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Laura Mulvey Essays and Research Papers. Laura Mulvey's article Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema argues that in running man opening text, classical hollywood cinema there exists a different viewing . expierience for male and female spectators. In Hamlet? explain the basis of the theory. Do you agree? Since 1970's Laura Mulvey has been regarded as one of the most famous and well known feminist in film critic. through out man opening text histry, women's body has been used as a vision of rome social classes pleasure by men. women's bodies have been used to make profit for the males sexual desire. the women's. Female , Film , Film theory 1672 Words | 4 Pages. Laura Mulvey and Her Relavance to Contemporary Cinema. Conclusion Bibliography References Introduction. Part 1 Throughout my dissertation I will be exploring the classical cinematic . Man Opening Text? gaze and I will be trying to demonstrate that these theories and theorists such as Freud and Mulvey are now outdated, have no relevance and no longer relate to mcdonald contemporary audiences. I will also be examining new established forms of running man opening ‘looking’ and the new theories surrounding the different forms of cinematic gaze. I will be asking many questions.

Feminist theory , Film theory , Gaze 1719 Words | 7 Pages. Killer Joe and Gender Representations. representations of gender In William Friedkin’s “Totally twisted deep-fried Texas redneck trailer park murder story” Killer Joe Freeman 1 British . Murder? film theorist Laura Mulvey has spent her career using psychoanalysis to uncover pre-set molds and social expectations about gender and sexuality, to interpret classic Hollywood films. Mulvey has argued that there are three ways in running man opening, which gender is represented within Hollywood cinema. First, she argues that women lack control and meaning, thus fueling their. Classical Hollywood cinema , Female , Film theory 2301 Words | 6 Pages. Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema - Laura Mulvey In her Visual Pleasure and malaysia Narrative Cinema Laura . Mulvey utilizes psychoanalysis theory as a political weapon to demonstrate how the patriarchic subconscious of society shapes our film watching experience and cinema itself. Running Text? According to Mulvey the cinematic text is organized along lines that are corresponding to the cultural subconscious with is essentially patriarchic. Essay On Gender And Identity? Mulvey argues that the popularity of Hollywood films is determined. Feminist film theory , Feminist theory , Film theory 569 Words | 2 Pages. Man with the Movie Camera and the Male Gaze.

Man with the Movie Camera: The Male Gaze Between every audience and a film there will always lay a camera; this camera may seem transparent or not . visible, but nevertheless there is a camera and a cameraperson filming the scenes. Laura Mulvey , within her essay Visual Pleasure and running man opening text Narrative Cinema, coins the term “male gaze,” where the intermediary, the camera, is metaphorically transformed to motifs the eyes of a male, changing how we view cinema, as well as both men and running man opening text women immortalized on World A Tragedy of Miscalculation Essays, the. Cinematic techniques , Cinematography , Documentary film 1843 Words | 5 Pages. determining male gaze projects its phantasy on to the female figure which is man opening, styled accordingly.” ( Mulvey 750) Mulvey refers . here to classic Hollywood cinema. Is her analysis still relevant? Discuss in World, relation to running man opening films from the classic era and contemporary cinema. Refer to films screened in this unit and motifs in hamlet films of your choice with attention to mise en scene and running narrative structure.

Laura Mulvey identifies certain patterns in narrative cinema regarding the model of power between the gaze and. Cinema of the United States , Classical Hollywood cinema , Female 2234 Words | 7 Pages. heroine provokes, or rather what she represents. She is the one, or rather the love or fear she inspires in the hero, or else the concern he feels for her, . who makes him act the way he does. In herself the woman has not the slightest importance. Laura Mulvey's influential essay Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” expands on this conception of the murder trial passive role of women in cinema to running man opening text argue that film provides visual pleasure through scopophilia, and identification with the on-screen male actor. She. Feminism , Feminist film theory , Feminist theory 1086 Words | 3 Pages. Male Gaze in Vertigo Several film theorists have used a variety of malaysia tactics and view points to analyze feature films since their inception. One of . the most prominent theorists of running text those that analyze films from a feminist perspective is Essay on Gender and Identity, Laura Mulvey . Mulvey is famous for her essay “Visual Pleasure and man opening text Narrative Cinema,” which presents an array of theories involving the treatment of women in films.

Arguably the most notable idea presented in Mulvey’s work is the Roles and Identity existence of the “male gaze” in. Alfred Hitchcock , Feminist theory , Film 1079 Words | 3 Pages. how it is still very prevalent in contemporary modern culture through photography and man opening text other mediums, such as, cinema and advertising. I will be analyzing the . In Hamlet? photographic work of Cindy Sherman, E.J. Bellocq, advertisement and the written work of Laura Mulvey and man opening John Berger. Traditionally imagined, written and produced by men, advertisements have long depicted women as men want them to be, sexy, obedient, fragile, instead of as they actually are. Essay On Gender Roles And Identity? In this way, the male gaze is very predominant in modern. Cindy Sherman , Female , Feminist theory 2597 Words | 6 Pages. of gaze are categorized by who is involved and running man opening who is looking. Mcdonald? “The male gaze” which is a term whom Laura Mulvey introduced in . this piece of writing, “Visual Pleasure and text Narrative Cinema”. Mulvey suggests that women are typically presented as just ‘objects’ in film, serving a sexual purpose for men, she states “Women displayed as sexual object is the Colonization in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o leit-motif of erotic spectacle.” ( Laura Mulvey , 1975, 11) This essay will be an analysis of the identity of the gaze in mainstream film with a.

Feminist film theory , Feminist theory , Film theory 2401 Words | 7 Pages. being produced? What kinds of gazes are at work? How does power operate through the gaze? Is the gaze resisted? You do not have to running man opening text answer all of these . questions, but only Roles those that are relevant to text your thesis and World War 1: argument. Suggested Sources: Laura Mulvey Visual Pleasure and man opening text Narrative Cinema Amelia Jones (2003) (ed.). Colonization And Propaganda By Ngugi? The Feminism and Visual Culture Reader (Routledge: New York London), pp.

44-52. This essay is also available on Blackboard. Jen Hutton, “Gaga and the ‘Gaze,’ C Magazine 104. Discipline and Punish , Gilles Deleuze , Laura Mulvey 564 Words | 3 Pages. How Women Are Portrayed in Lynx and Cosmo. Lynx’s controversial ‘beach campaign’.

I will therefore be exploring what similarities and differences they embed due to their oppositional target audiences . and content. Running Man Opening Text? Throughout my research the main theory I will be linking to my texts is that of Laura Mulvey , her theory explores ideas of sexism and male gaze within the media industry. Hearst the publisher of Cosmopolitan describes the magazine’s target audience as ‘Fun, Fearless Females’, the alliteration of the ‘F’ sound connotes a sense. Advertising , Female , Gender 1106 Words | 3 Pages. -------------------------------------------- [ 1 ]. Mulvey , L. (1999). In Hamlet? “Visual pleasura and narrative cinema” in Film theory and criticism: . Introductory readings.

New York: Oxford UP. P: 834 835. [ 2 ]. Mulvey (1999). P: 835 836. [ 3 ]. Caruso, D.J. (2007) Disturbia. USA: The Montecito Picture Company. [ 4 ]. Idem. Running Man Opening Text? [ 5 ]. Zizek, S. World War 1: A Tragedy Of Miscalculation? (1991). Looking Awry, an introduction to Jacques Lacan through popular culture. England: The MIT Press. P: 67 till 69 and 116 till 123. [ 6 ]. Mulvey (1999). P: 837 till 842. [ 7 ]. Man Opening Text? Mulvey (1999).

P. D. Classes? J. Caruso , Disturbia , Film theory 1122 Words | 4 Pages. How Does the Representation of Women Change Between 1930-1960 on the Covers of Vogue? statuses however it did still impact those women Vogue targeted their magazine at, as they still were not able to work. Laura . Mulvey is best known for her essay, “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” written in running text, 1973 and motifs published in 1975. Her article was one of the first major essays that helped shift the orientation of running film theory towards psychoanalytic framework.

Mulvey was concerned with the feminist attitudes throughout film, she intended to make a ‘political use’ of Freud and Lacan’s studies. 1930s , Conde Nast Publications , Fashion 1554 Words | 5 Pages. the film. In Hamlet? This threat isn't taken seriously though and she fails to represent power, because she resembles the figure of the dominatrix, manufactured for the . male fantasy by running text the porn industry. In her essay “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”, Laura Mulvey (1975), illustrates how the unconscious of mcdonald patriarchal society has structured film form. She argues that narrative film uses women in order to provide a pleasurable visual experience for men by structuring its gaze as masculine through camera use.

Domestic violence , Feminism , Gaze 2493 Words | 7 Pages. The Pattern of Looks or the Identity of the Gaze to Develop a Critical Reading of Contemporary Mainstream Film. scholarly literature to support your argument. Running? The term of ‘Gaze’ describes the mode of viewing that reflecting a gendered code of desire, according to . Laura Mulvey’s famous feminist psychoanalytic film studies essay ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’ ( Mulvey , 1975) she introduced the concept of gaze as “how an Colonization by Ngugi Essay spectator views the people presented”. Mulvey using the Freudian theories of scopophilia to explain that the audience’s subjectivity is constructed from the visually enjoyable process of watching.

Feminist film theory , Feminist theory , Film 2530 Words | 4 Pages. drive the male characters, Women in cinema, even in action roles, are portrayed in a way that objectifies them, even if that is not the end goal of their . role. This repetition of the stereotypical gender roles correlates with Laura Mulvey’s theory of the Male Gaze.” Mulvey innovated the running man opening idea that active and passive aspects of scopophilia (the urge to look) are shared among the sexes. Relatedly, in his article Ways of Seeing, John Berger had already proposed that in Western culture, from painting. Batman , Female , Film theory 1708 Words | 5 Pages. film theories. Murder Trial? Concepts such as the man opening gaze and scopophilia were introduced in the analysis and study of films, notably from Essay Roles individuals such as . Man Opening Text? Laura Mulvey , Gaylyn Studlar and Gilles Deluze. Laura Mulvey uses Freud’s psychoanalytic theories and Roles and Identity concepts as “political weapons” to argue that cinematic spectatorship is influenced by patriarchal society ( Mulvey , 746). Running Man Opening? Women in films are often used to depict in voyeuristic and rome fetishistic aspects, two modes of the male gaze, throughout mainstream cinema. Film theory , Gaze , John Connor 2093 Words | 6 Pages.

“the Presence of Woman Is an running man opening text Indispensable Element of Spectacle in Normal Narrative Film, Yet Her Visual Presence Tends to Work Against the Development of a Story-Line, to Freeze the Flow of Action in Moment of Erotic. in moment of erotic contemplation” ( Laura Mulvey , “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”). Oj Simpson Murder Trial? Discuss the significance of this . observation in relation to one or more narrative films. Laura Mulvey’s essay appeared for the first time in “Screen” in 1975 and running immediately created quite heated debate that continues also today. It explores the objectification of women in mcdonald, classical Hollywood cinema or indeed any cinema conforming to that style of narrative. Laura Mulvey based her essay on psychoanalysis. Cinema of the United States , Classical Hollywood cinema , Film theory 2997 Words | 7 Pages.

only most relations between men and man opening women but also the relation of women to themselves. Colonization By Ngugi Essay? The surveyor of women in herself is male: the surveyed female. Thus . she turns herself into an object and most particularly, an object of vision: a sight.” Laura Mulvey took this concept further in what has become a well-known work of psychoanalytic film theory, “Visual Pleasure and running text Narrative Cinema.” She criticized the way narrative films reinforce the gender of the film’s viewer, by using a sequence of “looks. Culture , High culture , Laura Mulvey 1361 Words | 4 Pages. Kill Bill, Volume 1: Purging the Female Stereotype in Films. James Stewart, breaks his leg and is confined to a wheelchair. He becomes a voyeur from his window. The film is mainly shot from James Stewart’s vantage . point. His view personifies the “male gaze” in Hollywood cinema. Motifs In Hamlet? Film feminist theorist, Laura Mulvey set out to familiarize us with what she calls “the male gaze.” The male gaze is based on Sigmund Freud’s principles. She explains that in film, the audience is running, compelled to view characters from the perspective of the World War 1: A Tragedy of Miscalculation heterosexual male.

She further. Beatrix Kiddo , Cinema of the United States , Feminist film theory 1002 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of running Themes in Rear Window. is capable of more than he previously thought. By exposing her willingness to take risks he sees that there is murder, more to her than high society and fashion. He . Man Opening Text? now looks upon a guilty intruder exposed by a dangerous man threatening her with punishment Mulvey 207 . He is aroused by this new spontaneous side of her. From this scene we see that Lisa Freemont cannot become a part of the movie until she becomes a character in the movie within the movie.

This creates a new perception of Lisa for Jeffries and. Cornell Woolrich , Film editing , Film theory 1424 Words | 4 Pages. “Kill Bill” as a Feminist Statement. the way all audience views the oj simpson murder trial people presented in different forms of visual culture and to the gaze of those appearing in visual texts . Feminist film . criticism theory has pointed to man opening “ the male gaze” predominantly present in Hollywood cinema. Laura Mulvey , a British film theorist and maker, in her essay “Visual Pleasure And Narrative Cinema” argues that a cinema provides a spectator with different pleasures, like scopophilia, ( 587) which is a pleasure from looking and identification with the male.

Deadly Viper Assassination Squad , Feminism , Feminist film theory 2821 Words | 7 Pages. Analysis of Girl with the Dragon Tattoo. up for the stereotyping of women, as British feminist film theorist Laura Mulvey discusses in Essay on Gender Roles and Identity, her theory on the male gaze. Her . Running Text? depiction of the male gaze is twofold and Roles and Identity implicates that men in society are the bearers of the gaze, women merely considered “others”, and to enhance the perspective, objectifies and establishes women as objects in effect. This perspective breeds ignorance to the issue of running text female degradation, as Laura Mulvey discusses the perspective French philosopher Simone de Beauvoir calls. Feminist theory , Film theory , Gender 2705 Words | 7 Pages. Male Gaze Theory Depicted in American Pie.

these movements attained their main goal – the murder social change. One of the movements that was started by running the pioneers is the Male Gaze Theory. The Male Gaze . Theory, a feminist theory by Laura Mulvey , was developed in 1975. It happens when the audience, or viewer, is put into the viewpoint of a heterosexual male. Mulvey stressed that the dominant male gaze in mainstream Hollywood films reflects and satisfies the male. It applies wherever you have an malaysia audience and a text being presented to that audience. Female , Feminist theory , Film theory 1942 Words | 6 Pages. First film theorist Laura Mulvey she wrote Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema in 1975.

She came up with the idea of the Male . Gaze. The idea that the woman is passive and the male is active. So the woman is the image and man opening text the man is the bare of the look which very much indicates the man has the power of the woman. Oj Simpson Murder Trial? In vertigo this is evident within the first scene the Ernie’s Restaurant when Scottie goes to meet Madeline for the first time. Where they don’t actually meet, they don’t even make eye. Female , Feminist theory , Film 583 Words | 2 Pages. the way in which gender is running text, portrayed in the film. Laura Mulvey talks in detail about Essay Roles and Identity women and media in her chapter Visual . Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, in this paper Mulvey looks at the way in which a psychoanalytical approach to running man opening text look at film shows the constant patriarchy found within the history of film and classes how this notion is constantly reproduced within the structure of cinema and fascination today. The gaze used in cinema according to Mulvey is a male gaze and the women are “to-be-looked-at. Feminist film theory , Film , Film theory 3605 Words | 9 Pages. the subjacent manichaeism of melodramatic persons.” Laura Mulvey (the British filmmaker and critic whose theories are central to . new developments) also views melodrama as concerned with Oedipal issues, but she sees it primarily as a female form, acting as a corrective to the main genres that celebrate male action.

The family melodrama is important, she says, in “probing pent-up emotion, bitterness and running man opening disillusion well known to women.” For Mulvey , melodrama serves a useful function for women who lack. Feminist film theory , Feminist theory , Film 5899 Words | 15 Pages. for both male and motifs female in political, economic, and social issues. * Believes women are oppressed due to their sex based. Man Opening Text? * Social division . benefits for men. * Women in Colonization in Matigari by Ngugi Essay, the media are representation of “domestic way of living”. Laura Mulvey (1975) * Women are represented in which media emphasis on their sexuality and physical appearance. * Identified 3 common trends in Hollywood films: 1) Men controlled action and were responsible for moving narrative along. 2) Women are. Female , Feminist theory , Gaze 376 Words | 2 Pages. right to look' (Dyer 1982) Johnathan Schroeder posited ‘. to gaze implies more than to look at- it signifies psychological relationship of man opening text power, in . which the gazer is oj simpson murder, superior to the object of the gaze.(Schroeder, 1998)’ Keeping this in mind, in Laura Mulvey’s article ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’, she proposes that the running man opening text male gaze is paramount in trial, how women are looked at and presented throughout film and other mediums in media, using this study as a political weapon.

In conjunction with John. Female , Feminism , Feminist theory 2666 Words | 8 Pages. patriarchal or feminist? Will both or either feel pleasure in running man opening, watching it? Can this film be considered a feminist film? At first glance, Death Proof . is a patriarchal narrative, supported to a large extent by psychoanalytic evidence[3]. Laura Mulvey argues that mainstream Hollywood cinema is a representation of motifs in hamlet conventions as seen in the patriarchal culture, using mise-en-scene to running man opening text represent cinematic ideologies and motifs visual manipulation to create spectators’ pleasure[4]. Cinema’s pleasures are. Feminist film theory , Feminist theory , Film 3091 Words | 9 Pages. Using my own detailed examples explain. no clothes in many occasions.

One being when Leonardo’s wife is in the car wearing lace suspenders, she is viewed as a sexual object. Running Text? This is also the case . when she comes out of her bedroom wearing only social seductive lingerie. These scenes conform to Laura Mulvey’s male gaze theory. Overall, the media represents gender in running man opening text, many different ways. However the large majority support the hegemonic state that men are in power and females are weak. . Female , Gaze , Gender 468 Words | 1 Pages. Dana, the Virgin, has to die last, that’s if she dies at all. As Hadley says, “The virgin’s death is optional as long as it’s last.” The female characters . are defined only by their sexuality; nothing else about them really matters. In certain scenes Laura Mulvey’s theory of the ‘male gaze’ is prevalent. World War 1:? When Dana is getting undressed in her room, Holden finds out that he can see through a window into her room, but she can’t. We see the running text camera follow Dana up and oj simpson murder trial down as she takes off her clothes, then.

Bruce Campbell , Dario Argento , Horror film 644 Words | 2 Pages. Un Chien Andalou and the Language of Desire. or explicit. In some respects, Bunuel's Un Chien Andalou can be seen as a precursor (by more than fifty years) of running some of Laura Mulvey's . sentiments in her article Visual Pleasure and A Tragedy of Miscalculation Narrative Cinema. In this article Mulvey says that Hollywood. always managed to restrict itself to a formal mise-en-scene reflecting the running dominant ideological concept of the cinema ( Mulvey 747). She goes on to call for A cinema to be born which is radical in social, both a political and an aesthetic sense and challenges. Black-and-white films , Boy , Film theory 3331 Words | 9 Pages.

Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (1975) - Laura Mulvey Originally Published - Screen 16.3 Autumn 1975 pp. 6-18 . http://www.jahsonic.com/VPNC.html I. Introduction A. A Political Use of text Psychoanalysis This paper intends to use psychoanalysis to discover where and how the Essay Roles fascination of film is running man opening text, reinforced by pre-existing patterns of fascination already at work within the individual subject and the social formations that have moulded him. It takes as starting point the way film reflects, reveals and. Castration , Castration anxiety , Fictional film 5847 Words | 15 Pages. Representation of Lady Gaga in Colonization and Propaganda by Ngugi, the Fame Advert.

Lady Gaga is arguing Gauntletts and McRobbies views on feminism in magazines and adverts however, this advert is polysemic as you could argue different . points depending on who is reading it, so it could argue feminism but then also could fit into Laura Mulvey’s theory on text, the Male Gaze and also Sigmund Freud’s theory of and Identity The Madonna/whore complex. It can be argued that the ‘Fame’ advert does fit into the theory of the male gaze for running text a few reasons. Firstly, Lady Gaga being naked in the image encourages. Carl Jung , Film theory , Gaze 737 Words | 3 Pages. Film analysis of the opening scene in the film Laura (1944). In the opening scene of the film Laura , there is much to . analyse. Be it from Wa Thiong´o unusual casting options, to the cinematography, it seems that the director Otto Preminger knew exactly how to make the audience to think when making Laura . Casting is of a big importance when analysing the film Laura . What is running man opening text, interesting about Premingers work is how he makes unusual casting decisions, that always seem to make the feature a success.

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The company has come a long way since Laura and trial Bernard. Chief executive officer , Executive officer , Investment 890 Words | 3 Pages. They are similar.When Tom fights with Amanda on scene three, Laura is present all the text time and Essay on Gender hears what they tell each other. Because of her . fragile nature, she feels somehow hurt by their words even if it is not directly about her, when Tom goes infuriated, out of the house, and hits Laura’s collection with his coat, she shatters as the glass: “With an outraged groan he tears the coat off again, splitting the shoulder of it, and hurls it across the room. Man Opening? It strikes against the shelf of Laura’s. 2000 albums , English-language films , Laura, Marshall Islands 1343 Words | 4 Pages. Maria Winkelmann and Laura Bassi Comparison. ?Aaron Zaro 2/25/14 Professor Malczanek Women in Science Comparison of Maria Winkelmann and Laura Bassi Although women have made . great contributions in science, only a few were credited for oj simpson murder their work. Many of these women faced a wide variety of man opening challenges that inhibited their contributions to the science community. Rome? Others were unable to attain positions they were interested in, as women were often strongly criticized in the academic fields.

Although criticism lessened in the 20th century. Bologna , Gottfried Kirch , Laura Bassi 1040 Words | 3 Pages. Laura Ingalls Wilder, author of the “Little House” series of books on American pioneer life, was born on running text, February 7, 1867, in Roles, a log cabin near . Pepin, Wisconsin. Running Text? She was the second of four daughters born to Charles and Caroline Quiner Ingalls. Her siblings were Mary Amelia, who went blind, Caroline Celestia, Charles Frederick, who died in infancy, and motifs Grace Pearl.

Her birth site is commemorated by man opening a log cabin, the Little House Wayside. The story of the family’s adventures on the American frontier. Almanzo Wilder , Caroline Ingalls , Charles Ingalls 1192 Words | 4 Pages. Food in Laura Esquivel's Like Water for War 1: A Tragedy Essays Chocolate. Question 1: Like Water for Chocolate by Laura Esquivel Cooking is actually quite aggressive and controlling and sometimes, yes, there is . an element of running text force-feeding going on Essay, – Nigella Lawson Laura Esquivel’s novel Like Water For Chocolate is set in a ranch in Mexico and tells the man opening story of Tita, a young Mexican girl who, forced to obey her family tradition, is not allowed to marry the man she loves. As one of the motifs cooks, her whole life revolves around the kitchen, so much so that the food. Cooking , Emotion , Kitchen 1013 Words | 3 Pages. Goblin Market: A Poetic Tale of Laura, Lizzie and the Goblins. virtue, temptation, sexuality, and sisterhood being portrayed in the text.

The Goblin Market is about two sisters, Lizzie and man opening text Laura , and the . goblins that they encounter while fetching water down by the river one evening. The two sisters are very close to one another, and when they encounter the goblins, Lizzie immediately tells Laura to not speak with the motifs in hamlet goblins. Laura , ignoring her sisters plea, decides to stay by the river and is drawn to the goblins cries to buy their forbidden fruit. Lizzie. Christina Rossetti , Fictional goblins , Goblin 1484 Words | 4 Pages. The Supernatural as a Means of Protagonist Empowerment in Like Water for Chocolate by Laura Esquivel and the House of the Spirits by Isabel Allende. The Supernatural as a Means of Protagonist Empowerment in Like Water for Chocolate by Laura Esquivel and text The House of the Spirits by motifs Isabel . Allende IB A1 English HL World Literature Comparative Essay Word Count: 1496 Keri-Anne Murray Candidate #: 003072-058 World Literature Comparative Essay 1 In Like Water for Chocolate and running man opening The House of the Spirits, respective authors Laura Esquivel and rome social Isabel Allende use a connection with the supernatural to empower the protagonists in three. Isabel Allende , Laura Esquivel , Like Water for Chocolate 1620 Words | 6 Pages. Comparisons of Maggie of Everyday Use and Laura of The Glass Menagerie when the story takes place. In “The Glass Menagerie” we read about Laura , an running text introverted character who suffers from a childhood illness . causing her to have one leg shorter than the other leaving her to rely on the use of a brace. Social Classes? Throughout both pieces of literature we learn that both young ladies are being held down by their physical defects, which is all fault to running man opening their own.

Although both Maggie from “Everyday Use” and Laura from “The Glass Menagerie” are from two completely different backgrounds. Alice Walker , Confidence , Laura, Marshall Islands 1130 Words | 3 Pages. Laura Ashley and and Propaganda in Matigari Wa Thiong´o Essay Federal Express Strategic Alliance Laura and Bernard Ashley began their global presence on their . kitchen table in London in 1953 printing textiles hoping for a lifetime in the retail world. Growing to become a famous designer of running man opening text woman’s affluent clothing , fabrics and home furnishings, their style was that of the English rural life and quality to the consumer. The company’s competitive edge was strong as they focused on the needs of women with good tastes, yet still had.

Bernard Ashley , FedEx , Game theory 528 Words | 2 Pages. good story to them, but it no longer seemed quite the same story to me. As I thought over the coming complications of plot and motive, I lost courage and . decided to skim over dangerous ground quickly.” -taken from Shakespeare in the Bush by War 1: A Tragedy of Miscalculation Laura Bohannan We could say that in running text, this part of the motifs story, she had a hard time explaining the man opening text book the on Gender Roles and Identity way she wanted it. That is running text, why she had to avoid those hard-to-explain parts so she wouldn’t be questioned more. Another problem she encountered while. First Folio , Hamlet , Knowledge 1004 Words | 3 Pages.

treats Tita like “a servant in her own home” (Ibsen 3). Mama Elena denies Tita’s marriage to classes Pedro because of social . Running Man Opening Text? sanctions. All throughout the novel, Mama Elena is seen as an authority figure? this sets up the plot and background of the rome social descriptive and meaningful story. Laura Esquivel not only uses gender roles to create a background for the novel, but also magical realism. “Esquivel invites the reader to reassess conventional approaches to literature” (Ibsen 3). Esquivel wrote this novel with women as the text head of the Essay and Identity household. Authority , Fiction , Gender 726 Words | 4 Pages. The Changing Role of the First Ladies. In recent years, there are women that have made a difference in man opening text, the White House and in the world. Laura Bush is in hamlet, one of those women. She became . a first lady in 2000 after her husband, George W. Bush, was elected president. “Mrs. Laura Bush was a champion of man opening text President Bush's ambitious agenda and a gracious representative of the American people” ( Laura Welch).

Due to her background in education, Laura Bush dedicated herself to helping improve the education of the United States. She wanted to push the. Barack Obama , Bill Clinton , First Ladies of the United States 2573 Words | 7 Pages. her signs; by the age of motifs in hamlet seven, Keller had more than 60 home signs to communicate with her family. In 1886, Keller's mother, inspired by an account in running text, . Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of Essay on Gender another deaf and running man opening text blind woman, Laura Bridgman, dispatched young Helen, accompanied by her father, to seek out physician J. Julian Chisolm, an eye, ear, nose, and throat specialist in Baltimore, for advice.[12] Chisholm referred the Kellers to Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with.

Alexander Graham Bell , Anne Sullivan Macy , Deafblindness 902 Words | 3 Pages. and Museum.). 21st Century: Laura Bush and on Gender and Identity Michelle Obama Unlike the other former First Lady, Laura Bush manages to running go to the . extremes with her duties as First Lady. According to National First Ladies Library, “Education has been the primary focus of Laura Bush's tenure as First Lady and the issue that has bound all the various efforts she has spearheaded. When she eventually was able to deliver testimony before the Senate Education Committee on January 23, 2002, Laura Bush called for A Tragedy Essays higher teacher. First Ladies of the text United States , First Lady of the United States , John F. Motifs In Hamlet? Kennedy 2142 Words | 5 Pages. How Is the Character of Tita Presented in the Opening Chapters of Like Water for Chocolate? How is the character of Tita presented in the opening chapters of like water for chocolate? “Like Water for running Chocolate” by Laura Esquivel has . many complex and interesting ways of presenting and developing its characters. In this essay, I will present and explain some of the ways Laura Esquivel builds the character Tita from birth to nurturing, the role of her family and rome predetermined paths to show Tita as an imprisoned trapped character in the early chapters of the novel. Running Text? Firstly, the opening. Family , Laura Esquivel , Like Water for in Matigari Wa Thiong´o Chocolate 817 Words | 3 Pages.

Rivera, who would effectively serve as the man opening muse for A Tragedy of Miscalculation his future works. She is referenced in Florante at running Laura as 'Celia' and 'MAR'. Balagtas' . affections for MAR were challenged by oj simpson murder the influential Mariano Capule. Capule won the battle for MAR when he used his wealth to man opening get Balagtas imprisoned under the accusation that he ordered a servant girl's head be shaved. It was here that he wrote Florante at Laura —In fact, the events of this poem were meant to parallel his own situation. Essay And Identity? He wrote his poems in Tagalog. Bulacan , Filipino language , First Philippine Republic 850 Words | 3 Pages. incorporates characteristics such as hybridity, the supernatural, and the natural. Running Man Opening? Irony regarding the author's perspective and authorial reticence are also . Mcdonald? features of running text this genre.

In her novel, Like Water for Chocolate, Laura Esquival uses this literary technique. Roles? (Moore pp. 1-2) Laura Esquivel keeps the narrator at a distance from fantastic elements in Like Water for Chocolate, while allowing the narrator to respect magical elements. This technique is called irony regarding the author's perspective. Chemical element , Chemistry , Laura Esquivel 1194 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of the story Shakespeare in the bush. In the story Shakespeare in the Bush, author Laura Bohannan has an argument with a friend about the interpretation of Shakespeare's literature. . Running Text? Her friend stated that Shakespeare was a very English poet and that people of other cultures could certainly misunderstand his literal meanings. The author then argues that the Essays plots and running man opening motivations of Shakespeare's tragic plays will always be apparent because human nature is more or less universal through out the world. She does however take into account. Characters in Hamlet , Gertrude , Hamlet 1253 Words | 4 Pages.

work hard to rome achieve what I need. There was a plethora of actors in running text, this movie. Essay On Gender Roles? Some of the most prestigious actors were Jim Caviezel as the running man opening head coach, . Alexander Ludwig as one of the captains of the team, Michael Chiklis as the assistant coach, and Colonization and Propaganda Wa Thiong´o Laura Dern as the coach’s wife. James Patrick Jim Caviezel is an American actor and is best known for portraying Jesus in the 2004 film The Passion of Christ. Alexander Richard Ludwig is a Canadian actor, singer and model.

His notable film credits include. Actor , American football , Coach 1002 Words | 4 Pages. Filibusterismo, the reading of Noli is running text, obligatory for high school students throughout the archipelago. Florante at Laura (full title: . Pinagdaanang Buhay nina Florante at Laura sa Kahariang Albanya: Kinuha sa madlang cuadro historico o pinturang nagsasabi sa mga nangyayari nang unang panahon sa Imperyo ng Gresya, at World Essays tinula ng isang matuwain sa bersong Tagalog; English: The History of Florante and Laura in running man opening text, the Kingdom of motifs Albania: Adapted from some historical pictures or paintings that tell of what happened. Florante at Laura , Francisco Balagtas , Jose Rizal 1659 Words | 4 Pages.

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Twelfth Night Literary Criticism (Vol. 62) - Essay. Lauded by critics and audiences alike as Shakespeare's highest achievement in the comic genre, Twelfth Night (c. 1600-01) is an intricate inquiry into the nature of running text, love, gender roles, and the intertwining of life's tragic and comic experiences. Roles! A number of critics remain particularly fascinated with the complexity of the man opening, play's exploration of gender identity, as there are numerous layers to the characters' gender roles, as well as to their sexual attractions. Referred to as a subplot, the story of Malvolio and those who seek to rome, punish him for his puritanical ways threatens to steal the show, as some critics have pointed out. The relationship between the main plot and man opening text, this subordinate plot is therefore the focus of much critical examination. Additionally, the play's ending—in which so much confusion is undone in so short a time—also attracts a great deal of scholarly attention, particularly since Viola remains dressed as a male right up to the play's end, becoming Shakespeare's only cross-dressed heroine to do so.

The sexual relationships and gender roles in Twelfth Night are multi-layered. For example, Viola, a female character (who was played by in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, a male in running man opening the Elizabethan theater), is dressed as a male, Cesario, throughout most of the play. As a male, Viola woos Olivia for Orsino, resulting in Olivia falling in love with Viola-as-Cesario. And Propaganda Wa Thiong´o Essay! At the same time, Viola, though dressed as a man, falls in love with Orsino. Man Opening! Such critics as Lisa Jardine (1992) have explored the ramifications of these confused gender roles. Jardine focuses in particular on War 1: A Tragedy of Miscalculation Essays how the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in text Elizabethan England informs the Essay on Gender and Identity, play's attitudes towards cross-dressing. Both Viola and Sebastian, observes Jardine, are forced to seek dependent positions in households outside the circle of family relations, making Viola/Cesario sexually available to Orsino, and Sebastian sexually available to Olivia. In his analysis of gender issues in Twelfth Night, Michael Shapiro (1996) emphasizes the Elizabethan theatrical practice of men playing women's parts. Shapiro studies the psychological “anxiety” resulting from the theatrical portrayal of both sexual and emotional intimacy, examining in particular the relationship between Viola and Olivia, in which the audience witnesses the intensity of the running man opening text, exchanges between two women, played by two men, and and Propaganda in Matigari, the relationship between Orsino and Viola, in running man opening text which Orsino is drawn to the feminine qualities of Viola's Cesario. Like Shapiro, Casey Charles (see Further Reading) maintains that the relationship between Viola and Olivia is a significant one, more central to the play than many critics have acknowledged. The relationship between the two women, along with the attractions between Antonio and Sebastian and Orsino and classes, Cesario, emphasize that homoerotic desire is a primary concern in the play.

Charles maintains that these homoerotic relationships should be read within the context of Elizabethan theatrical culture. The critic continues with a discussion of the way the dramatization of homoerotic attractions criticizes the man opening text, social ideal of “imperative heterosexuality” by rome, underscoring the way sexuality is socially constructed through gender identity. The subplot, centering on the punishment of Malvolio, highlights some of the darker aspects of Twelfth Night. Many critics have noted the severity of Malvolio's punishment—he is humiliated, imprisoned in a dark chamber, and made to feel as if he has lost his sanity. This is running text, perhaps more than he deserves, some audiences and critics feel. Harry Levin (1976) examines Malvolio's role in World of Miscalculation Essays the play, commenting that the character is not present in Shakespeare's sources, yet his role becomes a “stellar” one. Arguing that Shakespeare's primary concern was to highlight the triumphant comic spirit, Levin suggests that the darkness integrated into Malvolio's story, much like the tragedy and running man opening, death that inform the circumstances of the oj simpson murder, lovers in the main plot, serves the purpose of intensifying the victory of the man opening text, comic spirit. Levin further notes that whereas chance drives the main plot, human contrivance orders the subplot. Jane K. Brown (1990) also explores the differences between the by Ngugi Essay, main plot and subplot. The critic finds that the two plots correspond to the two worlds depicted in the play—one ruled by Orsino and one governed by Olivia.

Brown goes on running text to discuss the murder, way Shakespeare represented the two realms differently, through the use of allegorical language in Olivia's world, and metaphorical discourse in Orsino's. While Levin and Brown study the ways in which the two plots differ from one another, Edward Cahill (1996) analyzes the way the two plots relate to each other. Cahill contends that both explore similar issues, such as identity and desire, both use disguise and performance, and both feature the pursuit of marriage. The critic also observes that the failure of the subplot to man opening, resolve itself injects a bit of tragedy into the play's otherwise comic ending. The ending of the play has also been a focus of criticism. The fact that Viola remains dressed as Cesario at the play's end has been noted by a number of critics, who suggest that Shakespeare allowed this in order to heighten the effect of the denouement, or to make a statement about gender identity. Jorg Hasler (1974) studies the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the ending of Twelfth Night, examining the mcdonald malaysia, dramatic form of Viola's ordeal at the play's end and comparing it to the endings of Much Ado about Nothing, and Measure for Measure . Hasler finds that all three plays end similarly, with the heroines standing in the center of the chaos. The critic also examines the endings of other Shakespearean plays for cases of mistaken identity, shipwreck stories, and similar patterns found in Twelfth Night . Yu Jin Ko (see Further Reading) begins an analysis of the play's ending by noting the similarity between Viola's rejection of Sebastian's embrace and running, Jesus's resisting Mary Magdalene's embrace after his resurrection. Ko demonstrates that this Biblical allusion serves to heighten the sense of longing, and argues that this intensified yearning is exploited throughout the play, largely in sexual terms. Ko explores how Viola's cross-dressing prolongs the sexual yearnings of World War 1: of Miscalculation, both Olivia and running text, Orsino, and oj simpson murder, examines the “curiously absorbing” nature of longing as it is dramatized in Twelfth Night. Access our Twelfth Night Study Guide for Free.

Criticism: Overviews And General Studies. SOURCE: “ Twelfth Night, ” in A Preface to Shakespeare's Comedies: 1594-1603, Longman, 1996, pp. 229-55. [ In the following essay, Mangan focuses on running man opening Shakespeare's extensive reworking of themes, characters, and situations used in Twelfth Night, noting that Shakespeare revised his previous attitudes toward many of the ideas explored in the play. ] ‘GIVE ME EXCESS OF IT’ Twelfth Night is murder, a play characterized by excess.

In the first few lines Orsino calls for an excess of music, and text, from that moment on the play stages a variety of excesses. On the most mundane level there are the literal excesses of murder, Sir Toby and his drinking partners and their revelries. There are the excessive and obsessive emotional states of Orsino and Olivia; the one overwhelmed by his unrequited love for the other, who is herself trapped in mourning for her dead brother and running man opening, sworn to wear a veil for rome classes, seven years. People act and react excessively, too: the trick which Maria and Sir Toby play against Malvolio is funny to begin with, but eventually turns sour. Audiences frequently find the ‘mad-house’ scene, in which Feste torments the imprisoned steward, uncomfortable, and even Sir Toby thinks that things have been taken too far and says that he ‘would we were well rid of text, this knavery’. World War 1: A Tragedy! The play encompasses an extraordinary range of tones and moods, from melancholy to revelry.

There is even an excess of text, characters in the play: Fabian seems to appear from nowhere and for no apparent reason in Act II Scene v, and then takes over the part which Feste seemed about to in Matigari by Ngugi Essay, play in the early stages of the plot against Malvolio. As for the plot, Shakespearean comedy is typically complicated in its narrative structure: even so, Twelfth Night is unusually ambitious in the number of running man opening text, narratives which it sets going simultaneously, and Essay Roles and Identity, the complexity with which they need to interrelate. It attempts simultaneously to create both the running, accelerating fugue-like structure of Colonization and Propaganda, a good farce, and running text, also a series of characters who are allowed their own space to develop emotionally complex or subtle relationships with each other and murder trial, with the audience. Running Text! There are so many narratives going on at the Essay on Gender Roles, same time that it is easy for an audience to lose track of everything that is happening. Plots of disguise and cross-dressing become interwoven with stories of mistaken identities, separated twins and running text, (again) lost brothers; tricks are played on classes several characters simultaneously; and there is not one love-story but many. As in As You Like It, all sorts of variations are played upon the theme of love and desire. But although there are many similarities between the two plays, Twelfth Night differs from As You Like It in the way it treats desire. In As You Like It a single kind of love-relationship, romantic love, was parodied in a variety of ways up and down the man opening text, social classes.

But the triangle of desire in which Viola is oj simpson, caught does not involve low-life shepherdesses like Phoebe, patently minor characters who can be relegated at the end of the play to their proper station in the sub-plot: she is running man opening, adored by trial, the Lady Olivia. Moreover, in Twelfth Night love takes on a greater variety of forms. Apart from text, Orsino's and Olivia's obsessive states there is also Viola's unspoken longing for Orsino; Olivia's impossible desire for and Propaganda Wa Thiong´o Essay, Cesario (finally translated into possibility by the appearance of running text, Sebastian); Orsino's fondness for ‘Cesario’ (which changes quite peremptorily into a willingness to of Miscalculation Essays, marry Viola); Malvolio's self-interested pursuit of running man opening text, his mistress, which leads to its own kind of on Gender Roles and Identity, excess as he dresses in his ridiculous costume; Sir Andrew's hopes of marriage with Olivia; Antonio's adoration of Sebastian; the fictional sister invented by Viola and her male counterpart, the flamboyant and text, imaginary lover in in hamlet the ‘willow cabin’ at the gate; Sir Toby's marriage to his partner-in-crime Maria; and not least the filial love of Sebastian and Viola, which is man opening, as intense as any relationship in murder trial the play. Twelfth Night is clearly concerned to show how many faces love and desire can have. Perhaps, too, how many faces comedy can have. It seems at times that there is more material here than can be accommodated in a single play—and this is not entirely surprising, for into Twelfth Night Shakespeare crams a whole series of themes, characters, scenes and situations which he has already used in running man opening several previous plays. Twelfth Night re-works, for example, the cross-dressing plot from As You Like It, with Viola following Rosalind's lead in donning male attire as protection, and then having to deal with the contradictions which arise from that disguise once people start falling in love with each other. Like another cross-dressed Shakespearean heroine, Julia in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Viola becomes page to the man she loves, and then finds herself in the uncomfortable position of having to plead his cause to in hamlet, another woman.

The cross-dressing plot is then interwoven with the ‘identical twins’ plot which was the central narrative of running, The Comedy of Errors. As in that earlier play, twins are separated by classes, storm and shipwreck; one of them arrives in a strange city to find an unknown woman who lays claim to his love; people are confined in lunatic asylums; misunderstandings arise about ransoms and gifts of gold; and old enmities between cities put at risk the lives of men who are seeking the person they love. From Much Ado About Nothing comes the scene in which someone is text, tricked into Roles believing that someone else is in love with them, while the tricksters look on. From As You Like It again comes the slightly dissonant ending: just as Jaques in the earlier play refused to join in the celebrations and man opening, return to court with the rest of the company, so Malvolio here, much more harshly, rejects the apologies and attempts at reconciliation, storming off-stage with threats of revenge. Characters reappear, too. The figure of the by Ngugi, jester, of course, has been used before, and Feste bears more than a slight resemblance to running, Touchstone, as Shakespeare and Robert Armin continue to develop the specialized clown role as a trademark of the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Rome Social! Several other stock characters, too, probably bear witness to the particular skills or comic routines of other actors: the inept lover Master Slender from The Merry Wives of Windsor, for example, reappears as Sir Andrew Aguecheek; the witty female servant Maria has antecedents in Hero's waiting women, Margaret and Ursula in Much Ado About Nothing, and man opening, Viola, as we have seen, replays Rosalind's breeches part.

It has often been pointed out that Sir Toby is an Illyrian equivalent of Falstaff: like the fat knight of the Henry IV plays and The Merry Wives of Windsor, he is a descendant of the figures of misrule from seasonal entertainments. Like Falstaff, Sir Toby has gathered round him a group of like-minded revellers, with the result that Malvolio accuses him of trying to turn Olivia's house into an ‘ale-house’—as if Falstaff's Eastcheap haunts were to motifs, be imported into Illyria. Even Hamlet finds echoes in Twelfth Night, although this is perhaps less surprising than it might seem at first, since the comedy and the tragedy were written very close together in and around 1600-1. Man Opening! At any rate, both of them start with a figure displaying all the signs of and Propaganda by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, mourning: Hamlet's ‘inky cloak’ is running man opening text, worn in mourning for his father, Olivia's veil is in memory of her brother. In Hamlet! In this respect Olivia may also remind readers and audiences of Portia in the early phases of The Merchant of Venice, as both are potentially prevented from loving by the influence of a dead relative. The list could go on. Nor is text, there anything unusual in itself about the fact that this play contains reworkings of old stories, characters and situations. Throughout his career Shakespeare continually re-uses material, adapting not only other writers' works for the stage (as was common enough in Elizabethan playwriting practice), but reworking his own ideas and narratives, giving new meanings to the stories he tells. 1 What makes Twelfth Night special is the relentlessness of motifs, these reworkings, the (again) excessiveness of them.

It is running man opening, true that shipwrecks, lost relatives, mistaken identities and in hamlet, love-triangles are standard fare in romantic comedy, but in Twelfth Night Shakespeare seems to running text, be attempting—almost desperately—to cram everything in. Twelfth Night is a compendium of Shakespearean comedy, and in it it is possible to see Shakespeare taking further, revising and War 1: Essays, rethinking his attitudes to some of the ideas which comedy had already been a vehicle for expressing. ‘AT OUR FEAST WE HAD A PLAY’ It may seem that this spotting of sources and intertextual relationships is a rather academic exercise: relevant to the classroom, perhaps, but not to the stage. Would Shakespeare have expected his audience to pick up references like these? Would they have noticed, or bothered about, the man opening text, similarities between one play and another? As it happens we can answer this question with a qualified ‘yes’. While we have no way of knowing how Elizabethan audiences in general reacted to the play, or what sort of expectations or understandings they had of it, we do have evidence of the response of one spectator at a performance of Twelfth Night. Twelfth Night, like most of Shakespeare's plays, was written with various possible audiences in mind. Mcdonald! It was to be performed at the still-new Globe Theatre, of course, but the Lord Chamberlain's Men would also have hoped, like Bottom and his friends, to be commissioned for performances at man opening court on the occasion of various festivities and celebrations.

There is even a tradition that the play was first performed before the Queen on 6 January 1601, on Twelfth Night itself, although there is little or no evidence for such a performance (indeed there is no record of a performance of this play at the court of either Elizabeth or James until 6 April 1618, two years after Shakespeare's death). There was, however, a performance at another prestigious, and possibly better-paying, venue in 1602. A student of law at the Middle Temple, John Manningham, kept a commonplace book in which he noted all sorts of details about his life. Murder! This book is known as ‘Manningham's Diary’, and the first entry for February 1602 reads: At our feast we had a play called [‘mid’ crossed out] Twelve Night or What You Will, much like the Comedy of Errors or Menaechmi in running man opening text Plautus, but most like and near to that in Italian called Inganni. A good practice in it to make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc. And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 2.

This diary entry suggests something of the murder, nature of the running text, audience for in hamlet, which Shakespeare was writing, by running text, showing us something of the Roles and Identity, mind of one Elizabethan play-goer: not a statistically relevant sample, of course, but useful nonetheless. It is running man opening text, a mind which is extremely well-stocked: Manningham, clearly, is well-read in both contemporary English, recent Italian and classical Latin drama. He not only picks up the resemblance to the Comedy of Errors, but is social, also able to trace both Shakespearean plays back to their common source in Plautus's Menaechmi. In addition there is the interesting slip of the pen in Manningham's first line: the word ‘mid’ is crossed out—as if he might have been about to write ‘ A Midsummer Night's Dream ’, briefly confusing one Shakespearean play with another (which also has a title referring to one specific night of the year). It is unlikely to have been pure coincidence that led Manningham to make the link with the earlier Shakespeare comedies. It would seem that Shakespeare as a writer had made enough of a name for himself by 1602 for an informed play-goer like Manningham to be able to discern an oeuvre.

Manningham, it seems, was aware not merely of man opening, watching a play but of watching a play by a particular writer, William Shakespeare. Manningham is judicious in his spotting of sources. Having recognized the twins' plot from The Comedy of Errors and Menaechmi, he goes on to consider the cross-dressing plot, which he correctly traces back to Italian comic traditions. Here, in fact, he may be conflating memories of two plays: the play which he names, Gl'Inganni (The Deceptions ), tells the story of a woman who cross-dresses and takes the masculine name of Colonization in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, Cesare, just as Viola in Twelfth Night becomes Cesario. It is also possible, however, that Manningham is actually thinking of another play, the anonymous Gl'Ingannati (The Deceived ), which resembles Twelfth Night even more closely. In it a young woman, Lelia, disguises herself as a boy in order to serve Flaminio, whom she loves, as a page. Running Text! Flaminio employs her as a messenger to Isabella, the woman he loves unrequitedly, and Isabella then falls in love with Lelia. Like Viola, Lelia is saved from these complications by oj simpson murder trial, the appearance of her long-lost brother Fabrizio, who falls in love with Isabella, leaving Flaminio and Lelia free to marry each other. We should not assume that the sophisticated awareness of intertextuality which Manningham shows was typical of play-goers in Shakespeare's London. Clearly, though, Shakespeare was writing for an audience which included a proportion of very well-informed aficionados of the running text, theatre, spectators whose experience of one play could be immediately related to memories of others.

He might well have been able to expect that the self-referential and intertextual elements of Twelfth Night would not have been altogether lost on his audience. Other things about Manningham's diary entry deserve comment. There is Essay Roles, his evidence, for example, that Twelfth Night was performed at text a feast. This particular play is rome social classes, especially suited to such an occasion: Sir Toby and his fellow-revellers in particular enact a story-line which is in itself ‘festive’, and the play bears the title of a feast. It would have been nice if Manningham's diary had provided evidence of the play being performed at some Twelfth Night celebrations; however, the feast at which Twelfth Night was presented to the Middle Temple seems, from the date of Manningham's diary entry, to man opening text, have been to celebrate Candlemas rather than Twelfth Night. The diary entry also gives a sense of what Manningham remembered most vividly from the performance. The romantic plot is mentioned only as it relates to sources, but what seems to have stuck in Manningham's mind is the trick played on Malvolio by Maria, Sir Toby and Feste. What Manningham carries away from the in hamlet, play is precisely the opposite of what the editors of the Arden edition of the play, J. Man Opening! M. Lothian and T. W. Craik, speaking for twentieth-century scholarship, say the modern reader is likely to experience: It is probably true to say that a twentieth-century reader, suddenly invited to oj simpson, recall Twelfth Night, will think first of Viola's scene with Olivia and Orsino (I. iv and II. iv), and in running man opening text particular of her ‘willow cabin’ and ‘Patience on classes a monument’ speeches.

3. They compare this with a typically nineteenth-century perspective on the play, represented by the words of the Victorian scholar F. Running Man Opening! J. Furnivall, writing in 1877, who saw the below-stairs plot as a rather irritating distraction, behind which the beauties of the romantic plot might be glimpsed: The self-conceited Malvolio is brought to the front, the drunkards and Roles and Identity, the Clown come next; none of these touches any heart; and it's not till we look past them, that we feel the beauty of the characters who stand in half-light behind. 4. Manningham's memories are different again from running text, this. He is not particularly interested in the shadowy half-light of and Propaganda in Matigari by Ngugi Essay, romantic beauty; for him the running man opening text, ‘self-conceited’ Malvolio's smiling, his yellow cross-gartered stockings and the tricks played upon him by Sir Toby and his companions are what make the greatest impression: A good practice in it to make the and Propaganda in Matigari by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay, steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc.

And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. Text! 5. These varying responses provide some useful information about the diversity of ways in which different ages have related to the ‘same’ play. The changing structures of feeling over rome social, the centuries, and the changing expectations both of art and life which people have brought to the text in various ages has meant that different generations have privileged different parts of the story. In addition, though, it is running text, worth noting how the Arden editors resolutely talk about ‘the reader’ rather than ‘the spectator’ or ‘the audience’. Manningham's response, on the other hand, is to a performance rather than to a text. It may be that the differences in perspective which exist between Manningham and the Arden edition owe something to War 1: A Tragedy of Miscalculation Essays, the difference between reading Twelfth Night and watching it. A play is a paradoxical kind of literary hybrid, one whose ‘success’ is in part measured by the number of times the running man opening, text gets staged and re-staged. In the course of this process, of World A Tragedy of Miscalculation Essays, course, the play gets altered from text, its original appearance. Twelfth Night 's history on the English stage between the 1600s and the mid-twentieth century includes such radical transformations as a version played at James I's court in 1623 entitled merely Malvolio; a Restoration adaptation by William D'Avenant; an incorporation of sections of it in Charles Burnaby's Love Betray'd: or the Agreeable Disappointment; an 1820s musical version by Frederick Reynolds containing ‘Songs, Glees and Choruses’ from other Shakespeare plays.

6 Just as Shakespeare cannibalized previous plays (including, as we have seen, his own) to create his texts, so his texts are cannibalized by later generations of theatre practitioners. But it is not only a matter of rewritings and adaptations. For each new staging, each new stage, each change of cast or venue means a different experience for Colonization in Matigari Wa Thiong´o, the audience. Manningham's diary entry tells us about an early staging of Twelfth Night, and reflects accurately an important theatrical dimension of the play which is man opening, not always obvious to the reader: the way in malaysia which the apparent main plot, the romance involving Viola, Orsino and running, Olivia, frequently has trouble holding its own in competition with the ‘sub-plot’, and the below-stairs activities of puritanical stewards and World of Miscalculation, drunken knights threaten continually to take centre stage. Man Opening! As with that 1623 performance at court, Twelfth Night can easily metamorphose into Malvolio. ‘I SMELL A DEVICE’ Let us focus, then, on the below-stairs plot. Act II Scene iii sees the ‘low-life’ characters of the play, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, Feste and (after a little persuasion) Maria holding a late-night party.

They drink, they sing—and they disturb Malvolio, who bursts into the scene full of rome social classes, righteous indignation: Malvolio My masters, are you mad? Or what are you? Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to gabble like tinkers at this time of text, night? Do ye make an alehouse of my lady's house, that ye squeak out your coziers' catches without any mitigation or remorse of voice? Is there no respect of place, persons nor time with you? His diatribe has little effect on World of Miscalculation Essays the revellers. Despite Malvolio's attempt to running, quieten them, they continue with their drinking and Roles and Identity, singing. Sir Toby retorts, ‘Art any more than a steward? Dost thou think because thou art virtuous there shall be no more cakes and ale?’ (II, iii, ll.

109-11). In this below-stairs plot of Twelfth Night Shakespeare stages once again the battle between Carnival and Lent. The confrontation between Sir Toby and text, Malvolio is emblematic: on the one side Malvolio's ‘virtuous’ mean-spiritedness, on the other Sir Toby, the representative of and Propaganda in Matigari Essay, revelry, with a surname which speaks for itself, and man opening, a first name which is pointedly and familiarly English in motifs in hamlet this alien world of Illyria. As in the famous painting by Bruegel, the personifications of Carnival and Lent confront each other directly. The title of the play itself draws attention to this confrontation. In Elizabeth's court, as elsewhere in Europe, the Feast of the running man opening, Epiphany on 6 January, Twelfth Night, was the occasion of the final phase of Christmas-time celebrations, and. … one of the most brilliant and Essay Roles and Identity, joyful court occasions. Before stepping down, the Lord of Misrule would announce his desire to round off with a kind of apotheosis and a whole succession of spectacular displays of music, dancing and feasting bursting like fireworks one after the other … Twelfth Night provided a fine occasion to hand out running man opening text, these titles of king and queen, which appear to have been very popular amongst the Essay and Identity, rites and traditions of folklore. Running Text! It was a mimetic ritual of royalty that was probably a survival from the old Saturnalia, giving the motifs, king of the evening a chance to masquerade as the monarch, derisively aping his authority … Masquerades and running man opening, fancy-dress mummings are another feature of the lavish amusements of Twelfth Night … Twelfth Night was the festival which brought to an end the long, eventful period of ‘Yuletide’ revels … 7.

The ambiguous nature of these Twelfth Night celebrations is significant. It was a time of revelry, a carnival time at which the world might be turned upside-down, a celebration presided over by the Lord of Misrule and the ‘King of the Bean’ (a mock king elected by means of a dried bean hidden in the festive cake: whoever found it in his portion was elected ‘king’). Oj Simpson Murder Trial! Yet it also marked the end of revelling: the Christmas holiday was almost over running man opening, and a return to work and the realities of midwinter imminent. We retain a memory of this in present-day Christmas customs: Twelfth Night is the night the Roles, decorations come down. Running Man Opening! The confrontation between the riotous world of Sir Toby and the sober world of Malvolio could hardly take place in War 1: of Miscalculation Essays a more fitting context than that of Twelfth Night. Sir Toby and running man opening, his drinking companions comprise an carnivalesque underworld, an alternative society to social classes, the ‘official’ world of man opening, Olivia and Orsino. This world has all the essential characteristics of Bakhtin's definitions of Essay, carnival.

The pleasures of the body are paramount; language—especially in Feste's hands—runs riot; and traditional hierarchies and class boundaries have become virtually irrelevant. Knights carouse with servants, fools and other unspecified members of the household. Sir Toby breaks all the rules of Elizabethan decorum by marrying his sister's ‘waiting-gentlewoman’, thus honouring at one remove Falstaff's promise of man opening text, marriage to Mistress Quickly. And Propaganda In Matigari By Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay! The analogy with Falstaff works theatrically as well as socially. While the man opening, social details of the motifs in hamlet, fictional settings are different, the dramatic functions of the two figures are so similar that it is difficult to imagine that the part of Sir Toby was not played by the same actor who created Falstaff. There are important differences, it is true. Running! Whereas in the history plays Falstaff had to carry the main weight of the plays' foolery, with Pistol, Bardolph, Nym and Mistress Quickly very definitely supporting roles, Twelfth Night spreads the comic burden more evenly. There is a fully-developed fool role in the character of oj simpson trial, Feste, and another excellent comic part in Sir Andrew Aguecheek; Maria, too, is a more interesting and better-established part than Mistress Quickly—indeed she has inherited some of the attributes not only of the witty servant, but also of Shakespeare's witty heroines such as Rosalind and Beatrice. Another important distinction between Twelfth Night and the Henry IV plays is geographical: in the history plays the world of Bankside was physically as well as socially distant from the running, court, whereas in Illyria Sir Toby's alternative world exists within the same household as the official one.

In Twelfth Night the confrontation between the forces of authority and those of War 1: A Tragedy, licence is played out on man opening text a domestic scale. It is not a class conflict, nor is it strictly to do with law and order. There is no opposition between the so-called ‘respectable’ world and a criminal ‘class’. Sir Toby is Olivia's kinsman and the revellers are of her household. The significance of these similarities and in hamlet, differences between Falstaff and Sir Toby Belch can be seen if we view the running text, confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio as a reworking of the confrontation between Falstaff and the Lord Chief Justice in Henry IV Part 2. In that play, which was first acted a year or two before Twelfth Night, the main narrative concerned the way in which Prince Hal, re-fashioning himself in heroic mode in order to become the warrior-hero Henry V, distanced himself from Falstaff's subversive carnival influence, and aligned himself with the forces of authority, sobriety, law and order, represented in their most extreme form by the Lord Chief Justice. In an early scene in the play the Lord Chief Justice encounters Falstaff and reprimands him, just as Malvolio reprimands Sir Toby. But whereas Malvolio is routed, the Colonization and Propaganda in Matigari, Lord Chief Justice is not: Falstaff attempts to answer him, but cannot get the better of running man opening text, him. Eventually, in Henry IV Part 2 the in hamlet, forces of running, authority triumph over those of mcdonald malaysia, revelry, and Falstaff is banished and running, imprisoned. Twelfth Night replays the same contest but with a different result: here it is the forces of World War 1: Essays, revelry which prevail, and Malvolio who is imprisoned, ridiculed and tormented. In production it is running, tempting to represent Malvolio as a stereotyped Puritan figure while Sir Toby becomes the Cavalier of popular imagination: aristocratic and rather dissolute. Such a staging has some historical justification.

One of the main social and economic tensions of early-seventeenth-century England involved the shift of real power away from the established but by now fading nobility, whose influence was based on land and tradition, towards the rising middle classes. They were much influenced by motifs, Puritan thought, and they were the running man opening, sector of Essay Roles, society which would, on the whole, profit most from the emerging capitalist economy. Thus the confrontation between Carnival and Lent might also be seen as a confrontation between the old order and the new, with Sir Toby representing the traditional values of an already-sentimentalized ‘Merrie England’ which is running man opening, being challenged by the likes of the socially ambitious Malvolio. Since, historically, this was. (The entire section is 11298 words.) Get Free Access to motifs in hamlet, this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to running man opening text, unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and War 1: Essays, essay.

We've broken down the running man opening, chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on mcdonald your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: “The Dramaturgy of the Ending of Twelfth Night, ” in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 279-302. [ In the essay below, originally published in 1974, Hasler analyzes the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the last scene of running, Twelfth Night . ] The final resolution of Twelfth Night evolves from in Matigari Essay, a process which engages the text, whole of the play's last scene. Furthermore, there is no lack of Essay and Identity, consistent theatrical notation in this scene. Employed with remarkable singleness of purpose, it is instrumental in shaping the build-up towards the strong impact of Viola's revelation.

Apart. (The entire section is 8110 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: “Twins and Travesties: Gender, Dependency and Sexual Availability in Twelfth Night, ” in Erotic Politics: Desire on the Renaissance Stage, edited by Susan Zimmerman, Routledge, 1992, pp. 27-38.

[ In the following essay, Jardine examines the treatment of crossdressing in running man opening Twelfth Night , as well as the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in early modern England. ] (The entire section is 5376 words.) SOURCE: “Anxieties of Intimacy: Twelfth Night, ” in Gender in Play on the Shakespearean Stage: Boy Heroines and Female Pages, University of Michigan Press, 1996, pp. 143-72. [ In the following essay, Shapiro investigates Twelfth Night 's exploration of sexual identity within the context of Elizabethan theatrical portrayals of sexual and emotional intimacy between men and between women. ] Now dated around 1601, 1 Twelfth Night, Shakespeare's fourth play with a cross-dressed heroine, continues his variations on this motif. Indeed, after Two Gentlemen each play of this type seems to be a deliberate variation on in hamlet its predecessor(s). (The entire section is 12479 words.) SOURCE: “The Underplot of Twelfth Night, ” in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 161-69.

[ In the essay below, originally published in 1976, Levin compares and contrasts the running man opening, main plot and subplot of Twelfth Night, describing Malvolio as the motifs in hamlet, star of the underplot. ] The kind of comedy that was practiced by running text, Shakespeare has repeatedly challenged definition. Though his last comedies have been retrospectively classified as romances, most of their components are equally characteristic of his earlier ones: love, adventure, coincidence, recognition, and occasional pathos. The problem is not simplified by. (The entire section is 3559 words.) SOURCE: “Double Plotting in Shakespeare's Comedies: The Case of Twelfth Night, ” in Aesthetic Illusion: Theoretical and Historical Approaches, edited by Frederick Burwick and Walter Pape, Walter de Gruyter, 1990, pp. 313-23. [ In the following essay, Brown contends that Twelfth Night has two plots, one ruled by Olivia and mcdonald malaysia, one ruled by running man opening text, Orsino. These plots, argues Brown, are dramatized differently and classes, correspond to two distinct worlds within the play. ] Doubleness of running man opening, all sorts is typical of Shakespearean comedy. Nowhere, however, is doubling so fully worked out as in Twelfth Night: or, What You Will, the only play for which Shakespeare himself. (The entire section is motifs, 5034 words.)

Charles, Casey. “Gender Trouble in Twelfth Night. ” Theatre Journal 49, No. 2 (May 1997): 121-41. Asserts that same-sex attraction—explored in the relationships of man opening, Olivia and Viola, Antonio and Sebastian, and Orsino and Viola-as-Cesario—is a crucial issue in Twelfth Night . Charles maintains that the portrayal of and Propaganda in Matigari by Ngugi, homoerotic attraction serves as a way of representing the social construction of sexuality through gender identity. Daalder, Joost. “Perspectives of Madness in Twelfth Night. ” English Studies 2 (March 1997): 105-10. Explores the ways in which the running text, concept of. (The entire section is 430 words.) Twelfth Night Homework Help Questions. I am glad you have identified that the ending of this excellent play is not entirely the in hamlet, happy ending that we would expect of a Shakesperian comedy. It is vitally important to running man opening, consider how the. The title Twelfth Night refers to the twelfth day after Christmas, which marks a holiday known as Epiphany.

Epiphany celebrates the arrival of the Magi, or Three Wise Men, to deliver their gifts to. Typically as one of Shakespeare's comedies, this play involves mistaken identities, cross-dressing, disguises and people falling in love with people they shouldn't fall in love with. Thus it is. Viola and Olivia are both gentlewomen raised to self-esteem, manners, breeding, wealth and luxury (Olivia more so) who both recognize and accept the role of Fate in their lives. This is where their. Dramatic irony refers to a situation in and Propaganda in Matigari which the audience or reader is privy to information that major characters do not have.

In Twelfth Night, one example of dramatic irony occurs when Viola.

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an essay on poetry Hurting Love: Reckoning Poetry's Costs In Gwendolyn Brooks' First Fight. Then Fiddle. Gwendolyn Brooks' First fight. Then Fiddle. initially seems to argue for the necessity of brutal war in order to create a space for the pursuit of beautiful art. The poem is more complex, however, because it also implies both that war cannot protect art and that art should not justify war.

Yet if Brooks seems, paradoxically, to argue against art within a work of man opening text, art, she does so in order create an artwork that by oj simpson trial, its very recognition of art's costs would justify itself. Brooks initially seems to argue for the necessity of war in order to running man opening, create a safe space for artistic creation. She suggests this idea quite forcefully in the paired short sentences that open the poem: First fight. Then fiddle. One must fight before fiddling for two reasons. World War 1: A Tragedy Essays? First, playing the violin would be a foolish distraction if an enemy were threatening one's safety; it would be, as the phrase goes, fiddling while Rome burns. Second, fighting the war first would prepare a safe and prosperous place where one could reasonably pursue the running text pleasures of music. One has to civilize a space / Wherein to play your violin with grace.

It should be noted further that while Brooks writes about oj simpson murder trial securing a civilized place to play the violin, she seems clearly to be using this playing as an image for art in general, as her more expansive references to beauty or harmony suggest. Nonetheless, much that Brooks writes about the necessity to fight before fiddling indicates the she does not support this idea, at man opening, least not fully. Colonization By Ngugi Essay? For example, Brooks describes making beautiful music as being remote / A while from malice and murdering. In addition to the negative way Brooks describes war in running text this line, as murder motivated by malice, the phrase a while significantly qualifies the initial command to First fight. Motifs In Hamlet? Then fiddle. Running Text? While this initial command seems to promise that one will only have to fight once in order to create a safe space for art, the Essay on Gender phrase a while implies rather that this space is not really safe, because it will only last for a short time.

War will begin again after a while because wars create enemies and fail to solve underlying conflicts. The beauty of violin playing remains illusory if it makes us forget that the problem of war has not really gone away. Brooks suggests moreover not only that war cannot really protect art but also that art is running man opening text not really a just excuse for war. Indeed, she implies that art might be responsible for war's unjust brutality toward others. Rome Classes? This idea is most evident in the poem's final sentence: Rise bloody, maybe not too late / For having first to civilize a space / Wherein to play your violin with grace. Though on first read it seems like this sentence repeats the man opening text warning to fight before it is too late, its language has a number of negative connotations that undercut this exhortation. Civilize might at first seem a laudable goal, but it is Essay and Identity also hard not to running, hear in this word all the atrocities that have been committed because one group believed another group needed civilizing or lacked civility. Moreover, if war inherently makes even civilized people uncivil because of its brutality, war's final achievement in the poem--a space / Wherein to play your violin with grace--seems heavily ironic. Grace can suggest a valuable beauty or refinement, but also more superficial manners.

And this possibility of merely superficial refinement, blind to the violence and even injustice committed in Colonization and Propaganda by Ngugi its name, is especially suggested by the image of having to rise bloody. The artist playing his violin so gracefully also has blood on his hands. The first hypothesis of the poem, that one can fight and then fiddle--that is, that once can fight and put the war out of man opening text, one's mind by playing beautiful music--has been replaced by a recognition that one cannot deny the violence that made beauty possible. World Essays? For at running man opening text, a minimum war continually threatens this beauty. Even worse, this war has perhaps been unjustly waged with the protection or promotion of civilized beauty as its excuse. This conclusion is striking since violin playing in the poem seems not only to in hamlet, provide a metaphor for man opening text artistic creation generally, but also writing poetry in particular. For by A Tragedy of Miscalculation Essays, its heavy use of alliteration, assonance and consonance, the poem emphasizes its own musicality, as if it were like a violin being played.

In just the poem's initial line first fight fiddle alliterate, as well as ring changes on man opening text, the different sounds of the vowel i; fight and ply assent; and slipping string repeats the Colonization and Propaganda initial s and final ing sounds. Moreover, the sonnet itself is a very refined artistic form, easily associated with the difficulty and cultural prestige of running man opening, violin playing. Indeed, as an emblem of Western civility (one thinks of Renaissance sonnets), the sonnet might be involved in trial the very justification of the destruction of other less civilized peoples that the poem condemns. One might wonder why Brooks produces poetry, especially the sonnet, if she also condemns it. I would suggest that by critically reckoning the running man opening text costs of sonnet-making Brooks brings to her poetry a self-awareness that might justify it after all. Rome? She creates a poetry that, like the man opening violin playing she invokes, sounds with hurting love. And Propaganda In Matigari Wa Thiong´o Essay? This hurting love reminds us of those who may have been hurt in the name of the love for running man opening text poetry.

But in malaysia giving recognition to that hurt, it also fulfills a promise of poetry: to running man opening, be more than a superficial social grace, to in hamlet, teach us something we first did not, or did not wish to, see.

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ethical essay format WRITING A GOOD ETHICS ESSAY. The writing of running man opening essays in Colonization in Matigari Wa Thiong´o, which you argue in support of a position on some moral issue is not something that is intrinsically difficult. However such essays may be rather different from those that you have written before. What I want to do in this handout, accordingly, is to describe some of the more important characteristics of such essays, and to offer some suggestions which you may find helpful. 1. A Clear, Concise, Informative Introduction.

A good introduction is short and to the point. You should indicate exactly what your topic is, and running man opening text, the view that you intend to defend. You should also tell the World, reader how your discussion will be structured, so that he or she knows from the very beginning the general lines along which you will be arguing in support of your conclusion. You should also indicate, very briefly, your main line of argument. Finally, you should do these things as concisely as possible, so that you can get on with the business of defending the text, view that you are setting out on the moral issue in question.

Suppose that you are writing about the morality of abortion. You might begin your paper as follows: My topic is the Essay on Gender Roles and Identity, morality of running man opening text abortion. I shall defend an extreme anti-abortion position by arguing, first, that no satisfactory rationale can be offered for any moderate position on abortion, and secondly, that an extreme pro-abortion position cannot be accepted without also accepting infanticide. A person who reads this introductory paragraph knows exactly what view you will be defending, the general lines along which you will be arguing in defense of that view, and in hamlet, the overall structure of your essay.

Introduction Checklist: Key Questions. 1. Is my introduction concise? 2. Does it contain a clear statement of text my main thesis? 3. Does it indicate very briefly my main line of argument? 4. Does it explain the overall structure of rome my essay? 2. The Offering of Reasons for your View. After setting out your thesis, and outlining your overall approach in the introductory paragraph, you need to have a section in running text, which you offer reasons for accepting the view that you are advancing. Each reason should be set out in the form of an explicit, step by step argument, so that the reader can see right off both what your assumptions are, and how they are supposed to support your conclusion.

Moreover, if you are offering more than one consideration in support of Colonization in Matigari by Ngugi your thesis, it is important that different considerations not be mixed together in a single paragraph. Different arguments require at least separate paragraphs - and man opening, preferably, separate subsections, each clearly labeled with an appropriate heading. For the latter will not only help the reader to follow your argument: it will help you to think more clearly about the arguments you're offering. How many reasons should you offer in support of Essay on Gender your thesis? It is best to confine yourself to either one, or at most two, supporting arguments. If you offer more arguments, there is a serious danger both that you will not set out any of the arguments in a sufficiently detailed way, and running, that you will not discriminate between interesting arguments in support of malaysia your thesis, and arguments that are at best marginal. In short, choose your best one or two arguments, and develop that argument (or arguments) in a detailed and circumspect way. Checklist for the Offering of Reasons:

1. Have I set out an argument (or at most two arguments) to provide reasons for thinking that my thesis is true? 2. Have I made all of my premises clear and explicit? 3. Have I developed my argument in a full and detailed way, so that all of running man opening text my reasoning is clear to the reader? 3. Consideration of Objections to your Arguments. After offering reasons for accepting your view, you need to consider objections. The crucial point to oj simpson trial note here is that objections come in running text, two forms. First, there are objections that are directed against the reasons that you have offered in support of your thesis, and which claim, therefore, either that some of your assumptions are implausible, or that some of your reasoning is motifs, unsatisfactory. Running Man Opening? Secondly, there are objections that are directed against your conclusion, and which attempt to provide reasons for thinking that the murder, view which you are advancing is false. Objections of the first sort are especially crucial, and your main obligation is to text address such objections. Oj Simpson Trial? The reason is that if all that you do is to rebut objections to your thesis, and you fail to consider objections to your argument, then you haven't shown that you have made out a satisfactory positive case in support of text your thesis.

How do you arrive at interesting objections to your own arguments? The crucial thing is to on Gender look carefully at the assumptions that you have made, and to ask yourself which of those are controversial, in the sense that they might well be questioned by an intelligent, thoughtful, and well-informed person. Having located a controversial assumption, you need to consider why a thoughtful person might disagree with it, and then try to respond to that objection. Checklist for running text Objections to Roles and Identity your Arguments: 1. Have I carefully set out the most important objection to each of my arguments? 2. Have I then responded, in a careful way, to that objection (or objections)? 4. Consideration of Objections to man opening text your Thesis. After you have carefully considered objections to your argument (or arguments), the next important task is to A Tragedy of Miscalculation consider objections which, rather than being directed against the reasons that you have offered in support of your view, are directed instead against your view itself, and running man opening, which attempt to show that your view is incorrect.

Here you need to set out any such objection (or objections) in a clear, careful, and dispassionate fashion, and then indicate why you think the objection in question is unsound. How many objections to in Matigari by Ngugi your thesis should you attempt to consider? Here, as elsewhere, trying to cover too much ground can result in a weak and superficial discussion. Try to text find the strongest objection, and address it in a detailed way. Checklist for Colonization and Propaganda in Matigari by Ngugi Objections to text your Thesis:

1. Have I considered the most important objection against the thesis that I am defending? 2. Have I responded carefully to that objection? 5. Exposition of Arguments. At the heart of a paper that examines some moral issue in Colonization by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o, a critical fashion is the setting out of arguments - both arguments in support of your positions, and arguments directed either against some of text your assumptions, or against your position itself. Whenever one is setting out an argument, one needs to do so in malaysia, a careful step-by-step fashion, so that it is clear to the reader both what assumptions the running, argument involves, and what the reasoning is Colonization in Matigari by Ngugi Essay, - that is, how one is supposed to get from the man opening text, assumptions to the conclusion. One thing that it is very important to avoid is the setting out of more than one argument in a single paragraph. For this usually results in too brief an exposition of the arguments in question, and on Gender Roles and Identity, often in a muddling together of the two arguments, thereby obscuring the structure of the running text, reasoning.

Checklist for your Exposition of Arguments: 1. Are my arguments carefully and explicitly set out so that both all of my assumptions, and my reasoning, are clear? 2. Have I, at any point, set out more than one argument in motifs, a single paragraph? 3. Are objections and responses set out in separate paragraphs? 6. Man Opening? Logical and Perspicuous Structure.

A crucial factor that makes for a good essay is the presence of in hamlet a logical and perspicuous structure. So it's important to ask how one can both organize one's discussion in a logical fashion, and make that organization perspicuous to the reader. The structure will be clear to the reader if you begin with an introductory paragraph of the sort described above, and then go on, first, to divide your essay up into sections (and possibly also subsections), and secondly, to use informative headings to mark out those sections (and subsections). The reader will then be able to see at a glance how you have structured your discussion. What makes for logical organization? If you do the things mentioned above, in sections I through IV, in the order discussed, the result will be an man opening text, essay whose overall logical organization is of Miscalculation Essays, very strong. That is to say, start by setting out man opening, your thesis, and outlining your overall approach in the introductory paragraph. Murder Trial? Follow this with a section in running man opening, which you offer reasons for accepting the view that you are advancing. Then go on to devote two sections to a consideration of objections. In the first, set out, and respond to, objections that are directed against oj simpson murder trial any controversial assumptions that you have made in arguing in support of your own view.

Then, in the second, consider objections that might be directed against your thesis itself. Individual sections also need to be organized in a logical fashion. This is running text, primarily a matter of War 1: of Miscalculation Essays setting out arguments in a step-by-step fashion, and of discussing different arguments in different subsections, as discussed above in section V. Checklist for running man opening text Logical and Perspicuous Structure: 1. A Tragedy Of Miscalculation? Is my essay organized into sections in a logical fashion? 2. Are the sections divided into man opening text, appropriate subsections? 3. Have I made the overall structure of my essay clear by using informative headings for sections and subsections?

7. Dispassionate and Unemotional Discussion. Another very important feature of a good essay is that the discussion be dispassionate, and that one avoid formulating either the issue, or relevant arguments, in a biased and/or emotionally charged way. Suppose, for example, that Mary is classes, considering whether there should be a law against the sale of pornography. There are various ways in which she can formulate this question, some of which will strongly suggest one answer rather than another. She might, for example, ask herself whether people should be allowed to amass fortunes as purveyors of man opening text filthy and degrading material that will corrupt people, and destroy the moral fiber of society. If this is the way she puts the Colonization by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o, issue, it will not be too surprising if she arrives at the conclusion that one certainly needs a law against pornography. Suppose, on the other hand, that what she asks is whether people should be prevented from having access to important information about something which is not only natural and man opening, very beautiful, but also a means of expressing feelings of tenderness and Essay, love. When the question is running man opening text, phrased this way, it seems likely that she will arrive a rather different conclusion.

Why are emotionally charged formulations bad? There are two reasons. First, they tend to alienate the reader or listener, thereby making it less likely that others will devote much time to a serious consideration of your arguments. And Identity? But secondly, such formulations are even more dangerous with respect to man opening text one's own thinking, since what they typically do is to make it seem that the right answer is obvious, and this in turn usually prevents one from grappling with the issue in a serious way, and from subjecting one's own view to oj simpson critical examination. Checklist for Dispassionate and text, Unemotional Discussion: 1. Have I made use of emotively charged language? 2. Is my discussion dispassionate and fair throughout?

8. Overall Clarity and rome social classes, Conciseness. Many people, confronted with an essay that is difficult to man opening text understand, but which is trial, written in a style which sounds profound, tend to conclude that the topic must be a difficult one, and man opening, the writer’s ideas unusually deep. The appropriate conclusion, however, will generally be a rather less positive one ­ namely, that the author either has muddy ideas, or lacks the World War 1: A Tragedy of Miscalculation Essays, ability to text communicate his or her ideas to others in a satisfactory fashion. Obscurity is not a sign of rome social classes profundity. I suspect that this point probably needs to be labored a bit, as there are reasons for thinking that many people, in running man opening, their secondary school education, are encouraged to express their ideas in a fashion which sounds profound. Consider, for example, the following experiment, carried out by two English professors at the University of Chicago. Joseph Williams and Rosemary Hake took a well-written paper, and changed the language to produce two different versions. Both versions involved the same ideas and concepts, but one was written in simplified, straightforward language, while the other was written in verbose, bombastic language, loaded with pedantic terms.

They then submitted the two papers to nine high-school teachers, and found that all nine gave very high marks to the verbose paper, but downgraded the straightforward essay as too simple and shallow. Colonization Wa Thiong´o Essay? Williams and Hake then repeated the experiment with a group of ninety teachers, and man opening, came up with similar results. Three out of four high-school teachers (and two out of three college teachers!) gave higher marks to pompous writing! What should you be aiming at, in terms of clarity, simplicity, and intelligibility? One way of estimating how successful your essay is in these respects is by considering how it would seem to a secondary school student who knew nothing about the topic. Essay On Gender Roles And Identity? Would he or she be able to running read it without difficulty? Having read it, would he or she be able to say exactly what view you were defending and mcdonald, how you were supporting that view? If you can confidently answer ‘Yes’ to both questions, then all is well. But if there is any room for doubt, then you need to rewrite your essay so that your ideas are expressed in a simpler and more straightforward way. Checklist for Overall Clarity and Conciseness:

1. To what extent is the writing clear and running man opening text, straightforward? 2. Is the writing concise? 9. Oj Simpson? A Non-Religious, Philosophical Approach. Many people defend ethical views by appealing either to religious or theological assumptions, or to moral principles that are religiously based. Such assumptions or principles are often of a highly controversial sort, and man opening, exercises 1, 2, and 3 were intended to illustrate how problematic an appeal either to religious and theological premises, or to moral principles that are religiously based, can be. It is possible of course, that there are religious claims that, although controversial, can be shown to be reasonable. Any such defense, however, is a major undertaking, and in classes, an essay of man opening text this length, the murder, chances of success in doing that are not good. In addition, however, any discussion of religious claims that is likely to text be intellectually satisfactory requires a serious background in Essay, philosophy of religion. Running Man Opening? The Philosophy Department has a number of philosophers who are experts in the area of philosophy of on Gender Roles religion, and if you are interested in running text, exploring religious issues, you may well want to consider taking one of the philosophy of religion courses that the Department offers. This, however, is a course in ethics, and here you need to confine yourself to non-religious, philosophical arguments: religious assumptions, and moral claims based on a religious point of view, are almost always going to be very controversial, and virtually impossible to defend successfully in an essay of the length you are writing here.

Any such claims, then, are to be avoided. In the preceding sections, I have discussed the features that make for a good essay that is focusing upon the critical discussion of a moral issue. In this final section I want to on Gender mention briefly what I think is the most helpful idea for producing an essay that has these characteristics - namely, the formulation of an explicit plan, both for the essay as a whole, and for individual sections. To do this, you might proceed as follows. First, on a filing card, or a small sheet of paper, list the main sections into which your discussion will be divided, as discussed above. Secondly, for text each of those sections, take a filing card, and on Gender Roles and Identity, write down both the main claims that you want to advance in that section, and a brief description of any arguments that you'll be putting forward, or examining. Thirdly, for each of the arguments that you'll be discussing, write down, on another filing card, the basic structure of that argument. Finally, re-examine everything that you have written down. Can you see a more effective way of dividing the discussion up into sections? Is there a better way of organizing the material within a given section? Can any of your arguments be given a better step-by-step formulation?

The plan that you initially draw up is not, of course, set in running, concrete, and as you do more reading for by Ngugi Wa Thiong´o Essay your essay, or talk to other people about the issue that you're considering, you'll often see a better way of man opening text organizing the material, or other arguments or objections that you need to consider, and so on. You can then modify your original plan. On Gender And Identity? The crucial thing is always to have at least a tentative plan in text, mind, for even when you're just beginning to think about a topic, that will help you to Colonization and Propaganda Wa Thiong´o Essay do so in a focused way.