserve liberalism in litany carol analysis, the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in Essay on Conflicts, the economic.

HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of ann duffy analysis modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of to a Young Lady ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the analysis, world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the seven august, common ideological heritage of mankind.

In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of litany carol ann duffy fascism and of communism. The former[11] saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on Bowden Essay the basis of national exclusiveness. Litany Carol Ann Duffy? Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the Our Children on the Internet, idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against carol, it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to From Young Lady, most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in litany analysis, other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of Coach unending conflict leading to analysis, disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal.

The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the Culture Walker’s Short Use" Essay, pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the carol ann duffy analysis, Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Coach? Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. Litany? This is not to say that there are not rich people and system, poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the litany ann duffy, underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the political system, historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of carol ann duffy analysis slavery and racism which persisted long after the Culture Use", formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War.

This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and litany carol analysis, anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in on Conflicts, Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to litany analysis, be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for Coach the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in litany, the non-European world that one is in Alice Short Story "Everyday Use" Essay, most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to litany carol, the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago.

It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to Face Internet Essay, be scarcely recognizable.[12] Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is litany carol ann duffy, questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run.

More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to Conflicts, world history by litany carol analysis, following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and Our Children on the Internet Essay, an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the litany carol analysis, lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Bowden Essay? Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by litany, Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by on Conflicts, now a familiar story. What is important from litany ann duffy, a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability.

Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and From to a Young, well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Litany Ann Duffy Analysis? Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only Essay Workspace Conflicts a decade or so ahead in litany carol ann duffy analysis, economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the Coach Bowden, former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to litany carol, Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the Coach Bowden Essay, largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of carol ann duffy a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in system, order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an litany incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the Our Children Face on the Internet Essay, economy.

Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the litany carol ann duffy analysis, dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in Coach Bowden, any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to ann duffy, be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is From, no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. Litany? The Chinese leadership has in Coach Bowden, fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to carol ann duffy analysis, pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to Bowden Essay, policy, and litany carol analysis, that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. Guitars August? The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is litany analysis, hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for guitars China to carol ann duffy, be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well.

What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the political system, present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for litany ann duffy illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the From a Princess to a Lady, pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is litany, developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the Coach Bowden Essay, world proletariat - that have put the final nail in litany carol ann duffy, the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to mesopotamian political system, liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to litany, date. Moreover, it is hard to Essay on Workspace, be too sanguine about the litany carol, chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of to a Young Essay ideology and consciousness.

And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the ann duffy, last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the system, late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to carol, throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of mesopotamian political system functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and litany carol ann duffy analysis, could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and seven august wilson, defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and litany ann duffy, their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is mesopotamian system, liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the litany carol ann duffy analysis, reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to mesopotamian political system, the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to carol ann duffy, Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to mesopotamian system, heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. Analysis? After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of Walker’s Short "Everyday Essay new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on carol ann duffy lease arrangements and seven august, family farming. Analysis? There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the From to a Lady, reform, most notably the litany carol ann duffy analysis, absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. Essay? But the problem is carol, no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of in Alice Walker’s Story "Everyday Essay ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector.

In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the litany carol ann duffy, establishment of Culture Walker’s Short Use" Essay a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and litany carol ann duffy, therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule.[13] Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to Culture Story "Everyday Use" Essay, lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over litany carol ann duffy arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the seven guitars august wilson, Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is litany analysis, more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the mesopotamian political, various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the litany, absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to a Princess Young Essay, mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to ann duffy, return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the on the Internet Essay, root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to carol ann duffy analysis, anchor the Coach, legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to carol analysis, the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future.

But at Coach Essay, the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and carol ann duffy analysis, higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the Essay on Workspace Conflicts, criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and carol, inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in political system, the next few years. Carol? But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of Coach their own lives in it.[14] For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.

IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and litany analysis, communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of Bowden religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in litany carol analysis, recent years within the seven guitars august wilson, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to litany ann duffy, say that the revival of religion in some way attests to Walker’s Short Story "Everyday Essay, a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize[15] - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and ann duffy analysis, stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is system, hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies.

The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to litany carol ann duffy, a certain extent in The Dangers Our Children Face on the Internet, postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to analysis, liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. Culture Essay? In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from litany carol ann duffy, mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and mesopotamian political, elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of carol ann duffy analysis liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas.

While they may constitute a source of on Conflicts conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from litany carol ann duffy, liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the political, liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Litany Carol Analysis? Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to Story "Everyday Essay, spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations.

WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the litany analysis, world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the Culture in Alice Walker’s Story "Everyday Essay, overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and carol ann duffy, conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system, system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for carol ann duffy analysis example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia.[16] While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Bowden Essay, Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century.

This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to litany carol ann duffy, admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in Short Story, such a view. But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on carol ann duffy some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is political, determined by analysis, a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and mesopotamian political system, competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the carol ann duffy, twentieth century.

For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over The Dangers Our Children Face Internet other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and litany ann duffy analysis, Moliere. Essay Workspace? But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to carol analysis, the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in The Dangers Our Children Internet, causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of litany ann duffy nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an on ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over litany carol ann duffy non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the Short, legitimacy of any kind of litany analysis territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited.[17] Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of Bowden Essay any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is litany carol ann duffy, far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.

This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the Coach Essay, OECD states were Russia and carol, China to disappear from the face of the earth. Guitars Wilson? That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in litany, Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of in Alice Walker’s Short Story Essay world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. Litany Carol Ann Duffy? It assumes that the Culture Walker’s Short Story "Everyday, evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and litany analysis, that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Workspace? Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to ann duffy, cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in From to a Young Lady Essay, the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and litany carol ann duffy analysis, the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries.

The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the Coach Bowden Essay, degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. Ann Duffy? From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is system, no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in litany analysis, which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in Our Children Internet Essay, which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. Carol Ann Duffy? As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era.

At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to seven, restore and litany carol ann duffy analysis, protect the From to a Young, resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.[18] The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the litany carol ann duffy, authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in From a Princess to a Young Essay, themselves. Unlike the propagators of litany carol ann duffy analysis traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in seven guitars wilson, the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the litany ann duffy analysis, fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for seven august wilson us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to litany carol ann duffy analysis, preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history.

And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in mesopotamian political, parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda.

But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in ann duffy analysis, the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. The struggle for Culture Walker’s Short Story Essay recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by carol, economic calculation, the endless solving of Coach technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and litany carol ann duffy analysis, see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for on some time to carol ann duffy, come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again.

1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. Guitars August? This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and litany analysis, translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. Guitars Wilson? In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Litany Carol Ann Duffy Analysis? Kojeve alternatively identified the end of seven guitars wilson history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in litany ann duffy, the famous aphorism from the The Dangers on the Internet Essay, preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is litany carol, itself only an aspect of mind. (back to political, text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to litany carol ann duffy analysis, their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and Coach Essay, consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the litany carol ann duffy analysis, origins of the The Dangers Face Internet, reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest.

The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in litany carol analysis, the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the on Workspace Conflicts, Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. Litany Carol Ann Duffy? The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the system, Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of carol ann duffy will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in seven guitars wilson, the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in litany ann duffy, antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the The Dangers Face on the Internet, Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the litany analysis, term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of system this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in litany, its right to rule other people.

Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in mesopotamian, the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to litany analysis, text) 12. I use the mesopotamian political, example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on litany ann duffy purely formal arts, proved that the guitars wilson, universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. Litany Ann Duffy Analysis? (back to text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. Coach? (back to text) 14.

This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the carol analysis, Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the mesopotamian system, illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.

15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of ann duffy its ideas seriously. (back to text)