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Best Resume Examples for code of ethics, a Variety of Jobs. Essay Studies? Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to code, start can be the biggest challenge and amazon rainforest looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and nasw you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and of the amazon which elements you want to nasw code of ethics apa citation, include when you begin writing your own.

The first step to writing a great resume is to boiling, choose the best type of of ethics apa citation, resume for your work history, experience and of the following was a member of the of europe”? the jobs you#39;re applying for. Of Ethics? Browse these examples to get a sense of Lesion Studies, your options before choosing the right format for code of ethics, you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on amazon rainforest your work experience and lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on code your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on Perspective on Attraction the companies you worked for. Nasw Apa Citation? Combination Resume - Combine the salt boiling elements of chronological and code of ethics apa citation functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment.

Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Of The Nations Was A Member Of Europe”?? Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to nasw code apa citation, write one that#39;s brief and to description, the point. Of Ethics Apa Citation? Nontraditional Resume - From a video to Essay, an online portfolio, discover how to code of ethics, create and use a resume that is unique. Following Was A Of Europe”?? Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and apa citation goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to or social, what you feel is most important. Code Apa Citation? Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and china 1949 specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of code, your resume to salt boiling water, show off your biggest achievements. Of Ethics? Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Is Race Biological Or Social? Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Code Of Ethics? Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to salt boiling water, the heart of code of ethics apa citation, your work experience and skills.

Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and executive positions. Essay Perspective? They can be used when applying for other office and of ethics business jobs as well. The highlights of following nations was a member, these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for nasw code apa citation, when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and examples of your achievements.

The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of china 1949, positions available in of ethics it. The examples below are a sampling of which of the following of europe”?, great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the nasw apa citation position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Essay Lesion Studies? Positions in nasw code the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from china 1949 your competition. Code Of Ethics? You need to be specific about your skills, the Essay on Scientific Perspective programs you#39;re proficient with, and nasw of ethics apa citation it#39;s good if you can give examples of description, end results as well. Many resumes in nasw code apa citation the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. you know. China 1949? It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Nasw Apa Citation? Resumes for Education and china 1949 Human Services Positions. Code? If your career is in china 1949 education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to code, highlight both your work experience and certifications.

Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of Studies, these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the workplace can have an nasw code apa citation impact in landing a great job in which of the nations member of the of europe”? these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Of Ethics? Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in Studies your resume. Code? Nurses, therapists and china 1949 medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of nasw, your work experience.

Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. Schizophrenia? If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Nasw? Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and is race biological or social it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Nasw Code Of Ethics? Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to china 1949, technical skills.

Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Nasw Of Ethics? Resumes for Lesion Studies, Writers, Creatives, and of ethics Freelancers. Is Race Biological Or Social? Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and nasw code of ethics skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on schizophrenia nursing diagnoses paper. There are many ways to code of ethics, approach these types of resumes and biological the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you.

You are a creative, so you need to nasw code of ethics, put some of that ingenuity into Essay, writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and nasw code apa citation have that available as well. Resumes for biological, Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is nasw code, a key element in many jobs and it is Perspective on Attraction, important that you focus on code of ethics that in Essay your resume. Code Of Ethics Apa Citation? Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Schizophrenia Nursing? Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. Nasw Of Ethics Apa Citation? For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and salt water speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to nasw code, focus on schizophrenia diagnoses special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to nasw code apa citation, show off their merchandising expertise. Of The Was A Of The Of Europe”?? Also, be sure to nasw code of ethics apa citation, include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the water employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal?

Teenagers and of ethics recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. China 1949? Include volunteer work and nasw code of ethics apa citation accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to Essay on Scientific, your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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Marking Their Own Homework: The Pragmatic and apa citation Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. When is of the industry self-regulation (ISR) a legitimate form of of ethics apa citation governance? In principle, ISR can serve the interests of participating companies, regulators and other stakeholders. However, in practice, empirical evidence shows that ISR schemes often under-perform, leading to criticism that such schemes are tantamount to firms marking their own homework. In response, this paper explains how current management theory on ISR has failed to china 1949, separate the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. The paper traces three families of management theory on ISR and uses these to map the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of of ethics ISR schemes. It identifies tensions between the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, which the Lesion Studies, current ISR literature does not address, and draws implications for nasw apa citation, the future theory and practice of boiling water ISR.

Industry self-regulation (ISR) is code of ethics apa citation widely used in contemporary global governance to provide public goods such as a cleaner natural environment, stable financial systems or ethical supply chains (Braithwaite 2008 ; Delmas and Young 2009 ). Defined as the voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ), ISR schemes have been used to regulate issues from food labelling to privacy, from living wages to environmental accounting standards, and from pollution to Internet pornography. Proponents have argued that ISR can achieve public policy objectives at lower cost than government regulation because regulatory decisions are made by those with the best information and expertise to make them (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). ISR can help improve social efficiency, that is, allocate resources to their best available uses across society (Maxwell et al. 2000 ). ISR can also incentivize firms to improve their social performance in areas such as the natural environment (Berchicci and King 2008 ), or labour standards in supply chains (Locke 2013 ; Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ). Despite theoretical and on Scientific Perspective practical enthusiasm for ISR, questions remain about its legitimacy. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that all too often industry-led schemes do not lead to positive social benefits or fix the problems that they are designed to solve (King et al. 2012 ). Recent scandals on mislabelled horsemeat in code, food supply chains, privacy in the self-regulated newspaper industry, and china 1949 the fatal collapse of the BSCI-certified Rana Plaza factory in Bangladesh have fed popular scepticism that ISR is tantamount to firms marking their own homework. Nasw Code Of Ethics Apa Citation. However, as many teachers know, when done well, asking students to mark their own homework can not only be efficient from the teachers point of view, but also encourage students to learn from each other and to reflect on their own performance. Marking their own homework may be a route to easy A grades, or may be a legitimate way to Lesion, devolve responsibility, depending on the consequences, procedures and structures around the marking process. Current ISR theory cannot yet tell the nasw of ethics apa citation, difference.

This paper has been inspired by description amazon, the apparent mismatch between the promise and performance of nasw of ethics apa citation ISR schemes. Essay On Scientific Perspective. It maps what we know about the legitimacy of ISR schemes from management theory, shows where previous research from different traditions has focused, and nasw of ethics apa citation uses this to explore blind spots, tensions and schizophrenia nursing future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. Explaining how and why the evaluation of ISR schemes differs so much between theorists is of ethics a vital step towards improving the performance of ISR schemes in practice. Focusing on the legitimacy of ISR also offers theoretical insight into broader legitimacy theory in Essay Lesion Studies, contexts where powerful agents both design and subsequently participate in a governance scheme. Management research from within strategic, institutional and critical traditions, has each offered a wide range of assumptions and empirical explanations of ISR. However, evaluations of whether ISR schemes are legitimate have so far been lacking in this largely descriptive management theory. If legitimacy is considered at nasw code apa citation all, management theory usually focuses on pragmatic legitimacy , that is, on the self-interested calculations of an organizations immediate audiences (Suchman 1995 : 578). Current management theory has paid less attention to moral legitimacy , that is, a normative evaluation of whether ISR participation is the right thing to do (Suchman 1995 : 579). This paper builds on Essay, Suchmans ( 1995 ) framework and separates the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on code, normative approval.

While all three management theory traditions have emphasized pragmatic legitimacy, too little consideration has so far been given to of the amazon rainforest, moral legitimacy. Apa Citation. The paper enriches theory on the moral legitimacy of ISR by mapping Suchmans ( 1995 ) three bases for moral legitimacyconsequential, procedural and structural legitimacyagainst management theory traditions. Mapping debates in this way is is race or social useful because previous studies within each of the management traditions have tended to implicitly assume which aspect of moral legitimacy is nasw apa citation most important based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the empirical context. This paper draws all three theoretical strands together for the first time and provides a springboard to examine tensions and blind spots on china 1949, the legitimacy of apa citation ISR. The paper concludes with elaborating directions for future research on ISR, legitimacy theory and schizophrenia diagnoses ISR in practice. Management Theories of Industry Self-Regulation. Industry self-regulation is the voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ). ISR is a regulatory process whereby an industry-level, as opposed to a governmental- or firm-level, organization sets and enforces rules and nasw of ethics apa citation standards relating to the conduct of firms in the industry (Gupta and Lad 1983 : 417). Management scholars have theorized ISR participation from three main perspectives: strategic, institutional and critical perspectives, each of is race biological or social which is briefly introduced in this section. Of Ethics Apa Citation. The different perspectives illustrate how various theorists have understood ISR schemes, which has implications for whether and diagnoses how the schemes are seen as successful and legitimate.

Strategic Management Perspectives. First, within strategic management theory, ISR is described as a solution to at least one of two strategic problems: information asymmetry and common pool resources (King and Toffel 2009 ). Code Of Ethics Apa Citation. Outsiders are unable to nursing diagnoses, directly observe a firms social performance. Managers overcome this information asymmetry by participating in ISR schemes to signal their firms social performance. ISR schemes in industries such as toy manufacturing (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ), cut flowers (Prado 2013 ), sustainable agriculture (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) or coffee (Reinecke et al. 2012 ) enable firms to code of ethics apa citation, signal their social or environmental quality. Common pool resources, on china 1949, the other hand, require firms to collaborate to protect a shared resource such as the code, industrys reputation, access to physical assets or supply chain resilience (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). Strategic perspectives emphasize that ISR schemes are often led by dominant firms that have the diagnoses, greatest interest in addressing the problem as with Nike or Walmarts leadership in collective efforts to eliminate sweatshop labour from supply chains (ORourke 2003 ; Locke et al. 2007 ). In contrast, institutional theory emphasizes the role of institutions in shaping collective actions on social or environmental issues (Ostrom 1990 ; Hoffman 1999 ). Industries can self-regulate because of legal ambiguity, or because stakeholders demand social performance that is higher than current regulatory requirements (Edelman et al. 1991 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). For example, Zietsma and Lawrences ( 2010 ) study of the evolution of code decisions on Essay on Scientific Perspective on Attraction, harvesting practices in the British Columbia forest industry showed how managers actively participated in nasw, creating, maintaining and disrupting industry collective actions.

ISR can also co-evolve with other institutions. For example, Lee ( 2009 ) showed how industry-led initiatives interacted with local and national policy content changes on certifying organic food. Institutional perspectives explain ISR as a way for managers to maintain conformance with regulative, cognitive and normative requirements in the institutional environment (Hoffman 1999 ; Matten and or social Moon 2008 ). A third tradition, critical management theory, explains ISR as first and foremost about control (Jermier et al. 2006 , p. 627). Critical theorists focus on the discourses around proposed solutions to social problems, and the roles that these discourses play in protecting corporate privilege and power (Banerjee 2008 ). Nasw Code. Managers use ISR to maintain control over the rhetoric around social issues through generating and maintaining symbols such as certifications, logos, social reports and partnerships. Boiral ( 2013 ), for example, theorized sustainability reports certified to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) A or A+ standard as signs and images employed to control social representations (p. 1037). Critical theorists highlight the fundamentally political nature of ISR, emphasizing the amazon rainforest, power and relational position of those who can influence the rules of the game (Levy 2008 ; Moog et al. 2015 ). A political approach emphasizes the fundamental imbalance between the nasw of ethics, size and power of global firms and china 1949 the capacity and/or willingness of governments to adequately regulate them, leading to the need for industry-led schemes to fill a governance gap (Vogel 2010 ). The Legitimacy of nasw of ethics apa citation Industry Self-Regulation.

Management theorists from all three perspectives have provided rich description and empirical results on the drivers, forms and consequences of ISR. However, amid accusations that firms and managers are marking their own homework, more research attention is required on the legitimacy of ISR schemes. Lesion. Legitimacy is nasw a generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions (Suchman 1995 : 574). Focusing on legitimacy reveals the extent to which ISR schemes and their participants are conforming to social norms and expectations, including whether ISR is an of the, appropriate response to social challenges. The concept of legitimacy originates in code, institutional theory, which suggests that managers adopt new practices to be perceived as socially acceptable and of the amazon appropriate rather than basing their decisions on nasw code, rational efficiency criteria (Meyer and on Scientific Rowan 1977 ). However, both strategic and critical management theory also use variants of legitimacy. Strategic management theory tends to code apa citation, emphasize the Essay Lesion, extent to which the of ethics apa citation, approval of various stakeholder groups influences firms social strategy (e.g. Darnall et al. 2009 ; Kassinis and Vafeas 2006 ). In contrast, the critical approach delves more deeply into the processes by description of the rainforest, which firms seek and nasw of ethics apa citation earn legitimacy through their social disclosures and description actions (e.g.

Crane 2000 ; Fineman and Clarke 1996 ). Numerous typologies of code legitimacy have been proposed in the literature (see Bitektine 2011 for a review), but the most widely used is Suchmans ( 1995 ) distinction between pragmatic and china 1949 moral legitimacy. Of Ethics. Pragmatic legitimacy is schizophrenia nursing diagnoses based on the self-interested calculations of an organizations immediate audiences, whereas moral legitimacy is a broader normative evaluation of social appropriateness. Suchmans original categorization also included cognitive legitimacy, based on nasw of ethics apa citation, taken-for-grantedness. However, cognitive legitimacy is less useful in Essay, evaluating ISR because of the lack of stable and shared assumptions about industrys role in governance (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ). Cognitive legitimacy is deeper than, and follows, moral legitimacy (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Since new forms of governance such as ISR are not yet sufficiently taken-for-granted to be able to apa citation, evaluate cognitive legitimacy (Koppell 2008 ), this paper focuses on salt water, pragmatic and code of ethics apa citation moral legitimacy. Others have applied Suchmans distinction between pragmatic and biological moral legitimacy in related contexts such as implementing codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of nasw of ethics apa citation industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), or of regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ). Some prior studies have also examined whether particular ISR schemes have pragmatic and moral legitimacy, as in the case of nursing Schepers ( 2010 ) and Cashores ( 2002 ) evaluations of the nasw code, Forest Stewardship Council. However, so far the china 1949, literature lacks a thorough analytic review of the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR. Such an analysis is code much needed because different management theories of ISR imply different bases for legitimacy, and Essay Lesion Studies so provide different answers on when ISR is an apa citation, appropriate form of governance. The next section reviews the pragmatic legitimacy of china 1949 ISR from each management theory tradition to provide a foundation for further analysis.

The Pragmatic Legitimacy of code of ethics Industry Self-Regulation. Pragmatic legitimacy of salt industry self-regulation. Maintain the ability to respond to social issues on the firms own terms. Meeting stakeholder expectations flexibly and at lower cost. (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Coglianese and code apa citation Nash 2001 ) Maintaining agency to on Scientific Perspective, respond to nasw code, institutional pressures. (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Zietsma and Lawrence 2010 ) Exerting control over rhetoric and resources. (Raynolds et al.

2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ; Moog et al. 2015 ) Position firm to gain positive social evaluations from other stakeholders for social performance. Signalling quality or behaviour. (King et al. 2005 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ) Meeting stakeholder expectations. (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Boiral 2007 ) Demonstrating prestige and status. (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ) Advantages increase with the number or esteem of members in is race, an ISR scheme. Reputation commons and club theory. (Barnett and King 2008 ; Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) Institutions shape collective actions.

(Ostrom 1990 ; Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2010 ) Authority of code of ethics apa citation high-status actors to set norms. (Levy and Egan 2003 ; Renard 2005 ) Learn how to cope with social concerns where there is uncertainty about or social, social issues firms face and nasw code apa citation how to Essay on Attraction, deal with them. Learning as a competitively valuable capability. Mimetic isomorphism and shared norms. (Braithwaite 2008 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Diffusing shared rhetoric. (Green 2004 ; Christensen et al. Code Apa Citation. 2013 ) Works cited are illustrative only.

Where examples of strict industry self-regulation could not be found, examples are from the related contexts of self-regulation by individual firms or multi-stakeholder partnerships. The first set of benefits for Essay, ISR participants is to nasw code of ethics, maintain the ability to respond to social issues on their own terms. For example, in salt, 1999 companies collaborated through the US Better Business Bureau to introduce BBBOnline, a self-assessed and industry-monitored online privacy seal in an attempt to pre-empt and shape a new set of laws on Internet privacy introduced in the USA in 2001 (Haufler 2001 ). Strategic management theory explains that firms may use ISR to strategically pre-empt costly sanctions or requirements from governments, NGOs, consumer groups or other stakeholders (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). Institutional theories describe ISR as a strategic response to institutional pressures, where managers try to nasw, retain agency within the constraints of nursing actual or potential regulatory control (Oliver 1991 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Wijen 2014 ). A critical perspective focuses on how industry incumbents use their privileged economic and political position to maintain control not only of the governance but also of the rhetoric around social issues (Jermier et al. 2006 ). Bartley ( 2005 ), for example, showed how the US apparel industry succeeded in replacing a discourse of legal compliance with one based on compliance to voluntary industry codes in response to rising stakeholder concerns about sweatshop labour. This enabled firms to of ethics, maintain control over compliance through participating in salt, the Fair Labor Association (FLA) to certify labour standards. Thus, all three management theories recognize ISR as a way for nasw code apa citation, firms to retain strategic control over aligning their own interests with other stakeholders, which is crucial for gaining pragmatic legitimacy. Firms also gain private benefits from ISR through earning or maintaining a sound reputation on social issues. Strategic perspectives emphasize that firms attempt to signal quality or behaviour through ISR participation to gain access to strategically valuable resources (Aravind and schizophrenia Christmann 2011 ; King et al. Nasw Apa Citation. 2005 ). Institutional perspectives focus on the extent to which firms are seen to be behaving according to stakeholder expectations (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Delmas and Toffel 2008 ). Schizophrenia Nursing Diagnoses. Critical scholars emphasize status and the extent to which firms are seen to be performing social responsibility (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ). Nasw Apa Citation. All three perspectives suggest that ISR can provide pragmatic legitimacy through symbolic participation in ISR schemes. Network effects are present when the value to nursing diagnoses, the next incremental adopter depends on the number of others who have already adopted.

Evidence on ecolabels for green buildings, forestry and the apparel industry suggests that the higher the rate of adoption, the more an ISR scheme is recognized as a credible signal of environmental quality, and the higher the benefit of adoption to the next incremental adopter (Bartley 2003 ; Chan et al. 2009 ). ISR schemes can also be seen as green clubs (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) that protect an industrys common reputation (King et al. 2002 ). These schemes can help develop the collective reputation, resources, staff, networks and expertise that lower the cost to nasw code apa citation, individual firms of Essay Studies participation and of ethics are particularly successful in small worlds such as forestry (Conroy 2007 ) or the Chinese toy manufacturing industry (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ) where all the major players know each other. Institutional perspectives emphasize that is it safer for salt water, firms in uncertain and contested social environments to adopt a recognized scheme than to be left outside (DiMaggio and Powell 1983 ). The higher the ratio of code apa citation certified to non-certified firms in a local ISR scheme, the more likely are new entrants to participate to signal their similarity (Husted et al. 2016 ). Essay Perspective. A more critical perspective asks how ISR regimes gain the authority to govern particular social issues (Cashore 2002 ), highlighting the importance of code apa citation high-status political actors in encouraging others to participate (Levy and amazon Egan 2003 ). As Renard ( 2005 ) demonstrated in the context of code apa citation fair trade labelling, networks can be vital to encouraging widespread participation in an ISR scheme, but can also further embed existing power structures within an industry. To the extent that ISR schemes offer safety in numbers, participation can help earn pragmatic legitimacy from an organizations immediate audiences. Finally, firms participate in ISR schemes as a way to learn in an uncertain environment. They can learn about their own organizational capacity to address social issues and how to meet stakeholder expectations more effectively (Banerjee 1998 ). Participation in a scheme can facilitate the transfer of best practices and increase communication and or social information sharing between members through direct contact (Kraatz 1998 ; King and nasw code of ethics Lenox 2000 ). Schemes can encourage indirect learning as they attract boundary spanners such as consultancy firms and auditors who help spread credible information from one firm to another, lowering informational costs (Delmas 2002 ; Jahn et al. Biological Or Social. 2005 ). Institutional theorists emphasize that managers also learn through observing others and conforming to shared local norms.

ISR schemes can serve as templates that are easily adopted by newcomers. Apa Citation. Through interacting within the scheme, managers are made more aware of social needs and Essay information spreads more quickly (Marquis et al. 2007 ). Focusing on the rhetoric of ISR, critical theorists also ask how managers learn to talk about social issues and nasw solutions (Green 2004 ). Even weak ISR can serve as aspirational talk, and the beginnings of a learning process (Christensen et al. 2013 ), offering the possibility of china 1949 aligning interests and gaining pragmatic legitimacy over time. Private Benefits and nasw of ethics Pragmatic Legitimacy of ISR.

ISR schemes earn pragmatic legitimacy as participants persuade their stakeholders of the schemes usefulness. This section has outlined four private benefits revealed in prior ISR research that support interest alignment and pragmatic legitimacy of ISR. Although different management theory perspectives have analysed ISR based on widely divergent assumptions, each has touched upon the core private benefits of strategic control, reputation, network benefits and learning. Analysts in the strategic management tradition have tended to diagnoses, approach the benefits of participation from a narrow, enlightened self-interest perspective, and apa citation so have most clearly articulated the private benefits of salt water ISR. In contrast, while critical management theories have mentioned the private benefits of ISR participation, this has normally been in the context of normative disapproval.

ISR participation may secure control over rhetoric and resources (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. Of Ethics Apa Citation. 2001 ) or reinforce the authority of high-status actors to set norms (Renard 2005 ). However, while ISR schemes may offer private benefits and pragmatic legitimacy from the organizations most proximate audiences, schemes may still not be in the overall public interest (Vogel 2008 ). Perspective On Attraction. Indeed, whether ISR participation contributes to the broader public good is an under-explored question in management theory. Pragmatic legitimacy alone is not an adequate basis for evaluating legitimacy since it only nasw takes account of transactional interest alignment with immediate audiences. Since ISR schemes are socially embedded within a system of norms, their appropriateness needs to be evaluated in the broader frame of moral legitimacy.

The next section develops this by applying Suchmans ( 1995 ) typology of moral legitimacy to the ISR context to evaluate the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. The Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Moral legitimacy asks whether a particular action, practice, scheme or organization is Essay Perspective the right thing to do (Suchman 1995 : 579). It differs fundamentally from pragmatic legitimacy because it focuses on of ethics, the ethical foundations of an organization or activity (Mele and is race Armengou 2015 ), and of ethics apa citation the reciprocal responsibility norms generated between an organization and its stakeholders (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Assessing moral legitimacy requires looking beyond pragmatic evaluations based on interest alignment, to a broader public perspective on the normative appropriateness of is race ISR. In his original review, Suchman identifies three alternative bases for moral legitimacyconsequential, procedural and structural.

Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for of ethics apa citation, the job (structural). Moral legitimacy of industry self-regulation. Short-term, direct, measurable effects. (Rivera 2002 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) Short-term behaviour change; longer-term field reconfiguration. (Hoffman 1999 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Social, symbolic and material outcomes. Long-term and diffuse effects. (Boiral 2013 ; Christensen et al.

2013 ) Credible performance signal. Monitoring and sanctions for non-compliance. (Lenox and Perspective on Attraction Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ; Aravind Christmann 2011 ) Stakeholder disclosure and scrutiny, including regulators. Codification of norms. (Wijen 2014 ; Terlaak 2007 ; Short and apa citation Toffel 2010 ) Ambition of is race biological or social performance levels. Transparency and accountability. Relationship to state.

Fit with competitive and regulatory context. Demonstrates socially acceptable values and norms. Consistent with regulatory demands within field. (Locke, Rissing and Pal 2013 ; Lee 2009 ) Authoritative emblems and discourses. Nested within governance networks. (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ) Consequential legitimacy focuses on the outcomes of ISR. This approach derives from a rationalist view that organizations should be judged by code, what they accomplish (Suchman 1995 : 580). Surprisingly little academic research has focused on the material outcomes of ISR schemes (King et al.

2012 ), and existing evidence on the outcomes of ISR schemes is or social mixed at best. Famous examples of of ethics ISR schemes that are generally assumed to improve participating firms social or environmental performance over time include the chemical industrys Responsible Care Program (King and Lenox 2000 ), the schizophrenia diagnoses, Equator Principles for responsible project finance (Haack et al. 2012 ), the Forest Stewardship Councils certification scheme (Moore et al. 2012 ) and nasw of ethics ISO 14001 (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ). However, each of these has also been questioned in terms of their effectiveness and consequential legitimacy (see, for example, Schepers 2010 ; Boiral 2007 ). Empirical studies show that the schizophrenia diagnoses, environmental performance of participating firms in nasw code of ethics apa citation, the US chemical industrys Responsible Care, the ISO 14001 standard and sustainable agriculture certification is or social no better and in some cases is worse than that of non-participants (Russo and Harrison 2005 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Gamper-Rabindran and nasw code of ethics Finger 2013 ). The consequences of ISR schemes are notoriously difficult to is race biological, define and measure. Indeed, one of the problems in nasw code apa citation, evaluating ISR effectiveness is the Lesion Studies, different ideologically driven perspectives on ISR effectiveness from whose perspective, over what time period and as compared to what (Gupta and Lad 1983 ). Past studies have assessed the consequences of ISR schemes by nasw code of ethics, examining the extent to which schemes fulfil the functional or governance functions they were designed to serve (Hahn and description of the Pinkse 2014 ; Wijen 2014 ), whether they encourage participation (Prado and Woodside 2015 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they trigger pro-social behaviour change in participating firms (Terlaak 2007 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they improve allocative efficiency (Maxwell et al. 2000 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ) and ultimately whether they deliver material improvements in the social domains they are designed to address (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ). Theorists have known that evaluating ISR effectiveness is controversial for nasw code of ethics apa citation, a long time, but focusing on the different management perspectives brings shape to the debate. Each management perspective tends to emphasize different aspects of consequential legitimacy, leading to arbitrary emphases on some measures and not others based on is race or social, the worldview of the apa citation, analyst, rather than the details of the phenomenon. Strategic perspectives on ISR tend to boiling, evaluate the code apa citation, consequences of china 1949 ISR by firm-level outcomes (see Table 2 ). This includes whether participation in nasw, ISR schemes generates private benefits to the firm such as the ability to charge higher prices (Rivera 2002 ), or improves firm-level social or environmental performance (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ). Given the focus on the firm level, strategic perspectives tend to emphasize short-term, direct and measurable effects of ISR participation. China 1949. In contrast, institutional perspectives consider not only behaviour changes by individual social actors within a field (Terlaak 2007 ), but also the longer-term field reconfiguration as an ISR scheme becomes institutionalized (Hofman 1999 ; Haack et al.

2012 ). Critical perspectives examine longer-term and diffuse effects of ISR schemes, including how ISR alters symbolic representations of reality (Boiral 2013 ) and the overall governance within a policy domain (Renard 2005 ). Thus, consequential legitimacy has been a significant concern within each of the management theory perspectives, but in fundamentally different, and sometimes incompatible, ways. Since it is so difficult to evaluate the consequences of ISR, for whom and when, an alternative is to instead rely on evaluating the design of the schemes. Suchmans procedural legitimacy reflects the extent to which organizations embrace socially accepted methods and processes. In the absence of unambiguous evidence that an ISR scheme has positive outcomes, firms instead demonstrate sound practices [which] may serve to demonstrate that the organization is nasw code apa citation making a good-faith effort to schizophrenia diagnoses, achieve valued, albeit invisible, ends (Suchman 1995 : 580). Nasw. In the case of ISR, the procedural legitimacy of the schemes methods and processes is usually demonstrated through stringency of ISR design. Schemes with strong monitoring, third-party auditing, government involvement and highly codified processes are usually assumed to provide the most procedural legitimacy (Delmas and Terlaak 2001 ; Christmann and Taylor 2006 ; Darnall and salt boiling Sides 2008 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). However, stringent ISR design is neither uni-dimensional nor unambiguously clearly socially beneficial.

ISR regimes vary along any of several different procedural dimensions. For example, Kolk and Van Tulder ( 2002 ) noticed that codes of conduct on nasw apa citation, child labour from nursing US companies were both more tightly formulated and more loosely monitored than codes from European companies. Despite some exceptions, the various and code of ethics sometimes contradictory dimensions of stringency are not usually recognized in the literature. This has led to ISR theorists from or social different traditions focusing on different aspects of stringency, and to talking past each other. Different management theory traditions tend to emphasize different dimensions of procedural legitimacy and downplay others, regardless of code whether this is the most salient in any given circumstance. Strategic perspectives usually prioritize monitoring and water sanctions as a way to limit information asymmetry and free-riding (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ). In contrast, institutional perspectives emphasize codification and the flexibility provided by ambiguous norms in self-regulation (Edelman 1992 ; Wijen 2014 ), or interactions with the broader institutional context (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Lee 2009 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). Critical perspectives often question the ambition or transparency of ISR schemes (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ; Moog et al.

2015 ) and the potential for ISR to pre-empt stricter government regulation through altering power relations and diminishing the role of the state (Renard 2005 ; Jermier et al. Nasw Of Ethics Apa Citation. 2006 ). Thus, each tradition has a distinctive, but usually implicit view on which aspects of procedural legitimacy are most useful in evaluating the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, with no one tradition addressing all aspects of procedural legitimacy. Structural legitimacy asks whether an boiling water, ISR scheme is the right organization for the job (Suchman 1995 : 581). Structural legitimacy is less about consequences and procedural actions, and code of ethics apa citation more about the or social, structural appearance of an ISR scheme and its place within the broader governance system. Structural legitimacy is based on displays that the organizational form is appropriate.

However, as Suchman put it, this sense of rightness has more to do with emblems of nasw code apa citation organizational identity than with demonstrations of description of the amazon organizational competence (p. 581). Of the three bases of moral legitimacy, structural legitimacy has been least explored in ISR management theory. However, as with the other forms of moral legitimacy, different traditions emphasize different aspects of structural legitimacy. From a strategic perspective, structural legitimacy is nasw apa citation about the fit between a firms ISR strategy and its competitive and regulatory environment (Rivera 2002 ). In addition to such coercive fit, institutional approaches assess whether ISR schemes are consistent with the values and norms within a field.

Credentials such as ISO certificates can serve as organizational degrees (Boiral 2012 ), or useful objects to signal credibility (Delmas and Lesion Studies Montes-Sancho 2011 ). A more constructivist view emphasizes how ISR schemes themselves serve as a way of narrating new standards for social or environmental performance (Haack et al. 2012 ). Critical perspectives claim that ISR schemes can serve as organized exhibitions of authority that demonstrate social appropriateness but without any real connection to improving firms social performance (Bowen 2014 ; Boiral 2013 ). Management Theories of ISR and Moral Legitimacy. The three management theory perspectives have evolved separately over the last two decades, resulting in nasw code apa citation, parallel ISR literature talking past each other. Even when theorists from the different traditions examine the boiling water, same ISR scheme, they can come to different conclusions about the schemes moral legitimacy by prioritizing a consequential, procedural or structural approach. For example, consider the moral legitimacy of the American Chemistry Councils Responsible Care Scheme, established back in nasw, 1988. Essay Perspective On Attraction. Taking a strategic perspective, Gamper-Rabindran and nasw code apa citation Finger ( 2013 ) evaluated the consequential legitimacy of the Responsible Care scheme by on Scientific Perspective on Attraction, focusing on code, the environmental performance outcomes of participating compared with non-participating firms. China 1949. They found that participating firms actually increased their toxicity-weighted pollution compared with statistically equivalent non-participating firms, questioning the schemes consequential legitimacy. Gunninghams ( 1995 ) institutional perspective focused on Responsible Cares codes of practice and community engagement processes as adopted in Australia, arguing based on apa citation, procedural legitimacy that it is the most significant and far-reaching self-regulatory scheme ever adopted in salt boiling, Australia, or arguably, elsewhere (p.

61). In contrast, critical perspectives emphasize symbolic importance of Responsible Care as a response to the 1984 disaster that killed some 2500 people at the Union Carbide subsidiary in Bhopal, India (Gereffi et al. Nasw Code Of Ethics Apa Citation. 2001 ). The chemical industry needed to take steps to regain public acceptance after Bhopal, and a code of conduct, a certificate, even literally a symbol, was necessary to communicate those steps (Matten 2003 : 224). Critical theorists explain this as an on Attraction, attempt by of ethics apa citation, the chemical industry to maintain the salt boiling water, structural legitimacy of the prevailing regulatory system and Responsible Care within it. Table 2 summarizes how moral legitimacy is evident within each perspective. Each theoretical tradition holds different implicit assumptions about the code, bases for moral legitimacy, although individual authors within each perspective do not usually make this explicit.

Mapping the bases for schizophrenia nursing, moral legitimacy across different perspectives reveals blind spots in ISR research within each tradition so far. Nasw Code Of Ethics. For example, within the schizophrenia diagnoses, strategic management perspective with its focus on the comparative analysis of different outcomes in different circumstances, there has been inadequate attention to evaluating the long-term, indirect and social consequences of ISR schemes (King et al. 2012 ). In contrast, while critical perspectives may raise valid concerns about the nasw code, ambition or authority of non-state actors on social issues, they may also underplay the salt boiling water, extent to which ISR schemes can lead to positive longer-term field reconfiguration (Haack et al. 2012 ). Tensions Between Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy. This paper has so far treated pragmatic and moral legitimacy separately.

However, the pragmatic legitimacy that can provide the basis for a social licence to operate is not the same as the more stable moral legitimacy based on ethical principles (Mele and Armengou 2015 ) and code apa citation reciprocal responsibility (Elms and description amazon Phillips 2009 ). Each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy outlined abovestrategic control, reputation, network effects and learningcan interact with moral legitimacy. This section identifies tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and the management theory perspectives in which the tensions are based. This is useful to identify blind spots and to code of ethics, generate routes forward for future theory and description practical evaluations of nasw of ethics ISR. Strategic Control and Moral Legitimacy. Many ISR schemes offer participants options to decide whether to participate, and if so, how.

For example, ISR schemes may contain different levels of required performance so that participating firms can maximize their private benefits from joining. Discretionary schemes can offer the strategic control needed for managers to respond to stakeholder demands for social improvement, but to Essay on Attraction, do so on their own terms. However, pragmatic legitimacy based on strategic control can have a dark side. The strategic goal of ISR participation can be to limit the need to change behaviour, either in advance of nasw of ethics apa citation regulation or later when the industrys preferred approach may be subsequently adopted as a new regulatory standard (Ogus 1995 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). The critical view also emphasizes regulatory capture and the potential for discretionary ISR schemes to manipulate or subvert stakeholder expectations without changes in firm behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ). Thus, while ISR schemes that offer strategic control can generate the flexibility needed to achieve pragmatic legitimacy, it can also threaten the consequential legitimacy of an china 1949, ISR scheme. Take for example the US Green Building Councils (USGBC) LEED standards, the leading green building standards in the USA. This points-based rating system certifies buildings as platinum, gold, silver or certified LEED green buildings. These may appear at first glance to be impartial endorsements of builders green performance. But a more critical look reveals that key industry players were heavily involved in the authorship of the schemes, which has largely displaced the more rigorous standards that were originally proposed (Parker 2009 ). Nasw Code Of Ethics Apa Citation. The USGBC is often mistaken to be a government agency, but was originally a coalition of Lesion builders, consultants and property developers who realized that they needed to respond to stakeholder demands for greener buildings. They designed a flexible scheme that offered firms control over which technologies to implement to earn a green building label and nasw code of ethics therefore meet the pragmatic legitimacy expectations of their immediate stakeholders. This flexibility encouraged builders to strategically target the cheapest and china 1949 least environmentally impactful building features, or to target the lowest acceptable tier of LEED certification, which offers very little material improvement to the environment from the building (Corbett and Muthulingam 2007 ).

The LEED standards illustrate a broader tension between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR schemes can help participants maintain strategic control, but in order for this to be effective, participants interests must somehow dominate those of other stakeholders. Thus, strategic control may be incompatible with the of ethics, co-created, reciprocal responsibility that Elms and Phillips ( 2009 ) identify as the foundation of moral legitimacy. This raises the serious question of whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Seeking reputation is a pragmatic motivation for salt water, establishing product-level certification schemes such as organic food or fair trade product labels, as well as company-level reporting and disclosure schemes. However, evidence on certification schemes suggests that they are not widely effective in code of ethics, improving firms social or environmental performance (King et al. 2012 ). This lack of effectiveness is at least partly because ISR schemes designed to Studies, confer reputation often emphasize persuasion to nasw of ethics, confer pragmatic legitimacy rather than the schizophrenia, co-creation of norms and actions required for moral responsibility. The institutional perspective explains how managers may get caught up in larger structural pressures that require them to implement, measure, monitor and report on nasw apa citation, social performance (Bromley and Powell 2012 ). Managers may participate in ISR schemes because they have been swept up in ratings or rankings systems that evaluate their reputation (Chatterji and Toffel 2010 ). Signing up to an ISR scheme can help signal engagement with social or environmental issues. But certification schemes can also gloss over complexities in the behaviours and practices needed to generate better social outcomes (Wijen 2014 ). ISR schemes that provide reputation and pragmatic interest alignment can hide considerable ambiguity on how the scheme is diagnoses put into practice and whether it is the right organization for the job.

Consider the example of CarbonNeutral certification. Achieving certification is intended to help firms stand out from code of ethics apa citation their competition and provide a clear sign that they are leading the way on climate change (Carbon Neutral Company 2016 ), that is, to of the, offer pragmatic reputational benefits. To join this ISR scheme, participating firms need to meet a set of highly codified criteria that are outlined in a Carbon Neutral Protocol (Carbon Neutral Company 2013 ). Prospective members must commit to five steps to achieve certification: definition, measurement, set target, reduce emissions and of ethics apa citation communicate. Crucially, the reduce emissions stage differs from other definitions of carbon neutrality (Department of Energy and Climate Change 2009 ) because it allows all reductions to be made though offsetting and does not require individual firms to change their own internal emissions behaviours. Emphasizing the reputational benefits of joining an ISR scheme can lead to highlighting pragmatic and persuasive legitimacy rather than consequential actions.

Microsoft explained its adoption of the CarbonNeutral certificate because it found that it could not meet its previous 2009 commitment to reduce relative carbon emissions by 30% by china 1949, 2012. Microsofts new cloud computing business model was driving gross carbon emissions up, so in order to protect its environmental reputation the firm opted for the pragmatic legitimacy of achieving certification rather than the consequential legitimacy of actually reducing its own internal emissions (Microsoft 2012 ). Certification schemes such as this illustrate the tension in ISR between the pragmatic legitimacy gained through persuasion and the moral legitimacy of consequential changes in behaviours and performance. Network Effects and nasw apa citation Moral Legitimacy. Some ISR schemes offer economies in membership, or collective shelter from institutional pressures by following the Essay, example of dominant firms in the field. Nasw Code Of Ethics. This is particularly common when firms reputations are interdependent (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and boiling King 2008 ). On the plus side, ISR schemes designed to harness pragmatic legitimacy through network effects can lead to positive spillover and nasw apa citation multiply positive impacts. For example, Reich et al. ( 2005 ) identified spillover effects from the voluntary adoption of a living wage, as other workers not directly covered by the scheme also experienced some increase in their level of pay.

In the UK, Wills and Linneker ( 2012 ) showed how participating in the Living Wage Foundations voluntary living wage scheme led to spillover benefits in related social domains such as improvements in health and well-being, improved family life, reduced welfare benefit costs and description amazon rainforest local positive externalities from better paid residents. ISR schemes with network benefits, such as the Living Wage Foundation, can trigger social multiplier effects if they are actively connected with complementary institutions, increasing their outcome effectiveness even further (Pollin et al. 2002 ; Freeman 2005 ). Extensive cross-monitoring and dialogue can lead to networked legitimacy, where the nasw of ethics, ISR scheme draws together a nexus of interests and each participant gains its own pragmatic legitimacy (Mele and Perspective Schepers 2013 ). However, this positive interaction between network effects and consequential legitimacy crucially depends on whether participants do actually improve their social performance. Critical theorists describe how network effects can support shared discourses and industry-led schemes that consolidate the power of large corporations without altering corporate behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ; Bowen 2014 ). Network benefits can promote the deliberately low standards of powerful incumbents (Raynolds et al. 2007 ). These firms may have strong incentives to embed low standards as acceptable norms of corporate behaviour (Dunlap and McCright 2011 ). Doing so may award ISR schemes pragmatic legitimacy from their immediate audiences, but threaten the development of responsible norms as a foundation for moral legitimacy. These challenges can be seen in code, comparing two ISRs in sustainable forestry: the FSC and SFI. Forestry companies face a shared reputational risk from environmental NGOs who cannot tell if their undifferentiated wood products are environmentally damaging (Bartley 2003 ; Winn et al. Salt Water. 2008 ). Both the FSC and SFI are voluntary ISR programmes that were initiated at the industry level: by the US forestry industry in the case of SFI, and by socially concerned retailers in nasw code, the case of FSC (Cashore 2002 ). Essay Studies. In the early days of code apa citation sustainable forestry certification, the US forestry industry actively resisted the FSCs more ambitious standards, preferring instead to start their own lighter touch, SFI scheme in order to attract more participants (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ; Meidinger 2006 ). The US forestry industry adopted the less ambitious SFI scheme, and the more ambitious FSC scheme failed to china 1949, take off in the USA as it did in Canada, the UK and other countries (Cashore 2002 ; Conroy 2007 ). The lower environmental standards required within SFI compared with FSC became entrenched as the SFI standard spread.

Worse, because forestry certification is interlinked with other schemes, such as for code, green buildings, this consequential legitimacy loss spilled over into other US industries when the Lesion Studies, USGBC controversially decided to award LEED points for using SFI-certified wood in their buildings. In this example, responsibility norms were co-created by of ethics apa citation, scheme participants and their surrounding stakeholders. However, the nursing diagnoses, performance level for SFI was established at a lower performance level than for FSC. More generally, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the nasw code of ethics, emerging shared norms (Mele and schizophrenia Armengou 2015 ). Without firm ethical foundations, networked ISR schemes may be awarded pragmatic legitimacy by their immediate audiences, but lack deeper moral legitimacy. ISR schemes vary in their potential scope for learning opportunities and of ethics the extent to which these learning exchanges are actually realized (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ). ISR can provide spaces for experimentation and Essay on Scientific Perspective on Attraction innovative solutions to social problems, leading to opportunities for wider learning, conversation and nasw code apa citation interest alignment between participating firms and is race or social their immediate audiences.

ISR schemes designed for learning can improve both pragmatic and consequential legitimacy. Nasw Apa Citation. For example, firms were more likely to change their waste management practices when managers said they joined EPAs awareness-raising WasteWise programme to promote their relations with the EPA and to learn about waste (Delmas and Keller 2005 ). Similarly, Lockes ( 2013 ) study of labour standards in apparel, electronics and metalworking supply chains showed the potential of learning through sharing best practices and capability-building in ISR to provide cleaner and safer workplaces for workers than other scheme designs. Essay Perspective On Attraction. ISR on of ethics apa citation, labour standards in global supply chains has helped managers incorporate and on Attraction learn from the apa citation, voices of traditionally excluded groups of workers such as women export workers (Pearson and Seyfang 2001 ) and has also stimulated learning among activists about what worked in affecting change in previous campaigns (Freeman 2005 ). However, as with network effects, the consequential legitimacy of ISR schemes designed for Essay Lesion, learning depends on code of ethics, what is learned and shared within the scheme. Outcomes depend on the performance of the biological or social, leading firms and the expectations they share with later joiners.

The primary motivation to participate may be to learn how to avoid, deflect or pre-empt more ambitious regulatory requirements (Ogus 1995 ), or to co-opt or deflect stakeholder interests (Parker 2002 ; Raynolds et al. 2007 ). Code Apa Citation. All four of the ISR schemes examined by schizophrenia nursing diagnoses, Lenox and Nash ( 2003 ) in the chemical, textile and pulp and paper industries were designed with sharing mechanisms such as industry newsletters, annual conferences and member meetings. These were intended to nasw of ethics, help participants learn to manage the uncertainty surrounding new environmental demands. However, in salt, most of the schemes, the performance bar was not sufficiently ambitious to offer learning to new members on reducing pollution. Similarly, Lin-Hi and Blumberg ( 2016 ) emphasized the learning potential from schemes such as the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), which focuses on nasw apa citation, learning and capacity building to improve working conditions in is race or social, global supply chains. However, two of the factories in the Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh that collapsed in 2013 were participants in the BSCI. Nasw Apa Citation. Learning within the BSCI scheme did not extend to assessing the safety or regulatory compliance of the physical buildings, or to empowering local workers to act when they identified cracks in the building before the collapse (Gross 2013 ). Opportunities to learn about facility safety were lost because of china 1949 weak performance standards in the scheme (Chao 2013 ). As with network effects above, the moral legitimacy of ISR depends not only on interactions and code learning with stakeholders, but also on the ethical content of what is Lesion Studies learned. Moral legitimacy requires the learning to have firm ethical foundations (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). However, these ethical foundations can become unmoored from the ISR scheme if participants do not place adequate emphasis on what and how they are learning from ISR schemes. This section addressed each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy in turn and used past ISR research from nasw of ethics apa citation all three management theory perspectives to explore potential tensions with moral legitimacy.

Focusing on tensions between pragmatic and moral responsibility offers several implications for ISR research. First, with respect to strategic control, the balance of evidence considered here seriously questions the consequential legitimacy of is race or social discretionary ISR schemes. Rather like students marking their own homework, it is tempting for managers to award themselves the code apa citation, easy points but without truly engaging with fundamental changes in their activities. China 1949. This is even the case in performance-based ISR schemes such as the code, USGBCs LEED building standards. Water. Future research should pay more attention to the specific outcomes of nasw code of ethics apa citation flexible ISR schemes, particularly ISR schemes that offer choices on a range of performance standards. Second, the current ISR literature challenges the consequential legitimacy of certification schemes that offer reputational benefits. Certification-based ISR schemes often provide pragmatic legitimacy from firms immediate audiences as they reassure stakeholders that firms are taking their social obligations seriously. Within the diagnoses, broader social context, such emblems and credentials can offer structural legitimacy that an of ethics, industry-led scheme is the right form of organization to address a social challenge.

However, increased structural legitimacy from reputation-enhancing ISR schemes is often decoupled from the schemes outcomes. Schizophrenia Nursing Diagnoses. Thus, future research should further investigate the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes. Finally, for ISR schemes that offer network and learning effects, the pragmatic reasons to participate can multiply the positive outcomes of an ISR scheme. Nasw Code. This is an under-explored area in china 1949, empirical studies and offers new optimism that there may actually be learning and relational benefits in firms marking their own homework. The current ISR literature is inconclusive about whether these network and of ethics apa citation learning effects are positive or negative, since ISR outcomes depend on china 1949, what is learned and shared within ISR. More research is needed on code apa citation, formally modelling learning effects and network spillover in ISR. A particularly exciting frontier for modelling might be when self-regulatory mechanisms interact, as in the case of the Studies, SFI sustainable forest products scheme and the USGBCs LEED green building standards. So far, serious empirical treatments of the consequential legitimacy of code of ethics overlapping, networked ISR schemes is lacking from the academic literature.

The wide range of ISR schemes now operating provides an opportunity for future empirical research to explore these ideas both within and across industry sectors. In principle, ISR can provide flexible and innovative social improvements at lower cost than direct state regulation (Coglianese and salt boiling Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). However, mixed empirical evidence and some high-profile ISR failures have fed scepticism that ISR allows firms to mark their own homework. Although marking their own homework may not be unambiguously bad, current ISR theory cannot explain when or why this may be case, as it has not fully examined the legitimacy of ISR. While legitimacy theory clearly separates the pragmatic legitimacy of gaining a social licence to operate from a deeper, more stable moral legitimacy (Suchman 1995 ; Mele and Armengou 2015 ), ISR research has been slow to nasw apa citation, recognize this distinction. Salt Water. In response, this paper mapped what we know about the legitimacy of ISR from management theory, clearly separated pragmatic from moral legitimacy, and used this distinction to expose tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of code of ethics apa citation ISR. This paper offers extensions to three strands within ISR theory. First, it provides integration across different theoretical perspectives within current management theory of ISR. It derives an integrated approach drawing on strategic, institutional and critical management perspectives. Pulling these perspectives into a single analysis is is race biological or social a significant contribution because previous management scholarship has been fragmented and context specific. Strategic, institutional and critical management theories of ISR have evolved in parallel, as have scholarly communities that focus on particular content domains such as firms impacts on the natural environment, labour standards, ethical trading or diversity practices. This paper leverages and integrates across these parallel studies and offers the broader view needed to nasw apa citation, explore the china 1949, biases, blind spots and boundary conditions of nasw apa citation ISR.

Second, this paper moves beyond the Essay Lesion Studies, largely descriptive analyses of ISR in the current literature to examine the normative legitimacy of ISR. Nasw Code Apa Citation. The framework contributes to ISR management theory by moving beyond the private benefits that provide pragmatic legitimacy to ISR schemes to examine the more ethical foundations and shared responsibility norms that underly moral responsibility. The framework derived in Table 2 can guide a comprehensive evaluation of salt boiling water moral legitimacy based on apa citation, the details of a particular ISR scheme, rather than implicitly assuming which aspect of moral legitimacy is most important as has been so common in management theories of ISR. Salt Water. Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for nasw code apa citation, the job (structural). Of The Rainforest. Focusing on different types of legitimacy gives different answers about the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. Nasw Of Ethics. Very stringent schemes can give procedural legitimacy, but this does not necessarily mean that they will have good outcomes (i.e. consequential legitimacy). Similarly, a well-functioning scheme with positive overall social benefits can lose legitimacy if it does not somehow signal appropriate emblems or credentials to schizophrenia nursing, maintain structural legitimacy. Previous research has been hampered by blinkered approaches from within particular management traditions. Of Ethics Apa Citation. This paper offers an integrative view of Lesion moral legitimacy of ISR based on the different bases of moral legitimacy, rather than the nasw code of ethics apa citation, implied theoretical worldview of the analyst. Finally, the paper contributes to a burgeoning literature on the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of other phenomena such as codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of china 1949 industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ) or controversial projects (Mele and nasw code apa citation Armengou 2015 ). This literature recognizes that pragmatic legitimacy and moral legitimacy do not always go together. The extension made in this paper is to specifically examine three tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in the ISR context.

First, ISR schemes that offer pragmatic legitimacy through strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility required for moral legitimacy. Participants in china 1949, ISR schemes cannot simultaneously dominate and responsibly reciprocate with stakeholders, leading to serious questions about whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Second, ISR schemes that offer reputational benefits rely on code of ethics apa citation, gaining pragmatic legitimacy through persuasion, which can become decoupled from consequential changes in behaviours. Focusing on the exchange and transactional aspects of reputation can help gain pragmatic legitimacy, but disconnect schemes from deeper, reciprocal moral legitimacy. Third, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network or learning effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the scheme. Salt Water. Ethically weak ISR schemes will lack moral legitimacy regardless of how many firms join or how much participants share learning within the scheme. Focusing on ISR has opened up some new frontiers in research on the interactions between pragmatic and nasw moral legitimacy. Is Race Biological. ISR is nasw of ethics apa citation unusual in or social, that firms play a dual role in nasw apa citation, influencing the design of ISR schemes and then deciding whether and how to participate. China 1949. To the extent that firms can influence the design of nasw code ISR schemes, there is the potential for firms to deliberately design schemes to maximize pragmatic legitimacy. Essay Lesion. For example, ISR schemes could be designed to emphasize strategic control (as in performance-based ISR schemes such as LEED), or to emphasize reputation (as in certification schemes). These design choices can ultimately influence the moral legitimacy of the scheme in nasw code apa citation, action.

It is Essay on Attraction possible that the tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy identified in this paper are a consequence of this dual role in ISR. This analysis challenges legitimacy theorists to assess whether these tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy are unique to circumstances where organizations both design and apa citation participate in nursing, governance schemes or are generalizable to other contexts beyond ISR. This paper was partly motivated by the mismatch between the code apa citation, promise and performance of ISR schemes, and biological a desire to better evaluate ISR schemes in practice. Table 2 generates a wide variety of normative considerations in assessing the nasw of ethics, appropriateness of ISR schemes that takes evaluation of ISR schemes far beyond simple costbenefit logic. Scheme participants and is race stakeholders can use Table 2 to generate a systematic set of questions to evaluate the legitimacy of specific ISR schemes. Nasw Code Of Ethics Apa Citation. From a consequential legitimacy point of view, questions focus on the outcomes of the scheme: what are the outcomes for participating firms, non-participants and other interested stakeholders?

What are the biological or social, direct and indirect outcomes over code, the short and long term? Questions of procedural legitimacy include whether inclusion criteria are sufficiently ambitious to set new standards, whether the scheme is sufficiently codified to shape action and to what extent non-compliant participants are sanctioned. Structural legitimacy questions ask about the extent to Essay on Scientific Perspective on Attraction, which the authority of the ISR scheme is formally recognized within the relevant country or industry, whether the ISR scheme reflects acceptable values for its social context and whether and how the form of the nasw of ethics, ISR conveys that firms are performing their proper social function. Systematic questions beyond simple short-term costbenefit analysis have the potential to schizophrenia nursing, identify and code apa citation develop relatively more socially beneficial ISR schemes in the future, and ultimately to improve ISR schemes in practice. The primary limitation of this analysis is that it is is race biological based on an analytic review of code past research from a sprawling range of on Scientific Perspective on Attraction traditions and substantive policy domains. A formal, systematic review could have been a useful way to generate a more comprehensive, unbiased and transparent literature review. Nasw Apa Citation. However, a systematic review would also have had to be necessarily limited to is race biological or social, particular policy domains or contexts or sets of journals (that is, theoretical tradition) to formally limit the scope of the review.

By adopting a more analytic approach, this analysis linked up insights on ISR that would not usually show up in of ethics apa citation, a narrower key word search. Schizophrenia Nursing Diagnoses. It did not offer the replicable and nasw code more structured findings of a systematic review, but instead served as a conversation starter based on an analytical overview of a wide span of literature. This paper is also limited in that it did not attempt to empirically explore, verify or test key insights. Future research on Essay Lesion, the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes is particularly needed, and nasw code of ethics is now increasingly possible because of the very large number of schemes that could be compared. For example, the International Trade Centre lists over 210 voluntary standards operating in over 200 countries, many of is race biological or social which would meet the of ethics, definition of ISR used in this paper (see ). Similarly, lists over description amazon, 450 ecolabels across 25 industry sectors.

Empirical researchers might collate existing evidence on the effectiveness of these standards or ecolabels and develop preliminary tests and categorizations on which ones have the most learning or network potential, and how they rank on the various dimensions of consequential, procedural or structural legitimacy. As data availability improves, empirical researchers will be able to conduct more complete systematic reviews and even meta-analyses of the legitimacy of ISR in the future. This paper examined the legitimacy of ISR in response to mixed empirical evidence and accusations that firms are using ISR schemes to mark their own homework. It explained how current management theory on of ethics apa citation, ISR has failed to separate pragmatic legitimacy of ISR schemes based on private benefits, from moral legitimacy based on reciprocal responsibilities, a firm ethical foundation and china 1949 normative approval. Mapping the code of ethics apa citation, literature has revealed tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and generated implications for theory on ISR and on legitimacy. China 1949. Future ISR research should examine the full range of moral legitimacy questions about ISR. Only then can ISR achieve its full potential as a fully legitimate mode of nasw code of ethics apa citation governance in the contemporary economic system. The work was funded by the UKs Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC: ES/K007440/1). Compliance with Ethical Standards. The author declares that they have no conflict of on Attraction interest.

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the nasw apa citation, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in Essay Lesion Studies, any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and code of ethics apa citation indicate if changes were made. Frances Bowen 1 Email author 1. China 1949. School of Business and Management Queen Mary University of London London UK. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.

.BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature.

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The Christian Humanism Of G. K. Chesterton: Truth and the Paradoxical Imagination. In recent decades conservative Christians have decried what they call secular humanism, a creed that undermines the religious and moral foundations of this culture. As a result many are persuaded that humanism and Christianity are incompatible, that a person could not possibly be both a Christian and a humanist. This is nasw a terrible mistake. The roots of Christian humanism go deep. Schizophrenia? They reach back to the writings of ancient church fathers such as Basil of Caesarea and John Chrysostom, St. Nasw Of Ethics? Augustine, and Pope Gregory the Great. In the late medieval period and the Renaissance a new wave of salt water Christian humanism spread in the writings of such important figures as Dante, Erasmus, and Thomas More. In recent memory, G. K. Chesterton stands out as one of the most forceful voices of that tradition. And it is to Chesterton that I principally want to turn here in order to demonstrate what Christian humanism looks like and suggest why we might need new expressions of it as we enter the third millennium.

Recently, Mr. Of Ethics Apa Citation? Gregory Wolfe edited a volume entitled The New Religious Humanists wherein he brings together a broad range of essays by contemporary writers whose work challenges the dominance of the secularist world view. Wolfe argues that in the history of Western culture religious humanism has made only Essay Perspective on Attraction infrequent appearances and has rarely occupied center stage. He explains that it is of ethics apa citation a mode of thought that tends to diagnoses arise when cultural cohesion is threatened by large social and intellectual upheavals. He regards the time in nasw code of ethics apa citation which we live as such a moment. Chesterton responded with Christian humanism to what he judged to be a serious breakdown of the fundamental moral suppositions deposited by biblical faith and the classical tradition. He believed that this declension was due to the loss of conviction in the culture about the reality of the Incarnation, that is water of God truly having become a human being in code of ethics Jesus Christ with all the import that that has for human existence. For Chesterton, the doctrine of the Incarnation is the hinge that holds together what is, for the Christian, a vision of the world that is Lesion Studies essentially paradoxical. And he is astonishingly adept at employing this vision in his cultural criticism and Christian apologetics. The Incarnation sheds light where sin deceives and despair darkens the human horizon.

Sin causes us to code of ethics apa citation experience spirit in opposition to matter, faith in conflict with reason, life defeated by death. But the Incarnation reveals these apparent contradictions as paradoxes. Contradiction may signal futility, but paradox is pregnant with the possibility of resolution and harmony. Paradox, says Chesterton, is the ally of Truth. The good news of the Christian Gospel is that God who is Spirit became flesh, infinite being became finite existence, the immortal One became mortal man in salt boiling order that death might be undone and humanity might be drawn up into spiritual life. God in his being and act unties the deadly Gordian knot of sin.

The errors of code of ethics apa citation pagan religion and the falsehoods of Essay on Scientific Perspective secularism are exposed by the Incarnation and replaced by its truth in paradox. This divine and human truth opens a way to salvation for man other than an escape of the nasw code, soul from matter and time or the desperate embrace of mere flesh and finitude in a courtship with personal extinction. True humanism, argued Chesterton, is theocentric and not anthropocentric. Most important, Christian humanism honors the fact that, though created from the dust, the human being is the sole creature that God has made in his very own image and likeness. It answers humankind's need to be redeemed from a fallen condition in which this image has been tarnished, and in which death works like the rust that destroys even the most beautiful statue. God is at china 1949, the center of everything, and God in Jesus Christ draws the human race back to that center. That is how human beings become fully human and inherit eternal life. God in Christ affirms our enfleshed and of ethics, historical existence and gives meaning to boiling it in spite of death. Within human culture and through the elements of this material world, bread and wine, oil and nasw code apa citation, water, flesh and blood, the incarnate Son, the Only-Begotten of the Father, saves us body and soul from sin and death.

God has given Christians compelling reasons to labor with him within and through this physical world to redeem the entire creation. And these Christian facts, Chesterton argued, are the inspiration of Christian humanism. Such a humanism contrasts sharply with man-centered philosophies of life that embrace matter to the exclusion of spirit, or reject the material world in a flight to something called spiritual. Secularist humanism is not necessarily atheistic, but it is--in whatever form it takes, whether militant or mild--a symptom of the breakdown of the Christian paradoxical imagination. Chesterton believed that the collapse of this wonderful paradoxical vision of man in his relation to both heaven and earth lay at the source of the modern crisis of meaning. Indeed, what makes Chesterton still instructive for us today is that he lived at a moment in Essay history that marked the end of of ethics modernity and was on the cusp of post-modernity. Modernity was the description of the rainforest, result of a five hundred year process in nasw of ethics which the dual Christian truth about the degradation and dignity of human existence, illuminated by the Incarnation, held together by the paradoxical imagination, was split apart. Secularist humanism emerged from this fractured truth and has not known how to put it back together, even when there is the desire to do so.

It seems doomed, rather, to fly from china 1949 one pole of that truth to the other. On the one hand, it seeks to affirm, through some form of idealism or other, the divinity of human life--but abandons the doctrine of the Incarnation . On the other hand, it is drawn toward the opposite of ethics apa citation, pole of naturalism and china 1949, relativism and forgets the crucial differences between finitude and sin, and distinctions between error and contravention of higher law. Chesterton's life straddled the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This gave him the vantage to see the line that was being crossed in his day. The old idealistic liberal humanism born of the Renaissance and Enlightenment was giving way to a militant, anti-theistic secularism whose logical outcome is nihilism. The secularist variety of code humanism is especially subversive and damaging to Christian faith because it is parasitic.

It exploits and schizophrenia diagnoses, expends the moral capital of Christianity and is incapable of replenishing that capital. In Orthodoxy , his great classic work of Christian apologetics, Chesterton observes that secularist humanism is using, and using up, the truths that remain out of ethics apa citation of the old treasury of Christendom; including, of china 1949 course, many truths known to code of ethics pagan antiquity but crystallized in Essay Christendom. The deposit of moral truths set adrift by a disintegrating Christendom is thus gradually degraded--reduced to ideological half-truths and sappy clichs. Consider how secularist humanism uses--and abuses--the distinctly Christian virtue of charity. Instead of the selfless seeking of another's good, charity becomes sugary sentiment. It is invoked to deny that forgiveness entails judgment and repentance, or that sin even exists. In due course, secularist humanism may rob or empty all of the virtues of their true and vital meaning. Eventually, even ordinary religious folk will catch on and give up believing in nasw perennial norms of human conduct communicated by Scripture and the Church. The final outcome of this kind of schizophrenia diagnoses process may be seen in what has been done to the religious notion of the dignity of human life.

Uprooted from its biblical ground and of ethics, the garden of the Church, its deep human meaning preserved in the Christian doctrine of the imago Dei is forgotten. Secularist humanism embraces this desiccated concept of human dignity and invokes it, ironically, nay tragically, to justify acts that contradict traditional moral teaching. What can the dignity of human life mean when the existence of is race or social God is denied in the most practical ways at every level and in every sphere of apa citation society? Thus, today, abortion and salt boiling, physician assisted suicide are justified by nasw code of ethics apa citation growing numbers of people as the appropriate means to honor and secure the dignity of salt boiling water persons. Chesterton says that the nasw of ethics apa citation, humanism of the amazon rainforest, secularist leads morality down a perilous road, a road he tells us in Orthodoxy that is code apa citation paved with pragmatism and relativism.

Man is told to think what he must and never mind the Absolute. But precisely one of the things he must think, adds Chesterton, is the Absolute--otherwise the whole of the rest of his world is an schizophrenia nursing diagnoses, illusion. Both pragmatism and relativism make nonsense of the human sense of fact. The road they pave leads to the devil's version of the Emerald City where nothing is what it seems, words are no longer tools of truth but instruments of raw power, and the moral compass is given up because there are no true poles of good and evil or right and apa citation, wrong. This suicide of amazon rainforest thought, as Chesterton calls it, leads inexorably toward the denial of the existence of the good or anything that is nasw apa citation really permanently human. In 1905, in a book entitled Heretics , Chesterton anticipates with uncanny prescience what postmodernism at the turn of the twenty-first century boldly declares. Modern morality, he writes, seems only capable of making a case for itself by pointing out the horrors that follow breaches of law. Pre-marital sex may be inadvisable because one risks pregnancy or, worse still, Herpes or AIDS.

One probably shouldn't lie because lying undercuts the social trust that is the description of the rainforest, precondition necessary for getting what one really wants. All of these prohibitions are subject, of course, to alteration or negation if means may be found to avoid the bad consequences. In other words, modern morality is consequentialist. More than that it is morbidly consequentialist, having lost a sure vision of the goodness of goodness. Images of car wrecks, pictures of people dying from AIDS, and photographs of aborted fetuses won't necessarily stop people from drinking and driving, engaging in casual or unprotected sex, or escaping the inconvenience of having a child by having an abortion. At the Creation, God did not say: I will make the seas with clean water not polluted water and the land arable and code, not desert because it would be a disaster for the environment otherwise. He made the of the amazon, seas clean and the land inhabitable because it was good that they be so. A vision of the good has far greater power to move men and women to do the right thing than all the ugly and terrifying images we may conjure up to frighten them into doing it. There is this great gap in modern ethics, Chesterton concludes, which is the absence of vivid pictures of purity and spiritual triumph. He continues in Heretics:

A young man may keep himself from vice by continually thinking of code disease. He may keep himself from it also by continually thinking of the Virgin Mary. Essay Studies? There may be question about nasw of ethics apa citation, which method is the more reasonable, or even about which is the more efficient. But surely there can be no question about Lesion Studies, which is the more wholesome. In response to these trends and wrong turns, Chesterton draws up a defense of our humanity with both feet firmly planted on the unmovable ground of the Christian doctrine of the Incarnation. Nasw Apa Citation? In other words, he expounds a Christian humanism. The task of this Christian humanism is to defend our humanum against a philosophy that would persuade us that human nature is without form or essence and that our doings have no more significance than the mold that grows in the shower stall. Water? Chesterton once said that he was about the task of rallying the really human things. Doing this he thought depends upon the recovery of nasw code of ethics dogma against an anti-dogmatic secularism. In Heretics Chesterton explains:

Man can be defined as an animal that makes dogmas. China 1949? As he piles doctrine on doctrine and conclusion on conclusion in the formation of nasw code apa citation some tremendous scheme of philosophy and religion, he is, in the only legitimate sense . . . becoming more and of the amazon, more human. Of Ethics? When he drops one doctrine after another in a refined scepticism, when he says that he has outgrown definitions, when he says that he disbelieves in finality, when, in his own imagination, he sits as God, holding to no form of creed and china 1949, contemplating all, then he is by that very process sinking slowly backwards into the vagueness of the nasw of ethics, vagrant animals and the unconsciousness of water grass. Trees have no dogmas. Turnips are singularly broad-minded. The secularists contradict themselves. They oppose dogma dogmatically and deny their own humanity in doing it.

They claim to practice empiricism but deny the testimony of lives lived in faith. The seeds of suspicion they sow can grow, however, into fresh seedlings of belief. Code? This is not only humanly possible, this is necessary in order that we retain our humanity. Truths turn into dogmas the instant that they are disputed. Thus every man who utters a doubt defines a religion.

And the scepticism of our time does not really destroy the beliefs, rather it creates them; gives them limits and their plain and Essay, defiant shape. . . . We who are Christians never knew the great philosophic common sense which inheres in apa citation that mystery until the anti-Christian writers pointed it out to us. The great march of mental destruction will go on. Description Rainforest? Everything will be denied. Everything will become a creed. It is a reasonable position to deny the stones in the street; it will be a religious dogma to assert them. It is a rational thesis that we are all in a dream; it will be a mystical sanity to say that we are all awake. Fires will be kindled to testify that two and two make four. Swords will be drawn to prove that leaves are green in summer. We will be defending not only the incredible virtues and sanities of human life, but something more incredible still, this huge impossible universe which stares us in the face. We shall fight for the visible prodigies of the invisible. We shall look on the impossible grass and the skies with a strange courage.

We shall be those who have seen and yet have believed. Chesterton's turn to of ethics dogma is not what it sounds like to the ears of secularists, modern and post-modernist. Schizophrenia Diagnoses? He is not saying we must believe in dogmas or else. Code Of Ethics? He is Lesion not forcing dogma down our throats. Of Ethics Apa Citation? Nor is dogma an irrational bulwark against progress. Rather, dogma ultimately emerges and prevails precisely because human beings cannot live, prosper, and rainforest, progress in nasw of ethics apa citation a world in which there are no truths. Essay On Attraction? This is the last paradox to which Chesterton draws our attention.

Dogma comes with risks. Dogma can lead to bellicose combat over nasw of ethics many truths and many gods. China 1949? For in a sinful world dogma combats dogma and Truth is the elusive prize. Nevertheless, dogma, the right dogma, can elevate us to nasw of ethics god-likeness, in the image of the one triune God, in the unity of his Truth, revealed in china 1949 the flesh of one man who lived two thousand years ago. Contrary to so much of what claims to be Christian in our culture, we are called to nasw code of ethics apa citation believe not in order to gain peace but to know and live the Truth. Boiling Water? Dogma is on the way to Truth; but it is hardly the stuff of peace. The first and last lesson of Christian humanism is this: We, by our own efforts alone, cannot sew together the of ethics apa citation, cloth of peace from our sinful and tattered human nature.

Real peace, like real humanity, is a gift and a transcendent thing that we will enjoy only when we wholly accept and do faithfully obey the God who has become human.

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5 Tips to Get Your Legal Resume NoticedFrom a Lawyer. True story: My first paid job out of law school was obtained largely on of ethics the strength of china 1949, my cover letter. What was my trick? A bit of nasw code apa citation, self-deprecationspecifically, a lazy eye joke. Lesion. Now, this was the height of the Great Recession; there were no lawyer jobs, and I was applying for a creative writing job with a large legal marketing company. I had applied to hundreds of positions, and had received little to no interest (not even from a paralegal farm paying $12 an hour). I had reached the breaking point where I mustve said to heck with itor something more descriptive before tearing off a cover letter at midnight and hitting submit. But that does bring me to my first tip when preparing your legal resume and apa citation cover letter: The lazy-eyed cover letter worked for Essay Lesion Studies, me because I was applying to a non-traditional legal job. For those applying to traditional jobs, definitely exercise more caution. That being said, you dont want to be any old suit plus juris doctorate. Firms get dozens, if not hundreds, of nasw code apa citation, applicants for each position, and unless your doctorate says Harvard and biological is autographed by Barack Obama, youll probably need to spark their interest with something else.

Highlight any interesting or unusual (but still useful) skills, and maybe even hint at a personality in nasw your cover letter. Two law students. Both were told by their career services office not to mass mail firms. One followed their advice. The other didnt. The former worked for amazon rainforest, Cravath, paid off his debts, and now lives as a hipster musician in Brooklyn, without a care in the world. The other hasnt touched his debt and is having far less fun. Of course, the apa citation, one who mass mailed firms was also top of his class and transferred to Essay Studies a top-three school after his first year.

You cant mass mail mediocrity and expect to land a Big Law position. But regardless of your class standing, take heed of an old army sergeant#8217;s advice: Nothing ventured, nothing gained. Spending a few hours on nasw of ethics a mail merge binge may not work, but what do you really have to lose? How should you organize your resume? Should you put your education first, or your work experience first? Bury the boring. But not at or social, the bottomstick it in the middle.

Why? Primacy and recency. According to a psychological concept called the Primacy Effect, youre more likely to remember that which comes first, e.g., those all-important first impressions. The Recency Effect refers to the idea that youre more likely to remember what just happenedthose impressive skills or case outcomes you put at the bottom of the resume will be fresh in a hiring managers mind when they stop reading. What about the middle?

Stuff your weakest points there. If you went to of ethics apa citation a mediocre school, or had a mediocre GPA, stick that in the middle and is race biological start with work experience. Nasw Of Ethics. No work experience? Start with education and put the summer clerkships or clinics in the middle. I did work for the Innocence Project in law school. There are parts of the country where, if I were to china 1949 apply to a prosecutors job with that on nasw code of ethics apa citation my resume, theyd call me a namby-pamby boy and light my application on fire. China 1949. On the other hand, I also was a member of the Federalist Society and president of the nasw code of ethics, law schools firearm, hunting, and fishing club. Public defenders offices probably view those extracurriculars as a mark of Lucifer himself.

Get the point? It may seem like a pain, but were really talking about trimming the fine details heredeleting a bullet point or volunteer gig to is race biological or social appease the gatekeepers. Code Apa Citation. You probably dont even need to make one resume per job. Instead, make one per diagnoses category: one resume geared towards public defenders, another for prosecutors offices, etc. Ive been my own boss.

Ive worked in mid-sized firms. Ive clerked for solo and small firms. The truth is, the happiest Ive ever been is as a solo-entrepreneur. I made my own hours. My income was usually proportional to the amount of work I put in. And running your own shop means you can turn fantasies of innovation into action: You could try a new non-profit business model, or run an entirely cloud-based law firm, or simply use your favorite tools and apps without hearing a luddite partner complain that youre not using decades-old Time Matters. Its not for everyone.

If you have family obligations, a need for steady health coverage, or some other inflexible reason for nasw of ethics, needing a steady, consistent paycheck, working for boiling, some other attorney or company isnt a bad outcome. But dont feel like getting a job is the only way to make it in apa citation the legal industry. I have colleagues who opened their own shops right out of school, or shortly after realizing that they hated firm life, and china 1949 none of them would have it any other way. Nasw Code Of Ethics. Financially speaking, most of is race, them make as much as or more than their firm-employed counterparts. And, if youre worried about learning the law, or about code of ethics apa citation figuring out how to practice, consider this: I learned more with a mentor and a six months of biological or social, my own time than I did in eighteen months in a big firm full of experienced lawyers. A firm with a proper mentorship or training program is a godsend for code apa citation, new attorneys, but its not the only way. There are plenty of basics to nursing follow when writing a legal resume. Stick to nasw code conservative fonts, choose standard margins, and keep it all in black. Also, keep it to description amazon one page, (unless you have a really compelling list of publications and nasw code speaking engagements that will enthrall the schizophrenia diagnoses, reader and will justify a second page) and nasw of ethics apa citation proofread, proofread, proofread.

Follow those basics, combined with the boiling, tips above, and you just might stand out from code, other applicants and land your dream job. Is Race Or Social. Got any burning questions that I didnt address? Ask away in the comments section below. Like this post? Want more like it? Subscribe to weekly emails from the Clio blog, and never miss an idea for improving your practice. Get fresh ideas for law firm growth, straight to your inbox. 2017 Themis Solutions Inc.

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Defining The Bibliography Reference Types For An Output Style. The Bibliography area of the output style editor is where you determine exactly which fields are included for a specific reference type (i.e., book, journal, web page) and you determine the placement of the fields, the punctuation, any formatting and code of ethics apa citation indicate under what conditions the field should print (always, only for source types that are electronic, or always for source types that are print). You can also include comments about each field in each reference type to serve as a reference or reminder of details for china 1949 that output style. Use any examples in the Instructions to code of ethics apa citation Authors or Style Guide when creating your style. Important Note: every output style MUST have at least a generic reference type defined in the bibliography area. Water! The generic reference type is used as a default and will be used by any reference in of ethics your database that does not find its appropriate reference type. If possible, we recommend defining each reference type that you store in your database. To create a bibliography definition: Verify that the Bibliography tab is displayed in the main area of the output style editor. By default, your bibliography formatting will be created for Lesion Studies references that are in a single language.

You have the option to apa citation add additional language formats if your bibliography will have references in more than one language). To create a bibliography that supports multiple languages, click here to learn about adding alternate languages. Under Reference Type , select Generic . Different reference types often require different types of salt boiling, formats so you must evaluate each one and make changes as necessary. For example, a Journal may require the Periodical Name be italicized and a Book reference may require the Title be underlined. Once you define the Generic reference type, you can copy the formatting from the nasw code, Generic type to the other types. From there you only need to make modifications as necessary. In the Reference Type list, select the reference type you want to create. Notice that the biological or social, Output Field Order box is now empty. Verify that Generic appears in apa citation the Copy Fields from list. Use this feature as a quick way to description of the define various reference types.

Copy from the nasw code of ethics apa citation, reference type that most closely matches the type you are defining. For example, if you have already defined Book, Whole and you want to is race define Book, Section you can copy from nasw code Book, Whole then make any needed modifications. Tip: If you are creating the output style for a publication in the Humanities, we suggest making the Generic format similar to a Book example. If you are creating an output style for the Sciences, we suggest making the description of the, Generic format similar to a Journal example. The Fields for this type box shows all the fields available for the Reference Type, Generic . (The fields change depending on the type of reference you have chosen.) Select the Authors, Primary field and click the right arrow icon to move it to the Output Field Order box. Continue selecting each field that you need, in the order you want it to appear. Under Preview of Bibliography Output , click the Update button to see the fields you have added. You need to click the Preview button every time you make a change to the particular reference type in order to see the updated information.

Under Output Field Order , select a field and nasw code apa citation look at Essay Perspective the Field Settings displayed to the right of the window. Click through the various fields and notice how the Field Settings change to guide you through the format defining process. Nasw Code! The first group of settings determines the formatting of the field itself as opposed to the format of the elements within the field. You also designate in the Field Settings when that particular field should print -- always, when the source type in china 1949 the reference is set to print or when the source type is set to electronic. In some cases, such as Volume , there is code of ethics apa citation, very little to establish. In others, such as Author , there are many specific characteristics that need to be defined.

Note: Under Field Settings, if you want to precede or follow particular fields with a tab or carriage return (i.e., a new line), enter the appropriate t (tab) or n (carriage return) character. Tip : Detailed information about Field Settings typically used for defining a periodical are listed below. This will help you become familiar with the different types of options available for the various fields. Tip : A word about punctuation used throughout a reference type punctuation is normally included with the field it is china 1949, used with, however, in some instances you will need to include the nasw code apa citation, punctuation with the field that precedes or follows. China 1949! RefWorks will automatically omit a defined field if there is nasw code of ethics apa citation, no information for the field in a particular record. If you have defined the field setting to Essay on Attraction include the punctuation, that punctuation will still appear, even though there is no information for it. So, when you generate your bibliography, you will see stray punctuation marks. You may need to modify your format to include punctuation for apa citation a particular field with the field that follows it (The page number field is a good example. It generally appears at the end of a format and if your record does not have this information to display, your format may end with stray punctuation, so include the punctuation for nursing diagnoses the field before page number in the precede with area of the page field setting.). You can always manually edit your bibliography using your word processor, but this may be time consuming. We do recommend you thoroughly check your final bibliography, as the information you have imported into RefWorks may be inaccurate or incorrect, but you should also check for odd punctuation as well.

Author Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Compiler and Translator) Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is information only and nasw code of ethics apa citation does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. The number of author names to be included in Essay the bibliography. You can include all of the names or some portion of them. Selecting Include All overrides the other settings.

Enter 2 in the If more, show first box and select Italic. Click Update and see the display change to two authors and nasw code apa citation display the et al in italics. By default, RefWorks inserts the word Anonymous in place of author names if the author field in a reference is salt water, left blank. If you want to insert another word, such as Unknown, delete Anonymous and type Unknown. If you want the field left blank, delete Anonymous and of ethics don't replace it with anything. If you want to replace the author with the title, click the Use Title box. Varies depending upon where the separator is located (i.e., between first and china 1949 second author or between the second and nasw of ethics third author, etc.). In our example under If only 2 use , press the spacebar type and Essay on Scientific (without the quote marks) then press the spacebar again. It will display as ( and ). You need to include a space on of ethics each side of water, the and apa citation or the result will be John JonesandBob Smith. Leave the comma in the If more than 2 use box and in the Before Last box.

Notice that there are spaces after the comma and before and after the and. These settings may be different than the settings for subsequent authors. Salt Boiling! Under Name select the correct order of the names for the output style. For example, if the style requires names to be last name first followed by a comma and space, then the first name and nasw code of ethics middle name, select Last, First Middle. The Initial box determines the description of the, format of the code of ethics, name. For example, if the amazon rainforest, first name should be a full name and apa citation middle name an initial only, you should select First M . Under Case Setting , select any casing requirements (Last name in uppercase or Entire name in uppercase). These options determine the setting for all names after the first author. China 1949! In many formats, the first author is Last, Middle First but all other authors are First Middle Last. The Precede With and Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the author in a reference that contains only one author. If, as in code of ethics apa citation our case, author is the first field in the reference, you do not want a preceding character so leave this box blank.

If you want to china 1949 follow the apa citation, author with a period, leave the period in the Follow With box. Keep in mind that all fields in the Field Settings area have a Precede With and Follow With option. If you have Follow With characters of a period and a space and on Scientific Perspective a Precede With in the very next field of nasw of ethics apa citation, a space what will actually show between the two fields will be a period and two spaces. The Precede With and Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the author field in a reference that contains multiple authors. Title Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary)

Enter any information you would like to include about this field. China 1949! This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting , select None. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the appropriate option from the Case Setting box. Uppercase capitalizes the nasw, entire title (e.g., THIS IS THE ENTIRE TITLE), and water Lowercase format all of the characters as lowercase, even the first word in the title (e.g., this is the of ethics, entire title). Title case capitalizes the first letter of the first word and all significant words in the title (e.g., This is the Entire Title).

Words not capitalized in Title case include certain articles, prepositions and conjunctions such as a, an, and the. Sentence case capitalizes the first word of the title only (e.g., This is the entire title). Note: If you have proper nouns or specific words that MUST be capitalized or italicized in your bibliography, we recommend leaving the case setting option as None . When None is selected, RefWorks will print the title EXACTLY as it is entered in your database including casing and font attributes (bold, italic, underline, etc.). Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in diagnoses your database, under Case Setting, select None. Nasw Code Apa Citation! To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the appropriate option from the Case Setting box. Periodical Name Format: Some Periodicals have both a full name and an abbreviated name.

For example, Journal of Biology may be abbreviated J.Biol. There are several options for the periodical name format. To choose to schizophrenia nursing diagnoses have a preference in using the full name or abbreviated name, select Full if present, otherwise abbreviated or Abbreviated if present, otherwise full. Or, you may specify using only one, full or abbreviated, by selecting Full Only or Abbreviated Only. If you use the abbreviation and want a particular mark to code follow it add the mark to the Follow abbreviations with box. Follow abbreviation with: Any entry in biological or social this field would be in addition to what you defined in the Field Settings area. Volume, Issue, Pub Year, and Pages Fields. Enter any information you would like to include about this field. Code Apa Citation! This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output.

Options for these fields are very similar. Lesion Studies! Because they are numeric fields, you may choose to add a numeric suffix to the field. RefWorks adds the appropriate suffix for the number. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field (for example, if it should appear as Vol. 10, you need to include the Vol. in the precedes area).

Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to nasw precede or follow the field (for example, if the issue should appear as (1), you need to Lesion include a left parentheses ( in the Precedes With area and a right parentheses ) in the Follow With area. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field.

Enter any preceding characters (fore example p. might be used -- make sure include a blank space after the p. if needed) . Select the Page Range Setting (If you wanted the output to show 149-159, select Full End Page, for the output to be 149-59, select Abbreviated End Page and for of ethics 149, you would select Start Page Only.) The program assumes you want to separate pages with a dash. Adding this field to an output style allows you to type in your own text and format it as bold, underline, italics, superscript or subscript. Simply type the Essay on Scientific on Attraction, text in the Text to insert box and click the box next to the appropriate format. One common use for this is in code of ethics the Book, Section reference type. Essay On Scientific On Attraction! A book section frequently requires you to include information on nasw apa citation the book itself as well as the section information. You may need to rainforest create a format like:

Book Section Title. In Book Title. In this case, you would type In in the Text to insert box and select Italic as the formatting option. All other fields with the exception of Descriptors have just the basic Field Settings. The Descriptors field also has an option for code the separator between the words. Essay Studies! Some of these fields may be useful for various reasons. For example, if you are printing a bibliography from a reference list for a particular class you may want to include the notes field for nasw code of ethics apa citation reference. If you do not define a reference type, Report for example, and boiling water you import a reference that is a Report, RefWorks automatically uses the code, definition you created for the Generic type.

In general the Essay Studies, Generic type is the same as the Journal reference type in the already defined formats. You can easily change this using the Copy feature discussed above. If you selected Book for nasw code of ethics example, the Generic Reference is now patterned after the or social, Book Reference Type. In the Bibliography Settings area you specify the code of ethics apa citation, overall layout of the bibliography. Verify that you are in the Bibliography area (the bibliography tab should be grey and prominent). Click Bibliography Settings to description of the amazon rainforest expand and display the settings options. Select the appropriate sort order for the bibliography.

In Order They Are Cited. References are listed in the order they are cited in the paper. All Authors, Year Title. References are sorted by code of ethics apa citation the entire Author field first, then by nursing diagnoses year. Nasw Code! References with the exact same authors and or social year are then sorted by nasw code of ethics title.

All Authors Title. References are first sorted by the entire Author field. References with the same authors are then sorted by Essay Studies title. First Author, Year Other Authors. References are sorted by the first author only, then, for references with the same first author, by year. References with the same first author and year are then sorted based upon nasw all other authors. First Author, Number of Essay, Authors Year. References are sorted by the first author only and nasw code then by the number of boiling, authors in the reference. For example, if the first author is the same, references with three authors sort before references with four. References with the same first author and the same number of authors are then sorted by year. Author, Year Ascending Title.

References are sorted by of ethics the entire Author field first, then by year with the oldest first. References with the is race, exact same authors and code apa citation year are then sorted by title. All Authors Title (MLA) This sort combines all authors and salt boiling water titles (for references with no author) into one sort. Other sorts place references without authors at the top of the list. Title, Year descending. References are sorted first by title and then by year with most recent articles at the top.

Periodical, Year descending. Sorts by of ethics apa citation periodical name and Studies then by year with the most recent at the top. Year descending, Author. Sorts first by year with the most recent at the top and nasw within the same year by author. Year descending, Title. Sorts first by china 1949 year with the most recent at the top and of ethics within the same year by title. Year descending, Periodical. Sorts first by Essay on Scientific on Attraction year with the most recent at nasw the top and within the same year by periodical name. Year ascending, Title. Sorts first by year with the oldest at the top and within the same year by title. Sorts references by the ID number.

If the bibliography should have a title before it begins, type the title in the Reference List Title box. The title is china 1949, automatically centered on the page when you view or print the document. Select Include empty fields in the reference output if, for example, you want the page number field included in the bibliography even if there is nasw code of ethics apa citation, no page number in the reference. Essay On Scientific On Attraction! If you do not select this option, RefWorks automatically takes out empty fields. Most output styles do not call for empty fields to be included, so this option should be cleared. Select Apply APA Rules for Electronic Source field inclusion if your style should follow the new APA guidelines that require inclusion of nasw of ethics, a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if available, in the bibliography. When this option is selected, RefWorks will look for Digital Object Identifier (DOI) information for the reference and print that first. Essay Lesion Studies! If there is no DOI in the reference, then the RefWorks will print the information in the Links and nasw code apa citation the Retrieved Date fields. If there is no DOI or Links information, RefWorks will print the Database information for china 1949 a particular reference.

This applies to all reference types except Unpublished Material and Web Pages. Code! For Unpublished Material the Database and Retrieved Date will print if there is schizophrenia nursing diagnoses, no DOI or Links. For Web Pages, the Accessed Date and nasw code Database will print if there is no DOI or Links. Note: This setting only applies to references where the Source Type field is schizophrenia, set to Electronic . Under Indent Setting select the appropriate indent. Select Normal if the first line of each reference should be indented, Hanging if all lines except the code apa citation, first should be indented or None . Under Line Spacing , select the schizophrenia nursing, spacing to apply to all lines within the reference. Your choices are Single , Double , or Triple . RefWorks automatically inserts one blank line between references in code of ethics apa citation the bibliography. Make the appropriate selection from the drop-down box for consecutive works by the same author.

In some cases it may be appropriate to substitute dashes for or social the author names. Enter the appropriate Precede with and Follow with characters for each reference. Nasw Code Of Ethics Apa Citation! For example, you may want to china 1949 follow each reference with a period. Text After Bibliography could be used to specify punctation for nasw of ethics all bibliography entries. Placing the ending punctuation in the bibliography settings would eliminate the need to include ending punctuation for every defined reference type.