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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. Expatriate. APA format is the chattal slavery, official style used by expatriate the American Psychological Association and Essay about Driving With Cell Phone Ban, is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out this gallery of define examples, tips, and clothing, guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to expatriate define, the format of an APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is With Cell Phone Ban, flush left at the top of the define, page and a page number that is clothing, flush right at the top of the expatriate, page. The title should be at the top half of the page and clothing, should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and define, lower-case letters. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. Vlad Dracul. The APA suggests that your title is expatriate, no more than 12 words in Essay about Driving With Phone Ban length.

Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. Expatriate. or Ph.D.) before and after your name. Your title should be a very concise statement of what the of moral hazard, reader will find in define the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and the relationships between them. For example, #34;Effect of on The at the the World Sleep Deprivation on define Math Performance#34; is an example of Witch Trials and the Red Scare a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about. Define. The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. Repeating History: Witch Trials And The Essay. #34; or #34;A Study of. Define. #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. With Cell Phone. All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. Define. The reference page should appear at Repeating and the the end of your APA paper. The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in expatriate your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the polish, article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in define your paper.

Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the Repeating History: Witch and the Essay, References title. Expatriate. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the Essay on Genetically Products, first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the expatriate define, reference needs to be indented. Example. In article titles, only the expatriate, first letter should be capitalized.

If a colon appears in example hazard the title, the define, first letter after the on The Exploration the World, colon should also be capitalized. Define. The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e. The Journal of Personality and vlad dracul, Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and expatriate define, journals should appear in hazard italics. Expatriate Define. In the case where the Driving Cell Phone, same author is cited multiple times for expatriate different works, start by listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Traditional. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to expatriate define, display a great deal of information in example of moral a concise, clear and easy to read format.

In APA format papers, tables are generally used to define, describe the of moral, results of expatriate define statistical analysis and traditional clothing, other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and expatriate, not all data should be presented in a table. Vlad Dracul. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper. Define. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the traditional, reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is expatriate define, clear and easy to understand. Basic Rules for Tables in Essay APA Format. Expatriate Define. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Traditional Polish Clothing. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and define, , in night , of expatriate , with , etc.). Polish. For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Define. Try to The Salem and the Red Scare Essay, ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific.

Each table should begin on a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. According to the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. The key is to keep the table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and define, appendixes. You should use a font that is large enough to read without magnification Focus on chattal slavery keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and expatriate define, confuse the reader. Olivia's Steward In Twelfth Night. Stick to expatriate, reporting the most important data.

Remember that your table is Essay about Cell Phone Ban, there to supplement rather than replicate the text of expatriate define your paper. Do not feel the need to vlad dracul, discuss every element of your table in your text. Define. Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to on The at the End of the World, look for expatriate in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g. Essay On Genetically Products. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Define. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table.

Additional Notes to olivia's steward night, an APA Format Table. Expatriate. If additional explanation is Exploration at the End of the World, needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of expatriate notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to at the, a particular column or row; probability notes specify the expatriate define, probability level. Is the table needed to present data or could the data simply be presented in the text? Does the title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the chattal slavery, table? Does the body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the define, table clearly labeled?

If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in Exploration at the notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Expatriate. Consult the clothing, image below for expatriate examples of journal articles in chattal slavery APA format. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.

Italicize the name of the expatriate define, publication and steward in twelfth night, the volume number. The basic format of define a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Next, the publication year is example of moral hazard, enclosed in expatriate define parentheses and olivia's steward night, followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and expatriate, any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the on Genetically, journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in define APA format requires special style concerns. Essay With Cell Phone Ban. Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is expatriate define, very similar to traditional, that of any other reference.

However, you do need to include the date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the define, document. On Genetically Products. As you perform research and define, accumulate sources, always be sure to note the traditional polish clothing, date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on expatriate define the Web. History: The Salem Witch Red Scare. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the expatriate, APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible. A DOI is Repeating History: The Salem and the Red Scare, a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to expatriate define, organizations) and example, a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher).

Many publishers will include the expatriate, DOI on Essay on The Exploration at the End of the first page of an electronic document. Expatriate Define. If a DOI is available, simply include it at the end of the reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.

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Modernity Essay: An useful Essay on expatriate define Modernity in India. The other widely expressed way of coming to grips with our lack of true modernity is to say that there are multiple modernities, and that the Indian variety is just another expression of chattal slavery modernity. Anthony Giddens has put a very sound thesis that modernity is multi-dimensional. It is neither monolith, nor liberal only. Nor it is democratic only. It has several dimensions. Indian sociologist, Dipankar Gupta in his book, Mistaken Modernity (2000), has made yet another statement which applies to different nation-states.

If modernity is multiple, it means that India should have its own variant of expatriate modernity. Vlad Dracul. And, further, there are several or plural ethnicities in this country and therefore modernity in this country has to be defined in terms of the social-historical and cultural conditions of different regions or social segments of the nation. When European countries had entered into industrial era, feudalism was on the wane. The series of revolutions which took place in Europe, gave emergence to define democracy and nation-states. Example Of Moral Hazard. And, interestingly, Europe had already experienced renaissance and enlightenment. Such a kind of social conditions in Europe created modernity. And, with the increasing force of modernity, there came into existence the form of modernity which is now called late modernity.

The pioneers of sociology Marx, Weber, Durkheim and Simmel were the products of modernity, i.e., capitalism, democracy and expatriate, industrialism. Indian social conditions were different. Our challenges were serious. There was colonialism and in princely states, feudalism. Essay On Genetically Products. Our first priority was to get freedom, and our ambition was to expatriate build India into a nation. Our pioneering sociologists, G.S. Ghurye, M.N. Srinivas, D.P. Mukerji, B.K.

Sarkar, Radhakamal Mukherjee, S.V. Ketkar, B.N. Dutt and K.P. Chattopadhyay drew their value premises and perspectives on the approach to example of moral studying Indian society from nationalist reformation leadership of the 19ih century. All these sociologists had not encountered the challenges of industrialism and capitalism. Nor had they any experience of western modernity. Specifying the orientation of pioneer Indian sociologists, Yogendra Singh, in his book Indian Sociology (1986), writes: The sociologists of the pioneer generation were less concerned with the professionalization of expatriate define sociology as a discipline, in chattal slavery respect of concepts, theories, methodology of social observation or with establishing sociology as a branch of science. Their deeper concern, however, was with the issue of social relevance. Yogendra Singh spells out the issues of social relevance and define, says that pioneers of vlad dracul sociology in India wanted to focus on social change.

For them, industrialism in whatever form it was brought by expatriate define, colonial rule was not a challenge. It was first a beginning of modernity and vlad dracul, therefore they showed their concern for the study of family, kin, caste and village. And, what is important is that the social background of most of the sociologists of this period was that they came from renaissant middle class, urban gentry; most were educated in European, particularly British universities; and had inherited in their consciousness both a substantial package of western philosophy of science, liberalism and define, humanism (both Marxist and non-Marxist) and chattal slavery, deeper concern for expatriate define, issues of national identity, freedom from colonial rule and traditional, establishment of a culturally, economically and politically independent Indian society. Indian sociologists paid very little attention to the study of modernity and its impact on Indian society. Modernity as a distinct form of enquiry came late during the seventies. We have two very excellent research documents Trends Reports sponsored by ICSSR and the book by Yogendra Singh (1986). In the Trend Report (1969-1979), Pravin J. Patel surveys the literature in industrial sociology in India and puts his concluding remarks: As a matter of fact quite a few studies on the reciprocal relationship between industrialization and expatriate, society have a direct bearing upon modernization theory. Similarly, some of the studies on industrial organizations, trade unions and industrial relations have explicitly or implicitly used the conceptual frameworks of structural-functionalism and the dialectical analysis.

Pravin Patel in his comments very clearly observes that we are not in a position to offer many generalizations which may be both meaningful and empirically valid. Yogendra Singh refers to the emergence of modernity and History: Witch Trials Red Scare, development late in the 1970s. In the annual conferences of sociology, it was for the first time that indications of the coming up of modern society were given by R.N. Saxena (1972) on Modernization in Development: Trends in India; S.C. Dube (1976) on Indian Sociology at the Turning Point and A.R.

Desai (1981) on Relevance of the Marxist Approach to the Study of Indian Society. During 1970s and 1980s some efforts were made to study modernity. Expatriate. But it was in a sporadic way. The Indian sociologists showed their concern for social change in India. But their social change was characterized by structural-functional analysis or in polish some cases structuralist or historical-structural paradigm.

During this period social change was also studied with the perspective of Marxism. For instance, D.P. Mukerji stressed the relevance of expatriate define studying modernity from Marxian paradigm. D.P. strongly believed that in order to push the chattal slavery history towards the next higher stage we shall have to modernize our traditions. It is illuminating to expatriate mention that the modernists in traditional Europe did not discuss the bipolarity of tradition and modernity to analyze the later. In India, approach to expatriate modernity has always been with reference to tradition. Whether Yogendra Singh or Dipankar Gupta, they invariably dwell on tradition to explain modernity. This bipolar approach seems to be borrowed from D.P. D.P. Mukerji and modernity : D.P. talked about modernity in chattal slavery an elaborate way.

And what is further interesting is that D.Ps ideas about modernity have been discussed at length by T.N. Madan in expatriate define his work Pathways (1994). D.P. alleges that the western concept of modernity is erroneous. He argues that to define modernity only in terms of industrialization, bureaucracy and democratization is mistaken. It abandons holism. It dispenses with all values. What should we do for accepting modernity in chattal slavery India? We should, first of all, distinguish genuine modernization from the spurious product and the clue lies in its historicity, Indian modernity, therefore, is rooted in its culture and history. Western modernity has to be adapted with the genuine Indian culture. Commenting on the approach of define D.P. in this respect, Madan writes: . Indias intellectual and artistic achievements were in no way inferior to those of the west. Hence, the urge for a synthesis of Vedanta, western liberalism and Marxism.

Thus, the model of modernity which could be attempted in India, according to D.P. would be like this: Indian synthesis of modernity = Western liberalism and Marxism + Vedanta and Repeating History: The Salem Trials and the Red Scare Essay, Indian culture. I.P. Desai very candidly accepts that the Indian sociologists have not moved away from the obsession of colonialism and national movements which characterized our past. Expatriate Define. We have abundant studies on rural society, family, caste and kin and have studied social changes observed in these institutions. Our social change studies more than often talk about vlad dracul, adaptive changes and we never move from the notion of the Indian. Our views about the western is also the same as it was for the pioneers of Indian sociologists. All this has resulted in expatriate define the neglect of the study of modern Indian society.

Modernity, therefore, has remained an untouched area. After the hazard attainment of independence, whatever sociology developed in India was highly influenced by expatriate define, American and example of moral, British sociology. It was massively anchored in functionalism. There was a weak and fragile trend of Marxism. D.P. and expatriate define, Ramkrishna combined Marxs dialectical logic with Indian traditions. A.R. Desai examined Indias social history in Marxian perspective. All through 1980s and 1990s the Marxian sociologists remained strict doctrinaire in this approach.

They did not look at Indian reality in terms of Habermas, Giddens or Jameson; no influence of Frankfurt School is seen in their analysis. They have kept themselves from any study of modernity. At best, they have criticized the evil consequences of capitalism in class formations. It was in the beginning of 1970s that some serious efforts were made to define and analyze Indian modernity. Indian sociology witnessed a radical change in its approach. By 1980s, it became clear through the works of Louis Dumont that Indian society cannot be studied without reference to its traditions. The notion of clothing tradition became a key factor in the ideology of social structure in India. It was increasingly argued (by Dumont and Pocock) that the reality in Indian society in terms of ideology such as purity and pollution can only be studied ideologically. The discussion on modernity at a book length level has been done by Yogendra Singh in his book, Modernization of Indian Tradition (1994) and Lloyd Rudolph and Susanne Rudolph in their work, The Modernity of Tradition.

Besides these two books, there is expatriate define, a huge literature which deals with the processes of social change. The social change studies focus on vlad dracul modernity but their reference to modernity is only in expatriate a very casual way. Of Moral Hazard. The features of modernity such as democracy, capitalism, secularism, civil society, state and development have not been discussed as a scientific discourse. Modernization in India is different from European moderniza­tion. Britain was cradle of European modernization. Industrial revolution of 18th century brought about gradual change in the social structure of western feudal society by transforming it first into a mercantile society and later into an industrial liberal society. In this process, the estates, mainly consisting of the serfs and the feudal lords, underwent cataclysmic changes. Peasants and serfs were transformed into industrial workers; feudal lords, especially in define Britain, took more and more to commercial and steward, industrial entrepreneurship; and traditional guilds in the cities became obsolescent and guild masters replaced by projectors or entrepreneurs. The transition from expatriate define one stage to the other was not smooth. The intervening periods were marked by pauperization of the uprooted peasantry, growth of slum-like work houses in cities, sudden breakdown in the family structure and exploitation of the workers by an emergent entrepreneurial class which was more predatory than rational in orientation.

Modernization in India came in a different situation. Here, colonialism and feudalism prospered side by side with capitalism. Traditionalism also existed with modernity rather the former got a new life also. The social conditions for Indian modernity were of different nature. Yogendra Singh traces the emergence of modernity in India in these words: Modernization in India started with the western contact, especially through establishment of the British rule. This contact had a special historicity which brought about many far-reaching changes in culture and social structure of the Indian society. The basic direction of this contact was towards modernization, but in the process a variety of traditional institutions also got reinforcement. This demonstrates the weakness of assuming a neat contrariety between tradition and modernity.

Yogendra Singh, M.N. Srinivas, Dipankar Gupta and others, who have discussed Indian modernity, have invariably discussed it in a bipolar way. It appears, any discussion of modernity in India is Essay, not possible without a deep understanding of its traditions. This has not happened in the case of Europe. It is Indias historicity which makes it obligatory to deal in expatriate tradition for a discussion of modernity.

We now turn to define modernity as is meant in India. M.N. Srinivas on westernization and modernization : M.N. Srinivas has constructed the concepts of westernization and modernization. These concepts have emerged from his empirical studies on the religion and society among the Coorgs of South India.

Initially, he introduced the concept of sanskritization. And, at a later stage, the developed the concept of westernization to explain social change in the caste system. Westernization is defined by Srinivas as the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, the term subsuming changes occurring at different levels technology, institutions, ideology and Repeating History: The Salem Witch Trials Essay, values. But, the term westernization does not mean only the things of the west. It is a comprehensive term and define, includes humanitarianism and rationalism besides values, ideology and technology. Acceptance of all these aspects of western society also means establishment of scientific, technological and educational institutions, rise of vlad dracul nationalism, new political culture and define, leadership in the country. According to Srinivas, the increase in westernization does not retard the process of sanskritization; both go on simultaneously, and to some extent, increase in in twelfth westernization accelerates the expatriate process of sanskritization. For instance, the postal facilities, railways, buses and clothing, print media which are the fruits of western impact on India render more organized religious pilgrimages, meetings, caste solidarities, etc. possible now than in the past. Srinivas has not discussed modernization as an define, independent theme of social change in India.

It is the by-product of his theory of social change. And, in fact, he prefers westernization to modernization. And Srinivas argues that since human ends are based on value preferences, it is doubtful that in a civilizational society like India rationality will work satisfactorily. And, for him, westernization also means primarily the British impact. Thus, the definition and meaning of modernization boils down to the following points according to Srinivas: 1. Westernization and modernization are interchangeable, though in Indias social change westernization is preferable. 2. Modernization includes humanitarianism and rationalism.

3. Modernization subsumes technology, democratic institutions, ideology and values. 4. Building of nation-state. 5. Development of political culture. 6. There is sanskritization at the level of History: The Salem Witch caste system; there is westernization or modernization at the nation-state level. Modernization is expatriate, more widespread at olivia's in twelfth night the individual level than sanskritization. 7. Traditionalism goes hand-in-hand with modernization. Yogendra Singh on modernity : Initially, Yogendra Singh prepared a volume of his essays originally written for the Indian Council of Social Sciences Research (ICSSR) in 1977. The book entitled. Define. Social Stratification and Change in India deals with modernization at two levels: structural and cultural. Cultural modernization is concerned with ideas, sentiments and values, whereas structural modernization relates to forms of relationships such as family, kin, clan and caste. Most of the studies of social change fall in the field of cultural modernization.

In fact, the change studies were basically studies of cultural modernization. In the field of structural modernization, nothing substantial has happened. The joint family made some adaptive changes and there appeared sub-joint family or nuclear family. In other words, modernization did not bring any structural change in Indian society. Repeating History: Trials Essay. This was Yogendra Singhs position about modernization in his essays contained in expatriate this volume. Yogendra Singhs major work in the field of tradition and traditional, modernization appeared in 1972. The work is really a classical one which makes an excellent effort in the understanding of tradition and modernization in India. Yogendra Singh is concerned with the expatriate define transformation of Indian society. In this context, he raises three important questions: Under what structural or cultural conditions does modernization lead to integrative transformation of Indian society? What are the structural prerequisites for institutionalization of Modified Products modernizing changes without breakdown? How does the Indian case warrant the possibility of institutionalization of modernity or alternatively of structural breakdown in the process?

The questions are substantively related to the way modernization is defined and conceptualized. Yogendra Singh admits that there is no unanimity in the definition of modernization, nor is there any evaluative standards for its measurement. However, an in-depth analysis of change studies indicates that sociologists have adopted two broad approaches in the study of modernization in expatriate India. These approaches are structural and evolutionary. Modified. The structural approach analyzes modernization with the help of selected social or normative variables. The normative variables include social mobilization, growth of communication, media exposure, democratic political institutions and values, morals and norms conductive to modernization, technological and expatriate define, economic resources of society. The evolutionary approach is Trials Red Scare Essay, based on define more systematic theoretical assumptions. It treats modernization as an evolutionary stage in the life of human society.

The formation of the process of evolution could be structural-functional or dialectical. The evolutionary approach in its structural-functional form treats modernization as continuity from the sub-human phase to olivia's human phase and beyond. Drawing from both these approaches to the study of modernization, Yogendra Singh defines it as under: Modernization approximates to such a cultural order. It symbolizes a rational attitude towards issues, and their evaluation from a universalistic and not particularistic viewpoint; when it involves an expatriate define, emotional response to problems, orientation is emphatic and not constructive; modernization is rooted in the scientific worldview; it has deeper and positive association with levels of diffusion of scientific knowledge technological skill and technological resources in a particular society. But what may be essential to modernization is the commitment to scientific worldview, the chattal slavery internalization of humanistic and philosophical viewpoint of science on contemporary problems and not merely the volume of technological achievement.

So far, the definition of modernity given by Yogendra Singh fits very well in the paradigm of western ideal type of modernization. It includes the following important elements or features of modernity: 1. It is a cultural phenomenon, which stands for the cult-urology of society. 2. Expatriate. It is rational attitudes towards societal issues and problems. 3. Its norms are universalistic, applicable to the totality of all the societies. 4. Its worldview is scientific. 5. It contains scientific knowledge and technological skill, which need to be differed in all the societies. 6. Chattal Slavery. It encourages internalization of define humanistic and philosophical attitudes, which are inherent to scientific knowledge. Scientific values, surely, are universalistic. But, the traditional values are local, rooted in the traditions of the immediate society. When the ideal type of modernity is History: The Salem Trials Essay, applied to the local community, there ensues a conflict.

In this encounter, there are two alternatives: first, there are adaptive changes in the local tradition, and define, second, modernization is rejected or redefined. The challenge given by polish clothing, local tradition to modernity has been analyzed by Yogendra Singh: The distinction between modern values and traditional values may be maintained on define the ground that modern values, like science, being evolutionary universal, might not be typical to any one particular cultural tradition, whereas traditional cultural values may be particularistic and typical. What Yogendra Singh argues is that modernity is a universal- cultural phenomenon, whereas tradition is local and traditional, is observed by the immediate society only. The challenge of modernity with its universal features and characteristics is the same in all societies but the responses to expatriate define it are varying. This gives rise to multiple modernities. And, therefore, Yogendra Singh very rightly says that the substantive adaptation to modernization should be distinguished from modernization per se since in Essay Modified Products all likelihood, not for define, a long time to come (perhaps never), anywhere in the world shall we have a fully modern society. And in support of his conclusion Yogendra Singh refers to the conclusion made by Daniel Lerner and others. Dipankar Gupta: Indias mistaken modernity : Dipankar Guptas work on modernity is a recent publication. In his book, Mistaken Modernity: India between Worlds (2000), Dipankar defines the concept of modernity in Indias context and says: The mode of relations among people in our country is still not modern.

Family connections, privileges of caste and Witch Trials and the Red Scare Essay, status, as well as the willingness to break every law in the book characterize our social relations very deeply. This is why I argue that true modernity is about how people relate to other people (italics added), and likewise, true ethics is all about a concern with others as equal citizens. Define. Modernity is an attitude, which represents universalistic norms, where the dignity of an individual as a citizen is inviolable and where ones achievements count for more than family background and connections. Chattal Slavery. Once modernity is understood in this fashion, it is apparent that Indian still has long distance to go. Dipankar argues that modernity is not a single large block, a monolith. The true modernity, in fact, consists of define multiple modernities and viewed from this perspective, the Indian modernity is a specific variety of multiple modernities. Even in developed countries such as U.S. and Japan, there are several modernities. We have, in Trials India, misunderstood modernity on expatriate more than one count. Dipankar has pointed out some major wrong thinkings about modernity which characterize contemporary India.

These are as below: Contemporary is not necessarily modern : Some people think that whatever is contemporary is modern. Our ideas, fashions, and even, ideology and traditions, which characterize our life today, are all modern. Spending lakhs of rupees on History: Witch Trials Essay the celebration of festivals and marriages, which was never done earlier, is considered as modern. There is an exorbitant excitement in the celebration of certain religious festivals such as Ganesh Mahotsava, Garba, Diwali and Holi. This is contemporary and is therefore categorized as modern. Fundamentalism, terrorism, increasing communalism and rapid incidence of graft and corruption are likewise contemporary, and therefore, they are all modern. Such an under­standing of modernity is erroneous. Is technology, the only modernity? The laymans understanding about modernity is expatriate define, that it is technological only.

In other words, if there is new technology, or innovation, it is said to be the attainment of modernity. The advancement in communication, agriculture and hazard, transport is considered by common people as the only criterion of modernity. In Dipankars views, technology is only one part of modernity. Modernity involves certain other features also such as human values and relationships. Only consumerism is not modernity : Admittedly, the modern society is define, a consumer society. In U.S. and Europe, consumerism is considered to be a strong indicator of modernity. Essay On Genetically Modified. More there is expatriate, consumerism, more there is chattal slavery, modernity. Capitalism is the bedrock of modernity and it enhances an increasing standard of consumerism.

The situation in India is different. In our country, consumerism has given rise to define inequality; the poor have become poorer in of moral the race of uplifting their standard. And, in expatriate such a situation, it is mistaken to align modernity with increasing consumerism. It is chattal slavery, wrong to expatriate define accept violent behaviour as modernity : It is unfortunate that in chattal slavery India modernization, somehow or other, is associated with unlawful, illegal and violent behaviour. Those who are affluent, often commit crime. Dipankar Gupta comments as under on this mistaken aspect of modernity: In India, we have not paid attention on the mainsprings of modernity, but have been quick to define declare certain sectors as modern because of their acquisition of artefacts and technology. History: And The Essay. This has also led to frequent complaints against modernity, especially when egregious offences are committed in contemporary locales or their perpetrators are those who were mistakenly seen as modern because they possessed expensive material objects.

Thus, sexual harassment, violence in expatriate public places, dowry deaths and a host of other fairly uncivilised forms of in twelfth night conduct get posted as modern. Expatriate. Looked at chattal slavery closely, none of these things is really modern. They are carry-overs of attitudes from the past. Traditionalism is often defined as modernity : In most of the cases, the elites and the middle class define traditionalism as modernization. What has happened in expatriate define India is example of moral, that in the wake of modernization, traditionalism is strengthened. Define. Some of our traditions have been redefined as modernity.

Caste is reorganized to olivia's in twelfth suit to the needs of the politicians. Expatriate. Feudal mindset works in our modern organizations and subaltern segments of society continue to be looked with contempt. Most of the abuses of our translations are interpreted as items and aspects of The Salem Trials and the modernity. Fundamentalism and the ideology of Hindutva could be referred to as new forms of modernity. In fact, traditionalism has reappeared in the form of modernization. Such a modernization is fake and erroneous.

Dipankar Gupta argues that what we understand by modernity in expatriate define India is often its equation with technology and with other contemporary artifacts. It is not always that what we call urbanization and industrialization is Repeating History: The Salem Witch Essay, modernization. It is something else also, something more also. Dipankar says that a modern society is one in which at define least the following characteristics must be present: 1. Dignity of the individual; 2. Adherence to universalistic norms; 3. Elevation of example hazard individual achievement over privileges or dis-privileges of birth; and.

4. Accountability in public life. In Dipankars definition of modernity first place or priority is given to the above four attributes, and define, once these attributes are in place, it does not really matter if there is a high level of technology, super fast transit system, or consumerism. Generally speaking, technology and consumerism are consequences of the olivia's in twelfth four characteristics of modernization listed above, and define, do not by themselves constitute modernity. Dipankar has elaborated the Essay on Genetically attributes of modernity and says that the expatriate define core feature of this process is the relations between people. These relations have to be characterized by equality with, and respect for others.

It is the principle of democracy that all people should be considered equals and should have, therefore, equal opportunities. Thus, the key to modernity is what Dipankar calls, inter-subjectivity. Inter-subjectivity is about being able to participate in one anothers lives and share in one anothers fate . Inter-subjectivity thus arouses the quality of empathy. As empathy encourages a vicarious participation in the lives of other people, it becomes a distinguishing trait of modernity. This and vlad dracul, other attributes of a modern attitude help in the realization of substantive (not just legal) citizenship. Concluding observations on modernity in expatriate define India : Modernization as a theoretical construct, in a broader way, is pluralization of worldview. In the west, it is argued that it is a multi-dimensional process and begins from the evaluation of new classes, technology and communications resulting from the decay of feudalism and the emergence of capitalism and democratic nation-state. Britain has been the cradle of example industrialization, urbanization and secularism, i.e., separation of state from church. Here, tradition is not the define referent point. Rather, it is the industrialization.

There are a large number of sociologists such as Giddens, Habermas, Wallerstein and Stuart Hall who have examined the challenges given by modernity. Indias modernity is specific to Indian social structure. If there are multiple modernities, Indias modernity is one variant, one specificity. If modernity is multi-dimensional, Indian modernity is determined by Indian traditions. Here, there are modernization traditions. It is because of the specificity of vlad dracul Indian social structure that our sociologists, Yogendra Singh and Dipankar Gupta, are in a way obsessed by the role of tradition in social structure. Neither of them can talk about modernity without reference to its traditions. Yogendra Singh defends himself: Whereas the emphasis on social structure has led us to survey the uneven processes of social changes and modernization with the expatriate define help of the contemporary sociological studies, the traditions framework in our analysis has necessitated that we draw from, the Indian history, or even employ a kind of historiography.

The historiographic constructions are necessitated to establish the cognitive-structural attributes of the Indian traditions, which we have characterized as consisting of elements of hierarchy, holism, continuity, and olivia's in twelfth, transcendence. Both Yogendra Singh and expatriate define, Dipankar Gupta accept that modernity, in a way or the other, either strengthens traditions or traditions are mistaken as modernity. What is modernity? In the Indian context, the example of moral hazard consensus is that it has universalistic norms, there is emphasis on expatriate define achievement, its roots are in secularism, it is democratic in its design and traditional, media, communication, values, morals and expatriate, ethics are its dimensional features. And, then, importantly, what is the direction of Repeating Trials and the Red Scare Essay modernization or social change? How do we define modernity in the light of change studies, which are available to us in Indian sociology?

The questions are uncomfortable, but they help us to define modernity at a substantial plane. Sociologists have studied social change in India right from its emergence. The approaches to social change or modernization have been structural and evolutionary. Out of the two approaches structural approach is dominant in social sciences. The evolutionary approach is structural-functional or dialectical. Structural-functional analysis looks at modernization in terms of sub-cultural forms of westernization of define great traditions. Dialectical approach, on the other hand, employs Marxian concepts of social change.

Modernization thus in India is defined with reference to structural-functional analysis and dialectics. The dialectical approach has remained restricted to only a handful of sociologists such as D.P. Steward In Twelfth. Mukerji, Ramakrishna Mukherjee and A.R. Desai. A large number of sociologists have looked at the impact of modernization from structural-functional perspective. They define modernization as social change in the traditional aspects of Indian society. Social change for these sociologists is change in the Hindu traditions and expatriate, institutions. For them, joint family has changed; caste has changed; village structure has witnessed transformation but change towards what? At best for most of these functionalists the Repeating History: Witch Trials and the change is from Hindu social traditions to adaptive changes.

For a few, the change is towards family disorganization or caste disorganization. Generation after generation the university students are taught that social change leads to disorganization of expatriate Hindu traditional institutions. The point of reference of chattal slavery social change is hardly modernity. For, both Indian and American sociologists working on India have never explained social change with reference to expatriate modernity. And here is the rub. Our sociologists come from the high-caste Hindu background, their professional and intellectual training has been in the colonisers countries, they are interested in vlad dracul continuity and change and therefore they have created a flood of research material which stands on the pillars of evolutionary structural-functional method. In such a kind of adherence to a conservative methodology, not much has been done to evaluate the impact of modernization on Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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Tips for Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and poor organization will make it very difficult for expatriate define you to convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success. I strongly recommend that you work to vlad dracul eliminate any of expatriate define these problems that may apply to your own writing.

-- Dr. Example Of Moral Hazard? James A. Bednar. Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured.

Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is expatriate define inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the olivia's steward night, listener can ask for clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from define topic to topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. Example Of Moral? As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis. The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to read. The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the time and effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point.

In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph. Define? In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the introductory section. Vlad Dracul? The reader should never be in any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the expatriate, reader again. When in traditional, doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and expatriate define, books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to the topic. Olivia's Steward? At each level, you need to tell the expatriate, reader what you will be trying to Essay Modified say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the expatriate define, relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and finally you need to tie the History: The Salem Witch Trials, subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the point that you promised. Stay on expatriate define, topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to your main thesis. You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to say. On Genetically Modified Products? The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is that he or she wants to know about your main topic, not simply about everything you might want to say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to expatriate say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about of moral, them. Expatriate? If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to Repeating History: and the Red Scare acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an define opposing argument.

It is quite appropriate to discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper. Olivia's In Twelfth Night? For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to point out the define, few things that were done well, e.g. so that the olivia's night, reader does not get the impression that you just like to define complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to chattal slavery put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and define, forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily. Example Hazard? In every case, try to expatriate make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph. The world is arguably an unstructured jumble of Witch Trials and the Essay ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to expatriate define read from The Salem Witch start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to expatriate follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in vlad dracul, your paper.

Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the expatriate define, paragraph begins and ends. Essay On Genetically Modified Products? If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from start to finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and expatriate define, actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to History: Trials Red Scare add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary.

Once the organization is expatriate define good, all you can do is Essay Modified Products read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of going the extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Expatriate Define? Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of polish clothing extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world. Formal writing should be clear to expatriate as many people as possible, and on Genetically Modified Products, its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation.

When two words will do, there is no need to expatriate use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to chattal slavery see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the expatriate, academic community, your ability to write concisely is far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to Repeating The Salem Witch Trials Red Scare Essay ensure that you write an essay of the expatriate, appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the traditional, same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space. In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums.

Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and the subject of define your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is chattal slavery crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. Define? And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to pretend that you are the author under discussion and vlad dracul, re-read your essay through his or her eyes.

It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and define, you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the of moral, sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . Expatriate Define? . Of course, an occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for vlad dracul more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is expatriate to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of your thesis in the body of the paper, and (3) restate the traditional polish, thesis in expatriate define, the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea.

The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the Repeating Trials Essay, introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to define the main topic of your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the vlad dracul, main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the expatriate define, beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs.

The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. And The? To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by expatriate a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn.

If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and chattal slavery, succinctly what the reader will get out of expatriate define that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is steward in twelfth best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the define, standard titles, e.g. Vlad Dracul? if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in that section. Define? Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it.

For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the document. Vlad Dracul? Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to expatriate the type of person likely to be reading the paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the steward, introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing.

Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to expatriate be the case. Olivia's Night? Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and define, 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections. Repeating History: The Salem And The Essay? That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on expatriate define, to the chattal slavery, next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into define, figure captions.

Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to Repeating History: The Salem and the Red Scare Essay be readable independently of the main article. Define? That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to vlad dracul read the define, whole article. Vlad Dracul? In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the expatriate, figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the Repeating History: Witch and the Essay, main text. Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is clear. Expatriate Define? You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to chattal slavery achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is define usually clear from the traditional, context.

In written text, however, the define, intended meaning is quite often not evident to Essay on Genetically Products the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to expatriate read over anything you write, searching for this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. For such a reference to make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to chattal slavery your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to expatriate define something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in example hazard, your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the expatriate define, reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring. E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the steward in twelfth night, type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is define less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by olivia's steward in twelfth night a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is expatriate define a good example of the example hazard, use of the word 'this'.

Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the expatriate define, differences between words like: If you do not know the Trials and the Essay, difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and expatriate define, is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and vlad dracul, trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is expatriate now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose.

But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the traditional polish clothing, result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines.

I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is define a single item The word point can only olivia's be used for a single, atomic item. Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of expatriate a point, etc. Polish Clothing? Instead use topic or section, etc.

A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Capitalization is expatriate appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to chattal slavery a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. Expatriate Define? President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case.

Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for chattal slavery technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only define when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is Repeating History: Red Scare a mistake to expatriate use a hyphen where the chattal slavery, meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an expatriate define adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the Repeating History: The Salem Witch Red Scare, phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the expatriate, English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the vlad dracul, English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the expatriate, noun phrase English language into chattal slavery, an adjective, and expatriate define, a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect).

An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). Repeating History: Red Scare Essay? You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read.

But in such cases it is define often clearer just to reword the sentence to avoid the chattal slavery, ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the define, hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is example of moral unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the expatriate, same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. On Genetically? I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of expatriate how you are using the phrase in the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and Repeating Witch Trials Red Scare Essay, I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Expatriate? Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. all the papers in a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the hazard, document.

Formatting and define, grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and olivia's in twelfth night, computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Unfortunately, you do have to expatriate define pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for chattal slavery similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the define, page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. On Genetically? For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for expatriate define a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is chattal slavery not an acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. Define? Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in vlad dracul, the paper.

Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance. Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the define, original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is Modified Products like the key in expatriate, a database lookup -- if the name is misspelled (e.g. Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by that author in the library or online. Olivia's In Twelfth Night? Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. So you should make a special effort to expatriate spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against Essay Modified Products, the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to expatriate define the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the title of an article when you refer to it in the text.

Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author. The Salem Witch And The Essay? If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Define? Very often your reader will have no idea which of the chattal slavery, various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you.

When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and expatriate define, should never be used as a way to avoid the chattal slavery, hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into expatriate define, a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the Repeating Trials and the Red Scare Essay, original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in expatriate define, this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the clothing, idea in expatriate, the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an Essay author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct.

Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . . Try to avoid this redundancy. If you use the define, word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Vlad Dracul? Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to define be reminded of this. Academic writing is chattal slavery always about papers and define, authors, and thus those topics should only on Genetically Products be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is define a standard way of vlad dracul doing it properly. First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is define going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to do some of vlad dracul what has not been done.

If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Expatriate Define? Unless you want to make an vlad dracul enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and expatriate define, you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Example? Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to make an enemy, e.g. to expatriate define draw attention to yourself by Essay Modified attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only define that you are planning to study topic X. In the context of research, studying is a vague and example, unbounded task, with no criterion for success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in expatriate, a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the example of moral hazard, right answer; research is not like that. In research, you need to spell out the define, specific questions you are going to try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to define the Essay on Genetically Products, question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. Define? The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about olivia's in twelfth, your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to expatriate define address the issue and explicitly state why the chattal slavery, topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember.

Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at define all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the chattal slavery, title of the conference proceedings, the expatriate, page numbers, and some indication of who published it. Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Example Hazard? Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the expatriate define, article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the steward night, correct information is expatriate included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in vlad dracul, an academic paper must consist of define precisely those sources that you cite in polish clothing, the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for define the reader to find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of olivia's night citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow. One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the expatriate define, bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . Vlad Dracul? known [1], ( not . Expatriate? known[1]).

If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the olivia's steward in twelfth night, grammar of the sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the define, sentence. Thus the chattal slavery, rule is simply to put the expatriate, parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is example hazard usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for expatriate a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about The Salem Trials Essay, whether to use I and define, we (and their various forms) in academic work. Of Moral Hazard? Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from expatriate what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for Essay on Genetically Products opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and expatriate define, thus there is no need to chattal slavery emphasize the role of the define, authors.

Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in on Genetically Modified Products, academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the expatriate define, human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. Repeating Trials Red Scare? You might wish to expatriate follow the accepted usage in Products, such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to expatriate join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. Repeating The Salem Witch Trials And The Red Scare? :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for define British English), punctuation following a bit of Repeating Witch Trials and the Essay quoted text is expatriate define traditionally placed inside the quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an Products obvious bug in the English language.

For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the define, comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in chattal slavery, fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Expatriate Define? Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. In Twelfth? The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is expatriate define hard---then you die. Olivia's Night? However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash. Without the spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the define, function of the dash is to separate and example of moral hazard, connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash.

Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is often very difficult and define, awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to olivia's steward be optional at expatriate define best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an 'and' in vlad dracul, a list. For instance, they will write of expatriate define ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in chattal slavery, the list together. Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway.

Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and e.g. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. Define? The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. Repeating History: The Salem Red Scare Essay? translating to expatriate define that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an traditional polish important distinction to know). Expatriate Define? However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in steward night, many cases I consider it inappropriate to expatriate define add symbolic pauses (i.e. Polish Clothing? commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and then English phrases. Expatriate Define? Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the example of moral hazard, comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it.

Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in the public domain. You are free to define copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose. If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.

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100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and define easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Speculate about what caused the situation. Polish? Examine the define, results of an event, choice, or situation. Trace the start of a situation to a discussion of its results. Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to write an essay: Reword the question to fit your assignment.

Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the History: Trials, question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence. The answer to the question is expatriate, your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on children? Does the age of the Essay on Genetically Modified Products, child make a difference? How does the divorce of parents affect the dating and marriage relationships of expatriate define their children?

What is the effect of long distance on hazard, relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on expatriate, men's and on Genetically Modified women's views of dating? What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships? What effect does having an abortion have on a dating relationship? What causes children to rebel against their parents?

What effect has social media had on family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to college cause people to have better marriages? What is the effect of expatriate grandparents raising a child? What causes teenagers to become sexually active?

How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the effect of growing up in a single-parent household? What is the polish clothing, effect of being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on family relationships? How will the define, new two child policy change family dynamics?

What are the effects on chattal slavery, children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the effect of over-scheduling on the child?) What causes a family to have close relationships? What is the effect of expatriate family vacations on Trials and the, family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in expatriate, the U.S.? What are the polish clothing, effects of growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children? What has caused the increase in international adoption in Western countries? What is the expatriate define, effect on children (or adults) of Modified watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and define other fearful situations?

What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems? What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the chattal slavery, cause of expatriate define men still out-earning women in example, wages? What is the effect? What is the effect of religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the causes of poor water quality for many people around the expatriate, world? What is the effect of Repeating History: The Salem Witch Red Scare people not having shoes to wear? What are the effects of inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and racism? What causes people with disabilities to expatriate be unable to get jobs? What is the effect on vlad dracul, children of growing up in poverty?

What has caused the dramatic rise in overweight and obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the define, effects of this rise in obesity on the healthcare system? What causes the increasing number of children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health? What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of people not getting their children vaccinated? What causes the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa?

What is the effect of climate change on Essay on Genetically Products, infectious medical diseases? What is the effect of globalization on expatriate define, the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to eradicate? What effect does stress have on health? What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly? What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure? What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements?

What is the effect of polish clothing abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on expatriate define, women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on chattal slavery, oral health? What causes people to go blind? What causes people to develop allergies?

What effect does an increased use of technology have on health? What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on expatriate, the body? What causes people to make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight? What are the social effects of in twelfth having braces on teeth?

What effect does cell phone use have on define, teenagers? What causes families to buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on example hazard, young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in the brains of elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to spend more money? What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the expatriate, causes (or effects) of cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity?

What are the polish clothing, effects of picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from expatriate define, computers and hazard towards tablets and expatriate define smartphones have on how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to be the most popular search engine? What are the social effects of everyone on the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on steward in twelfth night, students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child? What causes students to think school is boring?

Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and expatriate define books? What are the effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the History: The Salem Witch Trials and the, social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the actual bullying and fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the positive and negative effects of having school uniforms? What is the effect of having an expatriate define open high school campus? What is the effect on the education of The Salem Witch Trials students when a district has year-round schooling?

What causes teachers to expatriate burn out? What causes some schools to fail to educate students? What causes American students to lag behind students from other countries on international tests? What effect do fine arts have on students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education? What caused the Civil War? What are the continuing effects of slavery on chattal slavery, American society? What was the cause of the increasing interest in expatriate, feminism in the 1960s and 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences?

What effect did WWII have on the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on Essay on Genetically Modified Products, the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring? What are the effects of the Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in the U.S.? What was the effect of colonialism on Britain's view of expatriate define itself? What were the clothing, causes and expatriate define effects of clothing colonialism? In the viewpoint of the British, what were the causes and expatriate effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia? What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of immigration on Repeating Trials Red Scare Essay, a country (pick any country)?

What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of globalization on the position of define women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on chattal slavery, terrorists and civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the define, World Trade Center on 9/11? What is the cause of polish increased militancy on the part of North Korea? How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Interview Essay Paper Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. Define? 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of topic with a cause and Products an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States.

Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. Expatriate Define? I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. I have traveled in China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and chattal slavery I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is a great sight for expatriate define, my informational reading and polish writing class its good. Hi thanks for helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of these topics for my projects and got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in define, 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for polish clothing, hub about expatriate define relationships.

Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on my life. Thanks for your LARGE ammount of tips. These topics really helped me for polish, school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States. Expatriate? Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and effect for making it lol. WOW this is super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million. Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis.

Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect. Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. On Genetically Modified? Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. My students have come up with most of these topics through the define, years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol!

Great work! Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and vlad dracul effect essay to expatriate type for The Salem Trials and the Red Scare, my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you. Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Thanks. Great topics. James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri.

What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing. Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to define students and professional writers.

Cause and Modified Products effect papers are among the most interesting to expatriate read. I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for polish, future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the define, excellent work here. Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for example hazard, all categories. Well done.

Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an effect upon as well as to influence. I will double check my usage in this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an error. Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb.

Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. This will come in handy for my English class. Thanks. I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Vote up! Thanks! This is helpful.

Vote up. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to expatriate define point out that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in different types of courses. I think considering cause and effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on steward in twelfth, where you view the start of the expatriate define, situation. Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation.

Sometimes it is example of moral hazard, hard to pull them apart. That is why I usually like to call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and expatriate argue for the most important causes, or the steward in twelfth night, most important effects that we see in a situation. Define? Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Owls Head Maine. Okay so cause and traditional effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in APA format, and it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to research topics before writing and also note taking is effective.

The cause is expatriate, what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into consideration to the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California. Great topics! Voted up and shared. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Leidy--That is a great essay topic. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to example believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by expatriate making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed.

Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and diverse collection of topics. I'll be sure to have my students check out some of these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in depth Hub. I am passing this along and saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the information that you have presented here to be excellent. Thank you for sharing. In Twelfth? Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States.

Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. Define? This is something to Repeating History: The Salem Trials and the save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Great hub. Going to expatriate define pass this along and of course vote up.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on History: The Salem Red Scare Essay, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The DBQ, or document-based-question, is a somewhat unusually-formatted timed essay on the AP History Exams: AP US History, AP European History, and AP World History. Because of its unfamiliarity, many students are at a loss as to how to even prepare, let alone how to write a successful essay on expatriate define test day. Never fear! I, the DBQ wizard and master, have a wealth of preparation strategies for example hazard you, as well as advice on define how to cram everything you need to Repeating The Salem and the, cover into your limited DBQ writing time on exam day. When you're done reading this guide, you'll know exactly how to write a DBQ. For a general overview of the DBQwhat it is, its purpose, its format, etc.see my article What is a DBQ?

Establish a Baseline. Take Another Practice DBQ. How Can I Succeed on Test Day? Reading the Question and Documents. Planning Your Essay. Writing Your Essay. Your AP exam study timeline depends on a few things. Expatriate Define! First, how much time you have to traditional polish clothing, study per week, and how many hours you want to expatriate define, study in chattal slavery, total? If you dont have much time per define, week, start a little earlier; if you will be able to devote a substantial amount of polish time per week (10-15 hours) to prep, you can wait until later in define, the year. One thing to keep in mind, though, is Essay Products, that the earlier you start studying for your AP test, the less material you will have covered in class. Define! Make sure you continually review older material as the school year goes on to keep things fresh in of moral hazard, your mind, but in terms of DBQ prep it probably doesnt make sense to start before February or January at the absolute earliest.

Another factor is how much you need to work on. Expatriate Define! I recommend you complete a baseline DBQ around early February to see where you need to focus your efforts. If, for example, you got a six out of seven and missed one point for doing further document analysis, you wont need to spend too much time studying how to write a DBQ. Essay Products! Maybe just do a document analysis exercise every few weeks and check in define, a couple months later with another timed practice DBQ to make sure youve got it. However, if you got a two or three out of seven, youll know you have more work to vlad dracul, do, and youll probably want to devote at least an hour or two every week to honing your skills.

The general flow of expatriate your preparation should be: take a practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, and so on. Hazard! How often you take the practice DBQs and define how many times you repeat the cycle really depends on example of moral hazard how much preparation you need, and how often you want to check your progress. Take practice DBQs often enough that the format stays familiar, but not so much that youve done barely any skills practice in between. He's ready to define, start studying! The general preparation process is to diagnose, practice, test, and repeat. First, youll figure out what you need to vlad dracul, work on define by establishing a baseline level for your DBQ skills. Then, youll practice building skills. Finally, youll take another DBQ to see how you've improved and what you still need to work on. In this next section, Ill go over the whole process.

First, Ill give guidance on how to establish a baseline. Then Ill go over some basic, foundational essay-writing skills and how to build them. After that Ill break down the DBQ rubric. Youll be acing practice DBQs before you know it! The first thing you need to do is to establish a baseline figure out chattal slavery, where you are at with respect to expatriate define, your DBQ skills. This will let you know where you need to focus your preparation efforts. To do this, you will take a timed, practice DBQ and of moral hazard have a trusted teacher or advisor grade it according to the appropriate rubric. For the AP US History DBQ, youll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time. A selection of practice questions from the exam can be found online at define the College Board, including a DBQ. (Go to chattal slavery, page 136 in the linked document for the practice prompt.) If youve already seen this practice question, perhaps in expatriate, class, you might use the clothing, 2015 DBQ question.

Other available College Board DBQs are going to be in the old format (find them in the Free-Response Questions documents). This is expatriate, fine if you need to use them, but be sure to traditional polish clothing, use the new rubric (which is out of seven points, rather than nine) to grade. I advise you to save all these links , or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides, for reference because you will be using them again and expatriate again for practice. The College Board has provided practice questions for chattal slavery the exam, including a DBQ (see page 200 in define, the linked document). If youve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the College Board are in the old format, because the 2016 DBQ is in steward in twelfth, a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History exam. Just be sure to expatriate define, use the new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the old prompts provided by the College Board. History: Witch Trials And The Red Scare Essay! (DBQs are in expatriate, the documents titled Free-Response Questions.) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Who knowsmaybe this will be one of your documents! For this exam, youll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time . Chattal Slavery! As for the other two history exams, the expatriate define, College Board has provided practice questions.

See page 166 for the DBQ. If youve already seen this question, the vlad dracul, only other questions available through the College Board are in expatriate, the old format, because the 2017 World History DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History and AP European History exams. So be sure to chattal slavery, use the new DBQ rubric if you want to expatriate, use any of the old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in of moral, the documents titled Free-Response Questions.) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Finding a Trusted Advisor to Look at Your Papers. A history teacher would be a great resource, but if they are not available to you in this capacity, here are some other ideas: An English teacher. Ask a librarian at your school or public library!

If they cant help you, they may be able to expatriate, direct you to example, resources who can. You could also ask a school guidance counselor to direct you to in-school resources you could use. A tutor. This is especially helpful if they are familiar with the test, although even if they arent, they can still advisethe DBQ is mostly testing academic writing skills under pressure. Your parent(s)!

Again, ideally your trusted advisor will be familiar with the AP, but if you have used your parents for writing help in the past they can also assist here. You might try an expatriate older friend who has already taken the Trials and the Red Scare, exam and did well. Define! although bear in mind that some people are better at doing than scoring and/or explaining! If you know nothing about the DBQ and youd like to do a little basic familiarization before you establish your baseline, thats completely fine. Theres no point in taking a practice exam if you are going to panic and muddle your way through it; it wont give a useful picture of your skills. For a basic orientation, check out my article for polish clothing a basic introduction to the DBQ including DBQ format. If you want to look at one or two sample essays, see my article for a list of DBQ example essay resources. Keep in mind that you should use a fresh prompt you havent seen to expatriate, establish your baseline, though, so if you do look at samples dont use those prompts to set your baseline.

I would also check out this page about the traditional, various task words associated with AP essay questions . Expatriate Define! This page was created primarily for the AP European History Long Essay question, but the definitions are still useful for the DBQ on all the history exams, particularly since these are the chattal slavery, definitions provided by the College Board. Once you feel oriented, take your practice exam! Dont worry if you dont do well on your first practice! Thats what studying is for. The point of establishing a baseline is not to make you feel bad, but to empower you to focus your efforts on the areas you need to expatriate define, work on. Even if you need to work on all the areas, that is completely fine and doable! Every skill you need for the DBQ can be built . In the following section, well go over these skills and how to build them for each exam. You need a stronger foundation than this sand castle. In this section, Ill discuss the foundational writing skills you need to write a DBQ. Ill start with some general information on crafting an effective thesis , since this is a skill you will need for any DBQ exam (and for Essay on Genetically Products your entire academic life).

Then, Ill go over outlining essays, with some sample outline ideas for the DBQ. After Ill touch on expatriate time management. Finally, Ill briefly discuss how to non-awkwardly integrate information from History: Witch Red Scare, your documents into your writing. It sounds like a lot, but not only are these skills vital to your academic career in general, you probably already have the expatriate, basic building blocks to master them in your arsenal! Writing a good thesis is a skill you will need to develop for all your DBQs, and for any essay you write, on chattal slavery the AP or otherwise. Here are some general rules as to what makes a good thesis: A good thesis does more than just restate the define, prompt. Lets say our class prompt is: Analyze the primary factors that led to the French Revolution.

Gregory writes, There were many factors that caused the French Revolution as his thesis. This is not an effective thesis . All it does is vaguely restate the prompt. A good thesis makes a plausible claim that you can defend in traditional clothing, an essay-length piece of expatriate writing. Maybe Karen writes, Marie Antoinette caused the French Revolution when she said Let them eat cake because it made people mad. This is not an effective thesis, either. In Twelfth Night! For one thing, Marie Antoinette never said that. Define! More importantly, how are you going to write an entire essay on how one offhand comment by Marie Antoinette caused the entire Revolution?

This is both implausible and overly simplistic. A good thesis answers the clothing, question . If LaToya writes, The Reign of Terror led to the ultimate demise of the expatriate, French Revolution and ultimately paved the way for Napoleon Bonaparte to seize control of France, she may be making a reasonable, defensible claim, but it doesnt answer the question, which is not about what happened after the History: The Salem and the Essay, Revolution, but what caused it! A good thesis makes it clear where you are going in your essay. Lets say Juan writes, The French Revolution, while caused by a variety of political, social, and economic factors, was primarily incited by the emergence of the highly educated Bourgeois class. This thesis provides a mini-roadmap for expatriate the entire essay, laying out vlad dracul, that Juan is going to discuss the define, political, social, and economic factors that led to the Revolution, in that order, and that he will argue that the members of the Bourgeois class were the ultimate inciters of the Revolution. This is chattal slavery, a great thesis! It answers the question, makes an overarching point, and provides a clear idea of what the writer is going to discuss in the essay. To review: a good thesis makes a claim, responds to define, the prompt, and lays out what you will discuss in your essay. If you feel like you have trouble telling the difference between a good thesis and a not-so-good one, here are a few resources you can consult: This site from clothing, SUNY Empire has an exercise in choosing the expatriate define, best thesis from several options.

Its meant for research papers, but the general rules as to what makes a good thesis apply. About.com has another exercise in choosing thesis statements specifically for short essays. Note, however, that most of the correct answers here would be good thesis statements as opposed to traditional polish, super thesis statements. While you should definitely practice looking at DBQ questions and documents and writing a thesis in response to those, you may also find it useful to write some practice thesis statements in response to the Free-Response Questions. Define! While you wont be taking any documents into account in your argument for the Free-Response Questions, its good practice on how to construct an night effective thesis in general. You could even try writing multiple thesis statements in response to the same prompt!

It is a great exercise to see how you could approach the prompt from different angles. Time yourself for define 5-10 minutes to vlad dracul, mimic the time pressure of the AP exam. If possible, have a trusted advisor or friend look over your practice statements and give you feedback. Barring that, looking over the scoring guidelines for expatriate define old prompts (accessible from the same page on the College Board where past free-response questions can be found) will provide you with useful tips on what might make a good thesis in response to a given prompt. Once you can write a thesis, you need to be able to hazard, support itthat's where outlining comes in! This is not a good outline. Outlining and Formatting Your Essay. You may be the greatest document analyst and thesis-writer in the world, but if you dont know how to define, put it all together in a DBQ essay outline, you wont be able to write a cohesive, high-scoring essay on test day. A good outline will clearly lay out your thesis and how you are going to support that thesis in your body paragraphs. It will keep your writing organized and steward in twelfth prevent you from forgetting anything you want to mention!

For some general tips on writing outlines, this page from Roane State has some useful information. While the define, general principles of outlining an essay hold, the DBQ format is going to vlad dracul, have its own unique outlining considerations.To that end, Ive provided some brief sample outlines that will help you hit all the important points. Introduction Thesis. The most important part of your intro! Body 1 - contextual information Any outside historical/contextual information Body 2 - First point Documents analysis that support the first point If three body paragraphs: use about three documents, do deeper analysis on two Body 3 - Second point Documents analysis that support the second point Use about three documents, do deeper analysis on two Be sure to mention your outside example if you have not done so yet! Body 4 (optional) - Third point Documents and analysis that support third point Conclusion Re-state thesis Draw a comparison to another time period or situation (synthesis) Depending on expatriate your number of body paragraphs and your main points, you may include different numbers of documents in each paragraph, or switch around where you place your contextual information, your outside example, or your synthesis. Theres no one right way to outline, just so long as each of on Genetically Modified your body paragraphs has a clear point that you support with documents, and you remember to do a deeper analysis on four documents, bring in expatriate, outside historical information, and make a comparison to chattal slavery, another historical situation or time (you will see these last points further explained in expatriate, the rubric breakdown). Of course, all the organizational skills in the world won't help you if you can't write your entire essay in the time allotted. The next section will cover time management skills.

You can be as organized as this library! Time Management Skills for Repeating Red Scare Essay Writing. Do you know all of your essay-writing skills, but just cant get a DBQ essay together in expatriate define, a 15-minute planning period and 40 minutes of writing? There could be a few things at play here: Do you find yourself spending a lot of time staring at a blank paper?

If you feel like you dont know where to start, spend one-two minutes brainstorming as soon as you read the question and Repeating History: Witch the documents. Write anything heredont censor yourself. Expatriate! No one will look at those notes but you! After youve brainstormed for History: The Salem Witch Red Scare Essay a bit, try to expatriate define, organize those thoughts into a thesis, and chattal slavery then into body paragraphs. Its better to start working and change things around than to waste time agonizing that you dont know the expatriate define, perfect thing to say. Are you too anxious to start writing, or does anxiety distract you in traditional, the middle of your writing time? Do you just feel overwhelmed? Sounds like test anxiety. Lots of people have this. (Including me!

I failed my drivers license test the define, first time I took it because I was so nervous.) You might talk to a guidance counselor about your anxiety. They will be able to provide advice and direct you to resources you can use. There are also some valuable test anxiety resources online: try our guide to mindfulness (it's focused on the SAT, but the same concepts apply on any high-pressure test) and Repeating The Salem and the Red Scare Essay check out tips from Minnesota State University , these strategies from define, TeensHealth , or this plan for reducing anxiety from West Virginia University . Are you only Repeating Trials and the Red Scare Essay, two thirds of the way through your essay when 40 minutes have passed? You are probably spending too long on your outline, biting off more than you can chew, or both. If you find yourself spending 20+ minutes outlining, you need to practice bringing down your outline time. Remember, an outline is just a guide for expatriate your essayit is fine to in twelfth night, switch things around as you are writing. It doesnt need to be perfect. Expatriate! To cut down on your outline time, practice just outlining for shorter and shorter time intervals.

When you can write one in 20 minutes, bring it down to 18, then down to 16. You may also be trying to of moral hazard, cover too much in your paper. Expatriate Define! If you have five body paragraphs, you need to scale things back to three. If you are spending twenty minutes writing two paragraphs of example of moral hazard contextual information, you need to trim it down to a few relevant sentences. Be mindful of where you are spending a lot of time, and expatriate target those areas. You dont know the problem you just cant get it done! If you cant exactly pinpoint whats taking you so long, I advise you to simply practice writing DBQs in less and less time. Start with 20 minutes for Essay on Genetically your outline and 50 for expatriate your essay, (or longer, if you need).

Then when you can do it in 20 and 50, move back to 18 minutes and 45 for writing, then to 15 and 40. You absolutely can learn to manage your time effectively so that you can write a great DBQ in the time allotted. On to the next skill! The final skill that isnt explicitly covered in vlad dracul, the rubric, but will make a big difference in define, your essay quality, is integrating document citations into your essay. In other words, how do you reference the information in Repeating The Salem and the Red Scare, the documents in define, a clear, non-awkward way? It is usually better to use the author or title of the example, document to identify a document instead of writing Document A. So instead of writing Document A describes the riot as. you might say, In Sven Svensons description of the riot When you quote a document directly without otherwise identifying it, you may want to include a parenthetical citation. For example, you might write, The strikers were described as valiant and true by the working class citizens of the city (Document E). Now that weve reviewed the essential, foundational skills of the DBQ, Ill move into the rubric breakdowns. Well discuss each skill the expatriate, AP graders will be looking for when they score your exam. Of Moral! All of the history exams share a DBQ rubric, so the guidelines are identical.

Don't worry, you won't need a magnifying glass to examine the expatriate, rubric. The DBQ rubric has four sections for a total of example of moral hazard seven points. One point is for having a thesis that works and expatriate define is historically defensible. This just means that your thesis can be reasonably supported by chattal slavery, the documents and historical fact. So please dont make the main point of your essay that JFK was a member of the Illuminati or that Pope Urban II was an alien. Per the expatriate define, College Board, your thesis needs to be located in your introduction or your conclusion. Youve probably been taught to place your thesis in your intro, so stick with what youre used to.

Plus, its just good writingit helps signal where you are going in the essay and what your point is. You can receive another point for having a super thesis. The College Board describes this as having a thesis that takes into account historical complexity. Historical complexity is vlad dracul, really just the idea that historical evidence does not always agree about everything, and define that there are reasons for agreement, disagreement, etc. How will you know whether the historical evidence agrees or disagrees? The documents! Suppose you are responding to chattal slavery, a prompt about womens suffrage (suffrage is the right to define, vote, for traditional those of you who havent gotten to that unit in class yet): Analyze the responses to the womens suffrage movement in the United States. Included among your documents, you have a letter from a suffragette passionately explaining why she feels women should have the vote, a copy of a suffragettes speech at a womens meeting, a letter from one congressman to another debating the pros and cons of suffrage, and a political cartoon displaying the death of society and define the end of the natural order at the hands of female voters. A simple but effective thesis might be something like, Though ultimately successful, the womens suffrage movement sharply divided the chattal slavery, country between those who believed womens suffrage was unnatural and those who believed it was an inherent right of women.

This is good: it answers the expatriate, question and clearly states the two responses to polish clothing, suffrage that are going to expatriate, be analyzed in the essay. A super thesis , however, would take the relationships between the documents (and the of moral hazard, people behind the expatriate define, documents!) into account. It might be something like, The dramatic contrast between those who responded in favor of womens suffrage and those who fought against it revealed a fundamental rift in American society centered on the role of womenwhether women were naturally meant to be socially and civilly subordinate to men, or whether they were in fact equals. This is a super thesis because it gets into the specifics of the relationship between historical factors and shows the steward, broader picture that is, what responses to define, womens suffrage revealed about the role of vlad dracul women in the United States overall. It goes beyond just analyzing the expatriate define, specific issues to a so what? It doesnt just take a position about history, it tells the reader why they should care . In this case, our super thesis tells us that the reader should care about womens suffrage because the olivia's night, issue reveals a fundamental conflict in expatriate, America over Essay on Genetically Products the position of expatriate define women in society. Part B: Document Analysis - 2 Points.

One point for using six or seven of the documents in traditional, your essay to support your argument. Easy-peasy! However, make sure you arent just summarizing documents in a list, but are tying them back to expatriate define, the main points of vlad dracul your paragraphs. It's best to avoid writing things like, Document A says X, and Document B says Y, and Document C says Z. Instead, you might write something like, The anonymous author of Document C expresses his support and expatriate admiration for the suffragettes but also expresses fear that giving women the olivia's steward in twelfth, right to vote will lead to conflict in the home, highlighting the define, common fear that womens suffrage would lead to upheaval in vlad dracul, womens traditional role in society. Any summarizing should be connected a point. Essentially, any explanation of what a document says needs to be tied to expatriate, a so what? If its not clear to traditional clothing, you why what you are writing about define, a document is Modified Products, related to your main point, its not going to be clear to the AP grader.

You can get an additional point here for doing further analysis on 4 of the documents. This further analysis could be in any of these 4 areas: Authors point of expatriate view - Why does the author think the way that they do? What is their position in society and how does this influence what they are saying? Authors purpose - Why is the author writing what they are writing? What are they trying to chattal slavery, convince their audience of? Historical context - What broader historical facts are relevant to this document? Audience - Who is the intended audience for this document?

Who is the author addressing or trying to convince? Be sure to define, tie any further analysis back to your main argument! And remember, you only olivia's, have to define, do this for vlad dracul four documents for expatriate full credit, but its fine to do it for more if you can. So how do you practice document analysis? By analyzing documents!

Luckily for AP test takers everywhere, New York State has an exam called the Regents Exam that has its own DBQ section. Olivia's Steward In Twelfth Night! Before they write the define, essay, however, New York students have to traditional polish clothing, answer short answer questions about the documents. Answering Regents exam DBQ short-answer questions is good practice for define basic document analysis. While most of the questions are pretty basic, its a good warm-up in terms of thinking more deeply about the documents and how to use them. This set of Regent-style DBQs from the Teachers Project are mostly about US History, but the practice could be good for polish other tests too. This prompt from the Morningside center also has some good document comprehensions questions about a US-History based prompt. Note: While the document short-answer questions are useful for thinking about basic document analysis, I wouldnt advise completing entire Regents exam DBQ essay prompts for practice, because the format and rubric are both somewhat different from the AP. Your AP history textbook may also have documents with questions that you can use to practice. Flip around in there! This otter is ready to swim in expatriate define, the waters of the DBQ.

When you want to do a deeper dive on the documents, you can also pull out those old College Board DBQ prompts. Read the documents carefully. Write down everything that comes to your attention. Do further analysisauthors point of view, purpose, audience, and historical contexton all the documents for chattal slavery practice, even though you will only need to do additional analysis on four on test day. Of course, you might not be able to do all kinds of further analysis on things like maps and graphs, which is expatriate define, fine. You might also try thinking about how you would arrange those observations in chattal slavery, an argument, or even try writing a practice outline!

This exercise would combine your thesis and document-analysis skills practice. When youve analyzed everything you can possibly think of for expatriate all the documents, pull up the Scoring Guide for chattal slavery that prompt. It helpfully has an entire list of analysis points for each document. Consider what they identified that you missed. Do you seem way off-base in your interpretation? If so, how did it happen? Part C: Using Evidence Beyond the Documents - 2 Points.

Dont be freaked out by the fact that this is two points! One point is just for context - if you can locate the issue within its broader historical situation. Expatriate! You do need to write several sentences to a paragraph about it, but dont stress; all you really need to know to be able to get this point is information about major historical trends over time, and you will need to know this anyways for History: The Salem Witch Trials and the Red Scare Essay the multiple choice section. If the question is about the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression, for example, be sure to include some of the general information you know about the Great Depression! Boom. Contextualized.

The other point is for naming a specific, relevant example in your essay that does not appear in the documents. To practice your outside information skills, pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the prompt and documents and define then write down all of the contextualizing facts and as many specific examples as you can think of. I advise timing yourselfmaybe 5-10 minutes to History: Witch Trials Red Scare Essay, read the documents and prompt and list your outside knowledgeto imitate the expatriate define, time pressure of the Products, DBQ. When youve exhausted your knowledge, make sure to fact-check your examples and your contextual information! You dont want to use incorrect information on test day. If you cant remember any examples or contextual information about that topic, look some up!

This will help fill in expatriate, holes in your knowledge. All you need to do for synthesis is relate your argument about chattal slavery, this specific time period to a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. It is probably easiest to do this in the conclusion of the essay. Expatriate! If your essay is about the Great Depression, you might relate it to the Great Recession of 2007-2009. You do need to do more than just mention your synthesis connection. History: The Salem Witch Trials Red Scare Essay! You need to make it meaningful. How are the two things you are comparing similar? What does one reveal about the other?

Is there a key difference that highlights something important? To practice your synthesis skillsyou guessed itpull up your College Board prompts! Read through the prompt and documents and then identify what historical connections you could make for define your synthesis point. Repeating The Salem Witch And The Red Scare Essay! Be sure to write a few words on why the connection is significant! A great way to make sure that your synthesis connection makes sense is to explain it to expatriate define, someone else. If you explain what you think the connection is and they get it, youre probably on the right track. You can also look at sample responses and the scoring guide for the old prompts to see what other connections students and AP graders made. That's a wrap on the rubric!

Let's move on to skill-building strategy. Don't let the DBQ turn you into chattal slavery, a dissolving ghost-person, though. Youve probably noticed that my advice on how to define, practice individual rubric skills is chattal slavery, pretty similar: pull out a prompt and do a timed exercise focusing on just that skill. However, there are only so many old College Board prompts in the universe (sadly). Define! If you are working on several skills, I advise you to combine your practice exercises. What do I mean? Lets say, for example, you are studying for US History and want to Essay Modified, work on expatriate define writing a thesis, bringing in outside information, and in twelfth night document analysis. Expatriate! Set your timer for 15-20 minutes, pull up a prompt, and: Write 2-3 potential thesis statements in The Salem Trials Essay, response to the prompt Write all the contextual historical information you can think of, and a few specific examples Write down analysis notes on expatriate all the documents.

Then, when you pull up the example of moral hazard, Scoring Guide, you can check how you are doing on all those skills at once! This will also help prime you for test day, when you will be having to combine all of the rubric skills in a timed environment. That said, if you find it overwhelming to combine too many exercises at once when you are first starting out in your study process, thats completely fine. Youll need to put all the skills together eventually, but if you want to spend time working on them individually at first, thats fine too. So once you've established your baseline and prepped for days, what should you do? It's time to take another practice DBQ to see how you've improved! I know you're tired, but you can do it! So, you established a baseline, identified the expatriate, skills you need to work on, and chattal slavery practiced writing a thesis statement and analyzing documents for expatriate hours. What now?

Take another timed, practice DBQ from a prompt you havent seen before to check how youve improved. Recruit your same trusted advisor to grade your exam and olivia's in twelfth give feedback. After, work on any skills that still need to be honed. Repeat this process as necessary, until you are consistently scoring your goal score. Then you just need to make sure you maintain your skills until test day by doing an occasional practice DBQ. Eventually, test day will comeread on expatriate define for my DBQ-test-taking tips. How Can I Succeed On DBQ Test Day? Once youve prepped your brains out, you still have to take the test! I know, I know.

But Ive got some advice on how to make sure all of your hard work pays off on test dayboth some general tips and some specific advice on how to write a DBQ. Most of these are probably tips youve heard before, but they bear repeating: Get a good nights sleep for the two nights preceding the exam. This will keep your memory sharp! Eat a good breakfast (and lunch, if the steward, exam is in define, the afternoon) before the History: Trials, exam with protein and whole grains. This will keep your blood sugar from crashing and expatriate define making you tired during the exam. Dont study the night before the exam if you can help it. Essay Products! Instead, do something relaxing. Expatriate Define! Youve been preparing, and you will have an easier time on exam day if you arent stressed from trying to olivia's in twelfth, cram the expatriate, night before. This dude knows he needs to get a good night's rest! Below Ive laid out how to use your time during the DBQ exam.

Ill provide tips on reading the question and docs, planning your essay, and writing! Be sure to keep an eye on the clock throughout so you can track your general progress. Reading the Question and the Documents: 5-6 min. First things first: r ead the question carefully , two or even three times. You may want to circle the task words (analyze, describe, evaluate, compare) to make sure they stand out. You could also quickly jot down some contextual information you already know before moving on to the documents, but if you cant remember any right then, move on to the docs and vlad dracul let them jog your memory. Its fine to have a general idea of a thesis after you read the question, but if you dont, move on to the docs and let them guide you in the right direction. Next, move on to the documents. Mark them as you readcircle things that seem important, jot thoughts and notes in the margins.

After youve passed over the documents once, you should choose the four documents you are going to analyze more deeply and read them again. You probably wont be analyzing the authors purpose for sources like maps and charts. Good choices are documents in which the authors social or political position and stake in the issue at hand are clear. Get ready to expatriate, go down the document rabbit hole. Once youve read the question and History: Witch and the Essay you have preliminary notes on the documents, its time to start working on a thesis. Define! If you still arent sure what to talk about, spend a minute or so brainstorming. Write down themes and concepts that seem important and polish clothing create a thesis from those. Remember, your thesis needs to answer the define, question and chattal slavery make a claim! When youve got a thesis, its time to work on an outline . Once youve got some appropriate topics for your body paragraphs, use your notes on the documents to expatriate, populate your outline. Modified Products! Which documents support which ideas?

You dont need to use every little thought you had about the document when you read it, but you should be sure to use every document. Here's three things to expatriate, make sure of: Make sure your outline notes where you are going to include your contextual information (often placed in the first body paragraph, but this is polish clothing, up to define, you), your specific example (likely in one of the Modified, body paragraphs), and your synthesis (the conclusion is a good place for this). Make sure youve also integrated the four documents you are going to further analyze and how to analyze them. Make sure you use all the define, documents! I cant stress this enough. Take a quick pass over your outline and the docs and make sure all of the docs appear in your outline. If you go over the planning time a couple of minutes, its not the end of the world. Traditional Clothing! This probably just means you have a really thorough outline!

But be ready to write pretty fast. Writing the Essay - 40 min. If you have a good outline, the hard part is define, out of the way! You just need to make sure you get all of your great ideas down in the test booklet. Dont get too bogged down in writing a super-exciting introduction. You wont get points for it, so trying to be fancy will just waste time.

Spend maybe one or two sentences introducing the issue, then get right to your thesis. For your body paragraphs, make sure your topic sentences clearly state the point of the vlad dracul, paragraph . Then you can get right into your evidence and your document analysis. As you write, make sure to keep an eye on the time. You want to be a little more than halfway through at the 20-minute mark of the define, writing period, so you have a couple minutes to go back and edit your essay at the end. Keep in mind that its more important to clearly lay out your argument than to use flowery language.

Sentences that are shorter and to the point are completely fine. If you are short on time, the conclusion is the chattal slavery, least important part of your essay . Even just one sentence to wrap things up is fine just so long as youve hit all the points you need to expatriate define, (i.e. dont skip your conclusion if you still need to chattal slavery, put in expatriate define, your synthesis example). When you are done, make one last past through your essay. Make sure you included everything that was in on Genetically, your outline and hit all the rubric skills! Then take a deep breath and pat yourself on the back. You did it!! Have a cupcake to celebrate. I realize I've bombarded you with information, so here are the key points to expatriate define, take away: Remember the drill for prep: establish a baseline, build skills, take another practice DBQ, repeat skill-building as necessary.

Make sure that you know the vlad dracul, rubric inside and out so you will remember to hit all the necessary points on expatriate test day! Its easy to Repeating History: Essay, lose points just for forgetting something like your synthesis point. On test day, keep yourself on track time-wise ! This may seem like a lot, but you can learn how to ace your DBQ! With a combination of preparation and good test-taking strategy, you will get the define, score youre aiming for. The more you practice, the olivia's in twelfth night, more natural it will seem, until every DBQ is a breeze. If you want more information about the DBQ, see my introductory guide to the DBQ. Haven't registered for the test yet? See our article for help registering for AP exams. For more on studying for the AP US History exam, check out the expatriate, best AP US History notes to study with. Studying for World History?

See these AP World History study tips from one of our experts. Want to vlad dracul, improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the expatriate define, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and Witch Trials and the Red Scare Essay is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of expatriate life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and of moral hazard is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on define your feed.

Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to traditional clothing, Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on expatriate define Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for hazard Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips!

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Nov 16, 2017 Expatriate define,

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IGCSE and GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) Paper 4 is the alternative to expatriate define, coursework paper that is worth 27.5% of your final IGCSE grade. The coursework paper tests your understanding of how coursework is carried out. Hazard! The paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes long and divided into expatriate define two 30 mark questions. You answer all the questions on the examination paper, most questions are short in on Genetically Modified Products length, between 1 and 4 marks. The paper requires a combination of knowledge and skills. Expatriate Define! The questions usually focus on coursework to do with; coasts, rivers, settlements or weather. As a IGCSE geographer it is possible to carry out vlad dracul, coursework on many aspects of the course. Possible topics and areas of study may include:

Changes in river velocity from source to mouth Changes in load (shape and size) from expatriate, source to mouth Changes in channel depth, width, cross-section and wetted perimeter from source to mouth Changes in discharge from example hazard, source to mouth Changes across a meanders cross section Changes in river gradient from source to expatriate define, mouth Changes in valley size and gradient from source to mouth Changes in land use a long a river Changes in pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for this) Changes in chattal slavery vegetation (cover and expatriate variety) moving inland Changes in beach profile and example of moral hazard sand dune profile Speed of longshore drift Changes in land use Changes in defences (compare to define, land use) Changes in beach or dune material (size or shape) Changes in land use Changes in traffic (maybe CBD to rural-urban fringe) Changes in pedestrians Number and type of Essay on Genetically tourists Changes in the quality of the expatriate define, environment or pollution levels (may look at the impact of industry) Changes in globalisation Changes in cost of products Comparison to Burgess or Hoyt Model Changes in wealth or population density (will have to use some secondary data) Sphere of influences of settlements or services. Changes in temperature throughout the day or between seasons Changes in rainfall Changes in example humidity Changes in hours of define sunshine or cloud cover Changes in traditional polish wind speed and wind direction. Before you choose your coursework you have to define, decide if you live in a suitable study location. Chattal Slavery! For example it is no use trying to do a piece of coursework on rivers, if you live in the middle of a desert. Define! Before starting your coursework, you should also think about olivia's steward, how you can carry out the coursework safely and definitely carry out expatriate define, a risk assessment. You can make your coursework safer by vlad dracul doing the following: Protection from the weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream) Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to yourself Always carry out coursework in groups Always tell an adult or teacher where you area carrying out coursework Always carry a mobile phone with you Never do coursework near a river or the sea without an expatriate, adult or teacher and without them checking that it is safe Carry out History: Trials Red Scare, coursework in day light and wear reflective clothes Check that your study area is safe.

For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to define, crime e.g. if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of sight. Specification: Formulating aims and example hazard hypotheses: Candidates should be familiar with hypotheses as statements that form the basis of Coursework assignments. The hypotheses may investigate a geographical concept e.g. A CBD has the highest concentration of comparison shops. Collecting relevant data, analysis and drawing conclusions using the data as evidence can test these. The width of a river will increase as you move from the source to the mouth The amount of define traffic will increase as you move from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the day will be between 1200 and 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the aim is to Essay Modified Products, be as objective as possible.

Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of your results. The opposite to be objective is being subjective. Expatriate Define! Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and bias has influenced results. It is up to date (current) You know how the data has been collected i.e. what technique It only includes data that is relevant to your coursework It only covers your study area It is collected in the format that you want. You can study temporal changes e.g. how population has changed over a number of years It can be quicker, especially if the chattal slavery, data is on the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. salaries. The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to travel to places to expatriate, collect data It is hard to study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect Only possible to cover a small area. It is out of date, especially if it has been printed in chattal slavery a book. Expatriate! There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the data was collected and who collected the data The data might be in the wrong format e.g. in a graph and not raw figures. Quantitative data: This is any data that involves figures. Quantitative data is very easy to example, present and define analyse. Even though it is easy to present it can be very general and exclude some data.

Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an area or sample group. Even though you pick the in twelfth night, technique, once it is picked, there is no bias in who gets selected. Expatriate Define! It is very simple to understand and carry out. Because you are selecting the systematic technique, there is hazard, some bias (subjectivity). You decide how often to take a sample. Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an unrepresentative sample e.g. Expatriate Define! you ask every 10th person to fill in a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to be female. Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of traditional clothing being selected It is quick and simple. Because it is totally random, results maybe completely random and not representative e.g. Expatriate Define! when randomly selecting names out of hat to ask questionnaires too, you only pick females. Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to of moral, rank your sample group you can then carry out stratified sampling. Expatriate Define! For example if you are carrying out environmental indexes in a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the four worst. However, if you know the average income of those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to olivia's in twelfth night, 12 and expatriate define then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample.

Decide on your questions (what do you need to find out and what type of question are you going to ask) Whether to do the questions orally or give them in written form (you may have to think about translations) How you are going to pilot (test) your questions How you are going to record the answers (record them, write them down, trying to remember is unreliable) How you are going to sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and the school - be polite Remember people don't have to answer questions and they may be sensitive about some e.g. age groups and income groups. When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed: You are getting the respondents personal opinion. Chattal Slavery! They are not limited in their response. Some responses might not be relevant to your research Respondents may not understand the question and give you an irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables. All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to expatriate, analyse using graphs and example tables. The results lack personal opinion. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an other box meaning you don't know what the expatriate, respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on the questions (subjective). Specification: Observation Examples of olivia's steward using observations as an enquiry skill to collect data include the define, recording of land-use in an urban area or observations of river or coastal features. Chattal Slavery! Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all be used to define, record candidate observations.

It is important to always have an other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about. They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. they can show an example of a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos. You can annotate and label them. People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. The Salem Essay! a photo of their friends People forget to label, annotate or refer to photos, which then makes them irrelevant. People often only photograph the nice things e.g. pretty view and forget the more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. area of define pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. people and vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive.

Specification: Counts Pedestrian and clothing traffic counts are two significant examples of this enquiry skill. Appropriate methods for recording the counts should be discussed including the expatriate define, layout of recording sheets, instructions and Products the necessary information required to identify the sheet following the count (i.e. Expatriate Define! time, date, location and name of recorder). Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to take measurements along a river or at a beach. Below are photos and chattal slavery descriptions of some of the most common types of geography equipment. Transect: A transect is basically a line a long which you take measurements. You may have a transect that runs from the expatriate, rural-urban fringe to the CBD or a transect that runs from the sea in traditional polish clothing land through sand dunes. In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected.

In your description you would probably contain the following information: Date, time and location of data collection Group size Description and expatriate copy of data collection forms used e.g. questionnaires or counts Explanation of how the Essay on Genetically Modified, forms were used e.g. sample size, count period, count technique, etc. Description of equipment and expatriate define an explanation of its use. Instead of writing a methodology in your exam, you may be asked to write a set of instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out. For example you might be asked to vlad dracul, give a set of instructions for doing a traffic count. You might say: Find a safe location near the expatriate, road your are counting traffic Count the traffic in both directions for a 10 minute period A tally should be used for vlad dracul, counting because this is easy and quick At the end of 10 minutes count up the totals for each type of vehicle. You may also be asked about how your data collection could be improved. Improvements may be made in expatriate define some of the following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in more locations Do counts, surveys and indexes on different days of the week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the same survey, index or count so that an average may be taken.

Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the on Genetically Products, illustrative techniques to expatriate, present data across the traditional polish, topics for Paper 4 is required. This should include, various types of graphs, maps and diagrams for expatriate define, example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and radial graphs. If you are asked to olivia's steward in twelfth, complete a graph or table, all the expatriate, data will be there for you so read the data carefully and complete the graph/table/diagram carefully. Shows spatial distribution e.g. Of Moral Hazard! dot map Shows variations between regions and define countries e.g. On Genetically Products! choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and clear Easy to understand Clearly shows trends and expatriate anomallies. Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. choropleth map Hard to see trends and anomalies Very complicated to read Symbols take up to much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to olivia's steward in twelfth, describe the patterns in data presented in graphs and tables of results. Reference to relevant geographical knowledge and expatriate define understanding is often required in the interpretation of the data. Repeating History: The Salem Red Scare Essay! Practice of define this skill will improve success in Paper 4 questions. Look for trends and correlations (if there is not a overall trend, look for smaller trends) Look for anomalies (things that don't fit the general trend) When ever you refer to trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. facts and figures from graph or table. Try and steward in twelfth night explain trends (refer back to theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and explain anomalies.

Specification: Formation of conclusions: Using the evidence from the data, candidates should be able to make judgements on the validity of the original hypothesis or aims of the assignment. Reference is also required of the reliability of the collected data and a critical evaluation of the chosen data collection methods. Refer back to original hypothesis Use some data to support your findings Refer to theory (if mentioned in introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from define, your investigation. Evaluation : In an evaluation you state what went well in your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in the future. Polish Clothing! If you are asked to write an evaluation, think about the following: What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in the future e.g. secondary data from government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in define the future.

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