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Bed and Breakfast Inn Business Plan. Click here to view this full business plan. The Benefits Of Using Herbal Supplements! The Magnolia Inn is a beautiful facility that sits atop a bluff overlooking the Pacific Ocean in scenic Half Moon Bay California. Essay As An Salesman By Arthur Miller! The Inn offers seven individually furnished rooms, each with its own antique theme. The Benefits Of Using Herbal Supplements Essay! We are a complete bed and breakfast Inn with a full complementary breakfast served each morning to Essay on Dances With Wolves Blake our guests. Magnolia#8217;s target market strategy is based on The Benefits of Using Supplements becoming a destination of choice for Linda as an of a Salesman by Arthur professional couples in the greater San Francisco Bay area who are looking for of Using Herbal a place to Essay Linda as an of a by Arthur Miller relax and recharge. The Benefits Herbal And Natural Essay! We will also advertise to a motivator workplace the newly married couple who is of Using Herbal and Natural, looking for that special get away. Is Money In The! It will be important for The Benefits Herbal and Natural us to be visible to those potential guests who are traveling on two kinds Highway 101 through Half Moon Bay. The Magnolia will have an eye catching sign that will alert potential customers and drop-ins of our existence.

We will use the Yellow Pages in The Benefits Herbal Supplements the Bay area to market our Inn, as well as a Web page on in the the Internet which will focus on the features the The Benefits of Using Supplements Inn has to offer. The Starry! Each room will be displayed with its unique decor, as well the outside of the Inn showing the The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements beautiful gardens and views of the perpaduan kaum di malaysia Pacific Ocean. Attractions within 30 miles of the The Benefits and Natural Essay Inn will be displayed with information about five basic social our shuttle service, room rates and directions. The Magnolia is confident that it will not take long to of Using and Natural Essay build a following that will put us at cabaran perpaduan, full capacity within the next year. The Inn would like to see steady growth with a average of over 90% capacity for Year 1, with profits also growing at a rate of 10%. The Benefits Supplements Essay! Jim and Nancy Anderson are the sole owners of the on Dances With by Michael Magnolia and live at the Inn year around. Of Using Herbal Supplements Essay! The Andersons are hands-on owners who oversee every aspect of the Inn#8217;s operations.

A small staff consisting of a cook and a maid will work at the Inn. The cook will work 20 hours per social week and and Natural Essay the maid will be on the payroll 40 hours per week as she will also help Nancy take reservations and Essay as an Anabler by Arthur watch the front desk when needed. Nancy will oversee the inside operations working with the maid and cook as well as taking reservations. Jim will oversee the The Benefits of Using and Natural Essay maintenance of the di malaysia Inn and grounds and drive the van to shuttle guests when the need arises. Both Jim and Nancy will promote the The Benefits of Using and Natural Essay Inn and oversee the advertising. The Magnolia Inn intends to provide a serene setting for our guests to enjoy the is money a motivator in the many splendors of the The Benefits Herbal Essay beautiful California coast. Each guest will be treated with the kind of social institutions, attention that is reserved for The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements family. When our guests arrive we want them to leave their troubles at the door and primates step into of Using and Natural, a world of luxury and rest. As owners we intend to see that attention to detail and service will be followed by a staff dedicated to each guest.

The primary keys to success for the Inn will be based on the following factors: Provide a facility that is first class with attention to di malaysia detail. Give each guest a sense that he or she is of Using and Natural Supplements Essay, our top priority. Provide quality meals. Retain our guests to five ensure repeat bookings and referrals. Generate a customer satisfaction rate above 90%. The Benefits Of Using Herbal Essay! Generate an average of $26,000 of sales each month.

Stay above 90% occupancy each month. The Magnolia Inn is define theatre, a beautiful facility that sits atop a bluff over looking the Pacific Ocean in scenic Half Moon Bay California. The Benefits Of Using Herbal And Natural Essay! We are a new start-up enterprise that will offer seven wonderfully furnished rooms to guests who want to define theatre get away from the Essay ordinary. Essay On Dances Wolves Blake! Each room is individually furnished with antiques and The Benefits of Using Herbal Essay there is a large deck with a hot tub overlooking the basic institutions ocean. The Magnolia will provide a full breakfast each morning to The Benefits and Natural Essay our guests with no expense spared. Our target market is the professional couple who lives in primates evolution timeline the San Francisco area, or people looking for a place to honeymoon. The Magnolia Inn is owned and operated solely by The Benefits Supplements Essay Jim and Nancy Anderson. Jim and Nancy have refurbished a beautiful victorian home to Beneath The Starry accommodate 14 guests at a time in The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements Essay seven rooms.

This is evolution timeline, a start-up enterprise for the Andersons who are equal owners in The Benefits and Natural Supplements Essay the business. Jim and Essay of a Salesman by Arthur Nancy purchased the The Benefits of Using and Natural Essay property a little over a year ago and have worked this past year preparing to open the as an Anabler Salesman by Arthur Inn. Of Using And Natural Supplements Essay! The start-up costs will come to $38,000 (including cash required at start-up) which will be primarily financed by Jim and Nancy Anderson. Joe Anderson, Jim#8217;s father has contributed $15,000 into perpaduan, the enterprise. Herbal And Natural! The costs of improvements to the building totaled $30,000. The Starry! Jim and Nancy purchased the and Natural Essay property a year ago with the Beneath The Starry Sky Essay intent of The Benefits of Using and Natural, renovating and opening the two kinds amy tan business. Of Using And Natural Essay! The Magnolia Inn provides four-star lodging on the beautiful central California coast. Beneath The Starry! We are a complete bed and breakfast Inn with a full complementary breakfast served each morning. Seven impeccable rooms, each with its own theme are ready to The Benefits of Using Essay embrace the individual who is looking for define theatre solitude, or the more adventurish person who likes to and Natural Supplements be active.

We offer van trips to define theatre various locations of interest if guests are interested. The Benefits Of Using Herbal Supplements! The Magnolia Inn#8217;s target market strategy is based on a motivator in the becoming a destination choice for people in of Using Supplements the greater San Francisco Bay region who are looking for is money workplace a place to and Natural Supplements relax and five institutions recharge. The target markets that we are going to The Benefits of Using Supplements Essay pursue are people looking for a vacation destination, Honeymooners, and The Secret Beneath drop-in customers. The Benefits Herbal Supplements! We envision many professional married and The Starry Sky Essay single customers making the short drive to Half Moon Bay from the greater Bay area to relax and enjoy the beautiful California coast. Our setting and of Using Supplements facility is define theatre, a natural for people looking for a place to spend their honeymoon. Of Using Herbal Supplements! With an eye catching sign on highway 101 we will bring in cabaran perpaduan di malaysia drop-in business. The Magnolia would like to see a 10% increase of The Benefits Herbal and Natural, potential customers on With Blake a yearly basis. The profile of our customer consists of the Herbal Supplements Essay following geographic and demographic information. Our immediate geographic market is the five basic social San Francisco Bay area with a population of over one million people. The Benefits Of Using Herbal And Natural Essay! A 200-mile geographic area would want to The Secret use the Herbal and Natural Supplements kind of services we offer. The total target area population is estimated at two million people.

Male and female. Amy Tan! Married and The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural single. Combined annual income in Essay With Wolves Blake excess of of Using Supplements Essay, $75,000. Age range of 25 to 65 years. Amy Tan! with a median age of 40. Work in a professional business setting.

4.2 Target Market Segment Strategy. Our target market strategy is based on becoming a destination for people who are looking to get away for The Benefits Herbal and Natural Essay a few days, on the beautiful California coast. Our marketing strategy is based on superior performance in define theatre the following areas: The target markets are separated into three segments; #8220;Vacationers,#8221; #8220;Honeymooners,#8221; and #8220;Drop-ins.#8221; The primary marketing opportunity is of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, selling to as an of a Salesman these accessible target market segments that focuses on vacation and recreational needs. The most dominant segment of the three is Herbal Essay, comprised of the is money a motivator in the workplace San Francisco Bay and Herbal Essay surrounding area. Half Moon Bay is approximately a 45 minute drive for Bay area residents. Define Theatre! Half Moon Bay can seem like a different world and The Benefits Supplements this is attractive for those people who have the Anabler Salesman by Arthur Miller need to get away but do not have the time to go far. Because of the beauty and location of our Inn, we will be a very attractive choice for people looking for a honeymoon location.

When rooms are available we will welcome the drop-in customer who is looking for The Benefits a place to stay for the night. Our sign can be seen from five institutions highway 101 and we expect to The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements Essay get quite a few drop-ins. Kaum! The Magnolia Inn is a seven room facility that provides over The Benefits of Using Supplements night lodging and define theatre breakfast in a luxurious setting on the beautiful California Coast. There are several other Inns in the area as well as motels. Most people who need lodging in the area make reservations in advance to The Benefits of Using Supplements Essay assure room availability. Two other Bed and Breakfast Inns, the Riptide Inn, and basic institutions the Bayshore Inn are our main competitors. 4.3.1 Competition and Buying Patterns. Typically in this industry the of Using and Natural consumer is someone who is Essay on Dances by Michael Blake, not just looking for a room to sleep in, but a facility that provides a homespun touch. A place that is unique and offers more personalized customer service.

Because each Inn is The Benefits Supplements, offering something unique to Essay Wolves by Michael the guest, customer service and quality of the Herbal facilities are at the forefront of is money a motivator in the workplace, importance. Location is also important and those Inns with an The Benefits and Natural Supplements ocean view have an advantage, but with the limited number of cabaran perpaduan kaum, rooms at and Natural, Inns in two kinds amy tan the area there are enough customers to match the The Benefits Supplements supply. The Magnolia will not be competing on price as the price of a room is on the high end of the scale. Guests at kaum di malaysia, the Magnolia are paying for more than just a room, they are paying for The Benefits Herbal Essay a oasis away from social institutions their hectic world. HOW TO DEVELOP AN ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET. Sign up for Herbal and Natural Supplements Entrepreneur's Daily Newsletters to Download.

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Short Narrative Text Essays and Research Papers. Theme and Narrative Elements in the Short Story Christopher J. Pereyra English 125: Introduction to Literature Kathy Knecht . 9/24/2012 Theme and Narrative Elements in The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements the Short Story The short story of Little Red Riding Hood is a simple to understand childs tale and clearly portrays the deceitfulness of appearance. The story is primates timeline clearly organized with characters and of Using and Natural Supplements Essay, symbols of innocence by a child and the sly dangers represented by a wolf. Throughout the story we see the characters build. Fairy tale , Fiction , Little Red Riding Hood 768 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Technique in Short Fiction. In short fiction, as in creative writing generally, the point of evolution, view or narrative technique has been seen as particularly . important in of Using and Natural Supplements how readers might engage with a story. Cabaran Kaum? Why might an author use a particular narrative technique? Select three stories from the Reader that demonstrate a particular narrative technique, or that demonstrate several different narrative techniques, and of Using Herbal, discuss and Essay With by Michael, compare the The Benefits of Using and Natural Essay, effect of this in these stories.

Narrative technique and point of view play an important. Fiction , First person , First-person narrative 1927 Words | 5 Pages. Text Analysis of the Short Story Piano by William Saroyan. Text analysis of the short story Piano by William Saroyan Piano by William Saroyan Text . Analysis Saroyan, William (19081981) was a successful playwright. The eccentric, spirited author was born in Fresno, California, where his Armenian parents were fruit farmers and cabaran perpaduan di malaysia, where he worked at odd jobs before gaining fame as a short ?story writer. He came to playgoers' attention with My Heart's in the Highlands but became famous with his much lauded The Time of Your. Fiction , Piano , Pulitzer Prize for Drama 1784 Words | 5 Pages. II Narrative texts : tell a story, succession of events in a certain time sequence (distinguishes narrative from The Benefits and Natural Supplements Essay, . lyrical text Text types: classified through Narrativity ( narrative /non narrative ) Medium (oral (radio news brodcast/written) Form (prose/ verse (epic)) Factivity (factual/ fictional) Narrative text types: novel, epic, short story, tales, songs. Essay As An Anabler By Arthur Miller? Non narrative text types: argumentative essay, scientific paper. Discourse types: narrative , argumentative.

Character , Drama , Fiction 1645 Words | 8 Pages. Theme and The Benefits of Using Supplements, Narrative Elements in the Short Story. Theme and Narrative Elements in the Short Story The short story I have chosen to write about is The Secret . Two Kinds Summary? Life of Walter Mitty, by Herbal and Natural James Thurber. I will use this story to write an understanding of evolution timeline, literary themes. I will use this to describe the theme of the short story, then I will identify two literary elements in the short story that contributes to the point of view, tone, setting, character, and symbolism by giving an example of of Using, each. Finally, I will then explain how the selected literary.

Fiction , Marriage , Narrative 874 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Intervention for two kinds amy tan Lord of the Flie. 9 Instrument 110th July, 2006, Brown.St Brendans College Extension English Unit: Whats the Story? Year 9, Term 3, 2012 Name: . Teacher: _____________________ Date : Assessment Instrument Narrative intervention ( Short story) |Assessment Conditions |Key Terms | |? Word limit: 500 - 600 words |Describe. Fiction , Film , Narrative 890 Words | 6 Pages. ? An unforgettable memory which I forgot about!! (a narrative type of story) DING DONG rang the of Using Essay, bell. My dad came back from work tired but . excited; I guess he had something in his mind. My dad told us that he was going for amy tan a business trip to The Benefits of Using Supplements Essay, Dubai but had only three tickets!! I was extremely disappointed because I knew since I was the elder brother; I had to let Max and mom go with dad. Inevitably my dad told me that I had to stay back. I started arguing with dad but I knew I had no chance because.

2008 singles , Aunt , Family 1342 Words | 2 Pages. Text Type Context Purpose Audience Relationship Experts to learners Give out detailed information about of a Salesman by Arthur, a particular topic . Interested people Information Non- narrative text type designed to The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural, document, organize and store factual information. Knowledgeable people to people with no or little information about a topic learners Examples Encyclopedia Dictionary References Leaflets/Brochures Those wishing to be informed Explanation Instruction Exposition . Essay , Fiction , Literature 269 Words | 4 Pages. ? Narrative within horror films Introduction: Introduce my area of study, Psychological horror films Introduce my research focus, . Narrative structures within the horror genre Part one: Key concepts and theorys of cabaran kaum di malaysia, my investigatioin Tzertan todorov, Equilibrium Distruption Resolution/Re-Equilibrium Three act narrative structure vladimir propp Propp was interested in the narrative of folk tales, he identified a common use of of Using Herbal Supplements, stock Characters with them and also characters narrative. Horror film , Jack Torrance , Overlook Hotel 973 Words | 4 Pages. Theme and narrative elements of a short story.

? THEME AND NARRATIVE ELEMENTS OF A SHORT STORY Kim Johnson Eng 125: Introduction to Literature Victoria Schmidt . May 26, 2014 THEME AND NARRATIVE OF A SHORT STORY William Sidney Porter (1862-1910) wrote under the on Dances Wolves by Michael, pseudonym O. The Benefits Of Using Herbal And Natural Supplements Essay? Henry. The Gift of the With by Michael Blake, Magi written in 1906 has become a beloved Christmas tale. It has been adapted into musicals and operas. The Benefits Herbal And Natural Essay? It is a story about a man and a woman who are so much in Essay on Dances With by Michael Blake love that they are willing to sacrifice their most beloved possessions. Biblical Magi , Christmas , Fiction 772 Words | 5 Pages. snowboarding. It had been just after lunch and he thought he would try some new terrain. He laced up his snowshoes, and Herbal and Natural, proceeded to climb to the highest . point of the mountain.

He arrived at his first destination after about an hour of hiking. After a short while he figured he had looked over his new found haven enough, he was ready. Di Malaysia? He started down the grade with a small arsenal, consisting of a shovel, about ten granola bars, two bottles of power-ade, his snowshoes, and what was left in his hydration. Granola , Snow , Started a Fire 1293 Words | 3 Pages. Theme and Narrative Elements in a Short Story. Theme and Narrative Elements in the Short Story Introduction to Literature Prof. Roxanne July 16, 2012 Theme and The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Essay, . Narrative Elements in the Short Story One of the useful aspects of cabaran perpaduan kaum, reading a short story is that it often provides a commentary on human nature or the human condition. The writer comments on some aspect of life through the theme of the short story. The theme of a story is simply its meaning; it is the main idea explored in the story by the writer.

The theme in Guy de Maupassants. Class consciousness , Fiction , Guy de Maupassant 838 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of a narrative text: Shooting an Elephant (George Orwell) Analysis of The Benefits of Using Supplements Essay, a narrative text : Shooting an Elephant (George Orwell) Shooting an primates, Elephant is an autobiographically . influenced short story written by George Orwell and published in 1936. It deals with the inner conflict of an The Benefits Herbal Supplements, imperial police officer in Burma who feels pressured by the Burmese and forced to kill an outraged elephant in order to define theatre, prove himself and his status as an imperial police officer. The short story can be divided into two parts. In the of Using Herbal, first two paragraphs the narrator introduces. British Empire , Burma , Empire 1074 Words | 3 Pages. ENG 101 JIMMY BELTRAN SEC E130 . 3/19/13 Narrative Descriptive-Essay #2 This is The Starry Sky Essay a story about the most important decision that I have ever taken in my entire life.

I received Jesus in my heart as my Lord and Savior. He is my Redeemer. I did not have a very fortunate upbringing even though my mother had some money to provide for my. Family , Father , God 1404 Words | 3 Pages. USING CARTOON MOVIE FOR DEVELOPING NINTH GRADERS WRITING SKILL OF NARRATIVE TEXT AT SMPN 1 DASUK A THESIS PROPOSAL . Submitted in of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree Of Sarjana Pendidikan in primates evolution English By . ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS SURABAYA STATES UNIVERSITY 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the The Benefits Essay, Study 1.2 Reasons for cabaran kaum di malaysia Choosing the Topic 1.3 Statements of the Problem The Objectives of the Study . English language , Film , Language 10120 Words | 33 Pages. 2013 Name: Shaquille bell Homeroom: 4 Information technology (b) Teacher: Ms Todman 1/9/2013 Narrative project Terms in . The Benefits Herbal? narrative writing Point of view: the perspective of the Essay Linda as an, narrative voice; the The Benefits Herbal Supplements Essay, pronoun used in narration Theme: the unifying subject or idea of a story Setting: , the place and time in a work of narrative Character: a person or animal in a narrative work of art (such as a novel , play , or film) Conflict: the opposition of persons or forces that gives rise. Doctor Who , Family , Fiction 1153 Words | 3 Pages.

The way in which a story is define theatre organized or complied adds to of Using, the ideas, themes, and character of the story. A frame narrative is a way in which a . story is amy tan summary told were a main story leads reader into Herbal Supplements Essay other stories within. Wolves By Michael? Essentially a frame narrative is a story within another story. As in The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay the story One Thousand and One Night the cabaran kaum di malaysia, frame narrative is used to tell many different stories within the main story. Although the stories in One Thousand and One Nights are separate from the main story the stories are. Geoffrey Chaucer , One Thousand and One Nights , Storytelling 1554 Words | 4 Pages. A Non-Narrative Explanation of the The Benefits of Using Herbal, Importance of Narrative. Professor Stephens LIT 4433 A Non- Narrative Explanation of the Importance of Narrative Everyone is primates familiar on some level . with the drab sort of The Benefits Supplements, dry-as-a-bone scientific literature students are forced to read and attempt to digest. But perhaps not as many have been exposed to any sort of scientific literature relayed in The Secret a narrative style, even though those who have probably retained that information more clearly than those who have only perused long-winded text books.

The fact of the matter is that. Burgess Shale , HeLa , Henrietta Lacks 2027 Words | 6 Pages. Short story: Definition and History. The Benefits Of Using And Natural Supplements Essay? A short story like any other term does not have only With by Michael one definition, it has many . definitions, but all of them are similar in of Using Supplements a general idea. According to cabaran perpaduan kaum, The World Book Encyclopedia (1994, Vol. 12, L-354), the short story is a short work of and Natural Supplements Essay, fiction that usually centers around a single incident. Because of its shorter length, the primates, characters and situations are fewer and The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements Essay, less complicated than those of a novel. In the Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary. Character , Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction 1817 Words | 5 Pages. Narrative Writing Lesson plans and other teaching resources Action Chains Students learn to elaborate on define theatre, an event in a . narrative by expanding their sentences into action chains.

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The insights of perpaduan kaum di malaysia, different literary elements. Fiction , Literature , Narrative 1023 Words | 3 Pages. Current Location 1. SPR12 ENG1113 34 ENGLISH COMP I (MSVCC) 213.20123.0005434 2. The Benefits? Learning Units 3. WEEK 3 4. The Writing Process and The . Literacy Narrative Menu Management Options * * * * * Expand All * Collapse All * Course Menu: SPR12 ENG1113 34 ENGLISH COMP I (MSVCC) (213.20123.0005434) * Announcements * Course Information * Staff Information * Learning Units * Due Dates * Test Center * Discussion Board . Essay , First-person narrative , Five paragraph essay 1603 Words | 7 Pages. Narrative Technique in Gulliver's Travels. NARRATIVE TECHNIQUE IN GULLIVERS TRAVELS Jonathon Swift's Gulliver's Travels is an define theatre, early representation of a novel, resonating both . political and social satire. Despite the obvious satirical elements in this text , Gulliver's unreliable narrative voice is a satire within itself. Mocking the travel narratives contemporary of The Benefits of Using Essay, his time, Swift utilizes the narration of Gulliver in order to criticize the naive and gullible English men and women who read travel narratives as factual documents despite. Drapier's Letters , Gulliver's Travels , Jonathan Swift 1154 Words | 3 Pages.

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Theme and Narrative Elements Thomas Nichols ENG125: Introduction to Literature (GSH1315G) Instructor: Kyla Hammond April 21, 2013 . Theme and Herbal and Natural Essay, Narrative Elements The short story described here is I used to Live Here Once. The theme described in the short story is two kinds amy tan summary lifes spiritual journey. Essay? Three of the literary elements present in the story include symbolism and mood. The major theme from this short story is about lifes spiritual journey. At the Beneath The Starry, beginning of the story, the. Fiction , Literature , Narrative 728 Words | 3 Pages. ? NOTE: For the of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements, text types mentioned, they run under all of the modules. Im sure you can decide that putting in a funny anecdote isnt the . smartest thing to two kinds amy tan summary, do if your creative is sad. The Benefits Herbal Supplements Essay? Area of Study Belonging (2009-2014): For creative, it has been a narrative but before Belonging they have asked for letters, memoir and speeches. Ideally it is better for you to Beneath The Starry Sky Essay, try and stick to a narrative structure.

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First-person narrative , Jean Brodie , Narrative 1401 Words | 4 Pages. Narrative Styles in Poe, Melville, Hawthorne. narrative styles in Melville's Bartleby, Poe's Arthur Gordon Pym, and Hawthorne's The House of Seven Gables. How all three authors utilize a . conversational tone for the function of their work. In works by three of the most classically American authors of the Essay Anabler of a by Arthur Miller, nineteenth century, Melville, Poe, and Hawthorne, a trait that can be considered common to all three authors is pronounced clearly as a means to their narration. Of Using Herbal Supplements Essay? This trait is that of deploying a narrative laden with- and moreover led. Dark romanticism , First-person narrative , Herman Melville 1184 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative New Literary Criticism A good novel is hard to The Secret Beneath Sky Essay, put down. The story in Supplements the novel is perfect with a great plot, convincing . characters, and a suspenseful build up to the climax. You have been drawn into the story and it is almost like you are there, living along side the primates, characters. Herbal And Natural Supplements Essay? You understand their background, their trials, and their joys.

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Analysis of define theatre, Frederick Douglass s Narrative. Crutchfield Frederick Douglasss autobiography, Narrative of the Life of The Benefits, Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, has received generally . positive reviser and reached the bestseller immediately once published. These achievements were definitely exceptional and extraordinary for a slave living nineteenth century America, where slaves were refrain from gaining literacy in Wolves by Michael everywhere of the nation. The Benefits Herbal? Therefore, the Beneath The Starry, following article is going to analysis the narrative from and Natural Essay, three perspectivesethical, logical and. Abraham Lincoln , Frederick Douglass , History of slavery 1016 Words | 4 Pages. Text 6: Glory Glory Be to Chocolate- Naught But Nic Contextual detail: Taken from the cabaran, authors book From the Devils Pulpit the . text was publish in 1997 and was written by the author John Agard. John Agard is a man who was born in Guyana. This is significant because Guyana is located on the Caribbean Coast of The Benefits and Natural Supplements, South America, a country where simple foods are seen as luxurious as they have one of the kaum di malaysia, poorest economies of South America.

Text 6 Genre Poem taken from a section of the book From the Devils. Audience , Caribbean , Food 1206 Words | 12 Pages. ? Favorite Brand Paper What would be a company that passionate almost every single person in the United States, including me. After a . short time of thinking, it came up to my mind. And the The Benefits Essay, answer was really easy, Apple!. Apple is amy tan one of the strongest companies in the world.

They have created many gadgets that have changed our lives like the iPod, iPhone, the Herbal Supplements Essay, Mac and of course the iPad. In this paper I will cover the following topics, I will give three reasons why am I passionate about. Apple Inc. , IPhone , IPhone OS 811 Words | 5 Pages. Although the cons do outweigh the pros the pros have been extremely helpful to the molding of our society. Now all affirmative action is doing is saying . reverse racism is okay. When in reality no racism is acceptable. Primates? After reading many articles and texts about affirmative action I believe the outcomes have been great however, the policy has worked and is no longer needed. The policy was made to help minorities get to The Benefits Supplements, the same place as whites and I believe it has done so. It isnt a phenomenon to see. Affirmative action , Black people , Discrimination 1530 Words | 3 Pages. Abstract This paper will look at the logic of narrative therapy by focusing on 5 major points.

This paper will begin by discussing how the . narrative approach defines and perceives problems. It will address how narrative therapy views the nature of the Essay With Wolves by Michael, relationship between the The Benefits of Using Supplements Essay, client and the professional. This paper will look at perpaduan kaum, how problems are solved using the narrative approach. It will also focus on Supplements, three main techniques used in narrative therapy, which will include externalization, deconstruction. Clinical psychology , Family therapy , Narrative 1579 Words | 5 Pages. examine the use of narrative in cabaran perpaduan kaum contemporary photography. Narrative photography suggests to us that the image, or images . presented to us may have a story to tell, a message to communicate or a philosophy to convey. That story could be familiar to us in of Using Herbal and Natural Essay some way, drawing on references to Sky Essay, art, cinema, theatre, or literature or may refer to personal values, shared beliefs, moral attitudes or have some significance within our perception of modern society and culture.

The unfamiliar narrative is that which. Art , Computer graphics , Duane Michals 2694 Words | 7 Pages. Theme and Narrative Elements of a Short Story. Theme and Narrative Elements of The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements, a Short Story Racheal Cearney ENG 125: Introduction to Literature William Smith . Two Kinds Amy Tan Summary? 6/17/2011 The short story I choose to write about is in chapter 7 Little Red Riding Hood The story revolves is based on of Using and Natural Supplements, a girl named Little Red Riding Hood, after her mom had made her a little red hooded or cape the cabaran kaum, village people had start calling her that. In the story little red mom had ask her to go over her grandma house to check up on her. Little Red walks.

Big Bad Wolf , Fairy tale , Fiction 624 Words | 2 Pages.

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deaf and dumb essay DEAF AND DUMB. 1 The term deaf is frequently applied to those who are deficient in hearing power in any degree, however slight, as well as to people who are unable to of Using Essay, detect the loudest sounds by means of the auditory organs. It is impossible to draw a hard and fast line between the With by Michael Blake, deaf and the hearing at any particular point. For the purposes of this article, however, that denotation which is The Benefits Essay, generally accepted by educators of the deaf may be given to the term. This makes it refer to those who are so far handicapped as to be incapable of instruction by the ordinary means of the The Secret Beneath Sky Essay, ear in a class of those possessing normal hearing. Paradoxical though it may seem, it is yet true to say that dumbness in our sense of the word does not, strictly speaking, exist, though the term dumb may, for all practical purposes, fairly be applied to The Benefits Supplements Essay, many of the deaf even after they are supposed to have learnt how to speak.

Oral teachers now confess that it is not worth while to try to teach more than a large percentage of the deaf to speak at all. We are not concerned with aphasia, stammering or such inability to articulate as may be due to malformation of the vocal organs. In the on Dances With, case of the deaf and dumb, as these words are generally understood, dumbness is merely the of Using Supplements Essay, result of ignorance in the use of the voice, this ignorance being due to the deafness. Timeline! The vocal organs are perfect. The deaf man can laugh, shout, and in fact utter any and of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay every sound that the normal person can. But he does not speak English (if that happens to be his nationality) for the same reason that a French child does not, which is that he has never heard it. There is in fact no more a priori reason why an English baby, born in primates evolution England, should talk English than that it should. talk any other language. English may be correctly described as its mother tongue, but not its natural language; the only reason why one person speaks English and another Russian is. that each imitated that particular language which he heard in infancy. This imitation depends upon the ability to The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements, hear. Hence if one has never heard, or has lost hearing in early childhood, he has never been able to imitate that language which his parents and others used, and the condition of so-called dumbness. is added to his deafness. From this it follows that if the sense of hearing be not lost till the child has learnt to speak fluently, the ability to speak is unaffected by the calamity of deafness, except that after many years the voice is likely to become high-pitched, or too guttural, or peculiar in some other respect, owing to the absence of the control usually exercised by define theatre the ear.

It also follows that, to a certain extent, the art of Herbal and Natural Essay, speech can be taught the deaf person even though he were born deaf. Theoretically, he is capable of talking just as well as his hearing brother, for the organs of speech are as perfect in one as in the other, except that they suffer from Essay Linda of a, lack of of Using Essay, exercise in the case of the deaf man. Practically, he can never speak perfectly, for even if he were made to attempt articulation as soon as he is discovered to be deaf, the fact that the ear, the natural guide of the voice, is useless, lays upon define theatre him a handicap which can never be wiped out. He: can never hear the tone of his teacher's voice nor of his own; he can only The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements, see small and, in many instances, scarcely discernible movements of the lips, tongue, nose, cheeks and throat in those who are endeavouring to teach him to speak, and he can never hope to succeed in speech through the Anabler of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, instrumentality of The Benefits Herbal and Natural Essay, such. unsatisfactory appeals to his eye as perfectly as the evolution, hearing child can with the ideal adaptation of the voice to the ear. Sound appeals to the ear, not the eye, and those who have to rely upon. the latter to imitate speech must suffer by comparison. Deafness then, in our sense, means the incapacity to Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, be instructed by define theatre means of the ear in the normal way, and dumbness means only that ignorance of how to speak one's mother tongue which is the effect of the Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, deafness. Of such deaf people many can hear sound to some extent.. Dr Kerr Love quotes several authorities ( Deaf Mutism, pp. Define Theatre! 58 ff.) to show that 50 or 60% are absolutely deaf, while 25% can. Of Using Herbal Essay! detect loud sounds such as shouting close to the ear, and the rest. can distinguish vowels or even words. He himself thinks that not more than 15 or 20% are totally deaf - sometimes only 7 or 8%; that ability to hear speech exists in about one in four, while ten or fifteen in each hundred are only semi-deaf.

He rightly warns against the use of tuning forks or other instruments held on the bones of the on Dances With by Michael, head as tests of Herbal, hearing, because the Linda as an in Death of a by Arthur, vibration which is of Using Herbal, felt, not heard, may very often be mistaken for sound. Dr Edward M. Define Theatre! Gallaudet, the president of the College for the Deaf in Washington, D.C., U.S.A., suggests the following terms for use in dividing the whole class of the deaf into its main sections, though it is obviously impossible to The Benefits of Using Herbal, split them up into perfectly defined subdivisions, where, as a matter of fact, you have each degree of The Secret Beneath, deafness and dumbness shading into the next: the speaking deaf, the The Benefits of Using, semi-speaking deaf, the mute deaf (or deaf-mute ), the speaking semi-deaf, the The Secret The Starry, mute semi-deaf, the hearing mute and the hearing semi-mute. He points out that the of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, last two classes are usually persons of feeble mental power. We should exclude these altogether from the list, since their hearing is, presumably, perfect, and should add the semi-speaking semi-deaf before the mute semi-deaf. This would give two main divisions - those wha cannot hear at all, and those who have partial hearing - with three subsections in each main division - those who speak, those who have partial speech and those who do not speak at Essay Linda as an, all.

Where the hearing is perfect it is paradoxical to class a person with the deaf, and the dumbness in such a case is The Benefits of Using Essay, due (where there is no malformation of the vocal organs) to inability of the mind to pay attention to, and The Secret Beneath The Starry Sky Essay imitate, what the ear really hears. In such cases this mental weakness is generally shown in other ways besides that of not hearing sounds. Probably no sign will. be given of The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements, recognizing persons or objects around; there will be, in fact, a general incapacity of the whole body and senses. It is incorrect to designate such persons as deaf and feeble-minded or deaf and two kinds idiotic, because in many cases their organs of The Benefits Herbal, hearing are as perfect as are other organs of their body, and they are no more deaf than blind, though they may pay no attention to what they hear any more than to what they see. They are simply weak in intellect, and this is shown by the disuse of any and all of their senses; hence it is incorrect to classify them according to timeline, one, and The Benefits of Using one only, of the evidences of this mental weakness. NUMBER OF DEAF AND DUMB PERSONS. PROPORTION OF DEAF AND DUMB TO THE POPULATION. The following table shows the number of deaf and dumb persons in the United Kingdom at successive censuses: - From this we find that the proportion of deaf and dumb to the population has been as follows: - There has, therefore, been on evolution, the whole a steady decrease of those described as deaf and dumb in proportion to the population in Great Britain and Ireland. But in the census for 1901, in addition to the 15,246 returned as deaf and dumb in England and of Using Wales, 18,507 were entered as being deaf, 2433 of whom were described as having been deaf from Essay Anabler in Death of a Miller, childhood. Mr B. H. Payne, the principal of the Royal Cambrian Institution, Swansea, makes the following remarks upon these figures: - The natural conclusion, of course. is that there has been a large increase, relative as well as absolute, of the class in which we are interested, which we call the and Natural Supplements Essay, deaf, and which includes the deaf and dumb.

Indeed, the number, large as it is, cannot be considered as complete, for the schedules did not require persons who were only deaf to state their infirmity, and, though many did so, it may be presumed that more did not. On the other hand, circumstances exist which may reasonably be held to modify the cabaran di malaysia, conclusion that there has been a large relative increase of the deaf. The spread of education, the development of local government, and an improved system of registration, may have had the Herbal and Natural Supplements, effect of procuring fuller enumeration and Miller more appropriate classification than heretofore, while 1368 persons described simply as dumb, and who therefore probably belong, not to the deaf, but to the feeble-minded and aphasic classes, are included in the ' deaf and dumb ' total. It is also to be noted that some of those who described themselves as ' deaf ' though not born so may have been educated in the ordinary way before they lost their hearing, and The Benefits of Using and Natural are therefore outside the sphere of the operation of schools for the deaf. In connexion with the census of 1891, it has been remarked in the report of the institution that no provision was made in the schedules for distinguishing the congenital from the Essay by Michael, non-congenital deaf, and that it was desirable to draw such a distinction. To ascertain the relative increase or decrease of one or the other section of the class would contribute to our knowledge of the incidence of known causes of deafness or to the confirmation or discovery of other causes, and so far indicate the appropriate measures of of Using Herbal and Natural, prevention, while such an inquiry as that recommended has, besides, a certain bearing upon educational views. The exact number of ' deaf and on Dances Wolves by Michael Blake dumb ' and Herbal and Natural Supplements ' deaf ' children who are of school age cannot be ascertained from the Essay Wolves Blake, census tables, which give the numbers in quinquennial age-groups, while the The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements Essay, school age is seven to sixteen. It is a pity that in this respect the define theatre, functions of the census department are not co-ordinated with those of the Board of The Benefits of Using, Education. The Secret! Dr John Hitz,the superintendent of theVoltaBureau for theIncrease of Knowledge Relating to the Deaf, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., gives the number of schools for deaf children, and pupils, in different countries in The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay 1900 as follows: - Africa.

These figures refer only to deaf children who are actually under instruction, not to the whole deaf population. While it is Linda as an Salesman by Arthur, gratifying to find that so much is The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements, being done in the way of educating this class of the community, the number of schools in most parts of the world is still lamentably inadequate. For instance, taking the school age as from seven to sixteen, which is timeline, now made compulsory by Act of Parliament in Great Britain, and assuming that 20% of the deaf population are of that age, as they are in England, there should be 40,000 deaf pupils under instruction in India alone, whereas there are but seventy-three. There are 200,000 deaf of all ages in of Using and Natural Supplements Essay India. And what an amy tan summary, enormous total should be in schools in China instead of forty-three ! The whole of the The Benefits of Using Supplements Essay, rest of Asia, with the exception of Japan, has apparently not a single school. There must be many thousands of thousands of deaf (hundreds of thousands, if not thousands of Essay as an Anabler in Death Salesman, thousands of whom are of school age) in that continent, unless indeed they are destroyed, which is not impossible. What are we to The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, say of Africa, where only Too pupils are being taught; of South America, with its paltry 200, and Australia's 300 ? To come to two kinds amy tan summary, Europe itself, Russia should have many times more pupils than her 1700. Even in Great Britain the education of the deaf was not made compulsory till 1893, and there are many still evading the law and growing up uneducated. Mr Payne of Swansea estimated ( Institution Report, 1903-1904) from the 1901 census, that there must be approximately 204 deaf of school age in South Wales and Monmouthshire, while only and Natural Supplements Essay, 144 were accounted for in all the schools in that district according to With Wolves Blake, Dr Hitz's statistics. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 217) gives the following table, which shows the of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, number of deaf people in define theatre proportion to the population in the countries named: Switzerland . Austria Hungary Sweden Prussia Finland Canada Norway Germany (exclusive of Prussia) Portugal . India..

United States Denmark. Greece France Italy Scotland. Cape Colony England Spain Belgium. Australasia. The Benefits Of Using Herbal And Natural Supplements! Holland Ceylon . According to a tabular statement of British and Colonial schools, June 1899, the proportion of those born deaf to those who lost hearing after birth was, at that time and in those countries, 2126 to 1251, as far as returns had been made. Several schools had, however, failed to give statistics.

These figures show a proportion of nearly 59% congenitally deaf persons to over 41% whose deafness is acquired. Professor Fay, whose monumental work, Marriages of the The Secret Sky Essay, Deaf in America, deserves particular attention, mentions (p. 38) that of 23,931 persons who attended American schools for the deaf up to the year 1890, 9842, or 41%, were reported as congenitally deaf, and 14,089, or 59%, as adventitiously deaf, - figures which exactly reverse those just quoted. The classification of deafness acquired in infancy with congenital deafness by some other authorities (giving rise to the rather absurd term toto-congenital to describe the latter) is unscientific. There is of Using Herbal Essay, reason for Wolves by Michael the opinion that the noncongenital, even when hearing has been lost in early infancy, acquire language better, and it is a mistake from The Benefits of Using and Natural, any point of view to two kinds, include them in the born deaf. 1 The figures for England, Scotland and Ireland, according to the 1901 census, are different and have been given above. Other statistics vary very much as to the proportion of born deaf, some being as low as a quarter, and some as high as three-quarters, of the whole class. We can only say, speaking of both sides of the Atlantic, and of Using Essay counterbalancing one period with another, that the general average appears to be about 50% for each. Probably the cabaran perpaduan kaum, percentage varies in different places for definite reasons, which we shall now briefly consider. These may be considered in two divisions, pre-natal and post-natal.

1. Pre-Natal. - A small percentage of these is The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, due, it seems, to malformation of some portion of the auditory apparatus. Another percentage is known to Sky Essay, represent the children of the intermarriage of blood relations. And Natural Supplements! Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. Beneath The Starry Sky Essay! 117) gives statistics from thirteen British institutions which show that on a general average at least 8% of the congenitally deaf are the offspring of such marriages. The Benefits Herbal And Natural! Besides this, little is known. Beyond all doubt a much larger percentage of cabaran, deaf children are the offspring of The Benefits Herbal and Natural, marriages in which one or both partners were born deaf than of ordinary marriages. But inquiries into such phenomena have generally been directed towards tracing deafness and Essay Linda as an Anabler in Death Salesman not consanguinity, or at The Benefits, least the inquirer has rarely troubled to make sure whether the grandparents or great-grandparents on either side were relations or not. Such investigations rarely go beyond ascertaining if the parents were related to each other, though we have proof that a certain tendency towards any particular abnormality may not exhibit itself in every generation of the family in question.

To give an illustration, suppose that G is a deaf man. Several inquirers may trace back to With Wolves by Michael Blake, the preceding generation F, and to the grandparents E, and even to Herbal Supplements Essay, the great-grandparents D, in search of an ancestor who is deaf, and such they may discover in the third generation D. But probably not one of these several inquirers will ask G if any of his grandparents or greatgrandparents married a cousin, for define theatre instance, though they may ask if his father did. To continue this hypothetical case, the of Using Supplements Essay, investigators will again trace back along the family tree to generations C, B and A in search of an original deaf ancestor, on whose shoulders they seek to evolution, lay the blame of both D's and G's deafness. Not finding any such, they will again content themselves with asking if D's parents (generation C) were blood relations or not, and, receiving an answer in the negative, desist from The Benefits Supplements Essay, further inquiry in this direction, assuming that D's deafness is the original cause of G's deafness. They do not, we fear, inquire if any grandparents or great-grandparents (hearing people) were related, with the same persistency as they ask if any were deaf. The search for deafness is pushed through several generations, the search for consanguinity is only extended to one generation.

Perhaps if it were carried further, it would be discovered that A married his niece, and there lay the secret of the deafness in both D and G. The Secret Beneath The Starry Sky Essay! In other words, the deafness in D is not the cause of that in G, but the deafness in both D and G are effects of the consanguineous marriage in A. All this is, however, merely by way of Essay, suggestion. We submit that if deafness in one generation may be followed by deafness two or even three generations later, while the tendency to primates, deafness exists, but does not appear, in the intermediate generations, it is only logical to inquire if deafness in the first discoverable instance in a family may not be caused by consanguinity, the of Using Herbal Supplements, effect of which is not seen for two or three generations in a similar manner. Moreover it is probable that consanguinity in parents or grandparents may often be denied. An exhaustive investigation along these lines is desirable, for we believe that congenital deafness would be proved to di malaysia, be due to consanguinity in The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements hearing people, if the search were pushed far enough back and the truth were told, in a far greater percentage of Linda as an in Death, cases than is now suspected. This is not disproved by quoting numbers of cases where no deafness follows consanguinity in The Benefits of Using Herbal Essay any generation, for resulting weakness may be shown (where it exists) in many other ways than by deafness. This theory receives support from the statistics quoted by Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 132), where the percentage of cabaran, defective children resulting from the The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural, consanguineous marriages of hearing people increases in almost exact proportion to the nearness of affinity of the parents.

It is further borne out by in 408 765 792 977 981 981 1003 1052 107 4 1333 ?3981 1459 1514 1 538154 8 1600 1862 18851 1904 20431 2178 22 47 2692 2985 4328 statistics of the duchy of Nassau, and of Berlin, both quoted by Dr Kerr Love (pp. 119, 120). These show r deaf person in 1397 Roman Catholics, 1101 Evangelicals and 508 Jews in the former case, and r in 3000 Roman Catholics, 2000 Protestants and 400 Jews in the latter. When we are told that Roman Catholics prohibit marriages between persons who are near blood relations, Protestants view such marriages as permissible, and Jews encourage intermarriage with blood relations, these figures become suggestive. We find the same greater tendency to deafness in on Dances Wolves Blake thinly-populated and out-of-the-way districts and countries where, owing to and Natural Essay, the circle of acquaintances being limited, people are more likely to marry relations. MARRIAGES OF THE. One or both partners. Both partners deaf . One partner deaf, the. One or both partners.

One or both partners. Both partners con- One partner congenit- ally deaf, the other. Both partners adven- One partner congenit- ally deaf, the other. One partner adven- titiously deaf, the. Both partners had.

One partner had deaf. ,relatives, the other. Neither partner had. Both partners con- genitally deaf; both. had deaf relatives. Both partners con- genitally deaf; one. had deaf relatives, the other had not . Both partners congen- itally deaf; neither. had deaf relatives. Both partners ad- both had deaf re-

Both partners adven- titiously deaf; one. had deaf relatives, the other had not . Both partners ad- neither had deaf. With regard to the question of marriages of the primates timeline, deaf, Professor Edward Allen Fay's work is so complete that the results of his six years' labour are particularly worthy of notice, for, as the introduction states, the book is a ' ` collection of records of marriages of the deaf far larger than all previous collections put together, and it deals in detail with 4471 such marriages. The summary of statistics is as follows ( Marriages of the Deaf in America, p. 134): One point deserves special attention in the above list. The Benefits And Natural Supplements! It is that where there are no deaf relatives (i.e. where there has not been a history of deafness in The Secret The Starry the family) only one child out of twenty-four is deaf, even when the parents were both born deaf themselves. Where there were deaf relatives already in The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements the family on both sides, and define theatre the parents were born deaf, the percentage of deaf children is seven and of Using Herbal Supplements a half times as great. This seems to show that there are causes of congenital deafness which are, comparatively speaking, unlikely to be transmitted to future generations, while other causes of congenital deafness are so liable to be perpetuated that one child in every three is deaf. We conjecture that one original cause of congenital deafness which reappears in a family is consanguinity-for instance, the intermarriage of first or second cousins (hearing people) in some previous generation. Out of the 2245 deaf persons who were born deaf, 269 had parents who were blood relations, according to Fay.

And perhaps many more refrained from acknowledging the fact. Eleven had grandparents who were cousins. Define Theatre! This theory calls for investigation, and while the marriage of The Benefits of Using Herbal, deaf people is not encouraged, it is fair to ask those who so strenuously oppose such unions whether they may not be spending their energies on trying to timeline, check an effect instead of a cause, and if that cause may not really be consanguinity,-witness the percentage of deaf people among Roman Catholics, Protestants and Jews before noticed. On the principle that prevention is better than cure it is the intermarriage of of Using Herbal, cousins and other relations which should be discouraged. Evolution! The marriage of Herbal Supplements, deaf people is inadvisable where there has been deafness in the family in former generations, but the same warning applies to all the other members of that family, for the hearing members are as likely to transmit the defect of which deafness is a symptom as the The Secret Beneath Sky Essay, deaf members are. We are more concerned to discover the primary cause of the defect, and take steps to prevent the The Benefits and Natural Essay, latter from Linda of a, occurring at all. Those who have no dissuasions for hearing people, who might perhaps cause the misery, and only give counsel to those among the transmitters of it who happen to be deaf, are acting in a manner which is hardly logical. 2. Post - Natal. - We have collected and grouped the stated causes of deafness in those partners of the Herbal and Natural Supplements, marriages in America noticed by Fay. About a hundred and thirty did not mention how they lost hearing. Any errors in this calculation must be less than 1% at most, and can make no material difference.

In some cases two or more diseases are given as the cause of deafness. In such cases where one is a very common cause of deafness, and the other is unusual, the di malaysia, former is credited with being the reason for the defect. Where both are common, we have divided the cases between them in a rough proportion. Scarlet fever 973; scarlatina 3; scarlet rash 2.978 Spotted fever 260; meningitis 92; spinal meningitis 76; cerebro-spinal meningitis 70; spinal fever 28; spinal disease 8; congestion of spine 2.536 Brain fever 309; inflammation of brain 62; congestion of brain 30; disease in The Benefits and Natural brain 3 404 Typhoid 127; fever (unspecifi ed) 117; typhus 17; inter mittent fever 14; bilious fever II; other fevers 14.300 Gatherings, inflammations, in head; ulcers, disease, sores, risings, c., all but 22 being explicitly stated to be in head or ears. 276 Sickness 167; illness 49; disease 8; no definite specification 12.236 Measles.. .. .. .. 191 Colds 101; colds in head, c. 35; catarrh 19; catarrhal fevers 1 o; chills, c. 17. .. 182 Whooping cough 77; diphtheria 34; lung fever, and various diseases of lungs and throat 60.171 Falls.. .. Essay Wolves By Michael Blake! .. 143 Fits and Herbal Supplements convulsions 58; spasms 18; teething 16.92 Scrofula 35; mumps 25; swellings on neck 2 62 Many various and primates evolution unusual causes.. Of Using Herbal Essay! 60 Smallpox 8; chickenpox 6; cholera, c. 7; canker, c. i i; erysipelas 13. The Secret Sky Essay! .. .. Of Using Herbal! 45 Paralysis, c. '1 2; nerve diseases 12; fright 8; palsy 3 35 Hydrocephalus 14; dropsy on brain or in head 17; dropsy 2 33 Various accidents, blows, kicks, c.. 31 Quinine 22; other medicines 7.. 29 Total 3804 We have counted a hundred and thirty of those who were returned as having lost hearing who were also stated to be the offspring of consanguineous marriages. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 150) gives the following list compiled from the registers of British institutions: - Scarlet fever . Miscellaneous causes.

Teething, convulsions, c. . Meningitis, brain fever, c. Falls and The Secret Beneath The Starry accidents. Enteric and Herbal other fevers Disease, illness, c.. Whooping cough. Suppurative ear diseases Syphilis 1312 Unknown causes..

98 The same writer quotes Hartmann's table, compiled in 1880 from continental statistics, as follows: - Cerebral affections, inflammations, convulsions 644 Cerebro-spinal meningitis - 295 Typhus. 260 Scarlatina 205 Measles . Ear disease, proper 77 Lesions of the head 70 Other diseases. 354 1989 There appears to be no cure for deafness that is other than partial; but with the advance of science preventive treatment is summary, expected to be efficacious in scarlet fever, measles, c. Condition of the of Using and Natural, Deaf. 1. In Childhood. - It is on Dances With Wolves Blake, difficult to impress people with two facts in connexion with teaching language to The Benefits and Natural Essay, the average child who was born deaf, or lost hearing in early infancy. One is the The Secret The Starry, necessity of the undertaking, and the other is that this necessity is not due to The Benefits of Using and Natural Essay, mental deficiency in the pupil. To the born deaf-mute in an English-speaking country English is a foreign language. His inability to speak is due to his never having heard that tongue which his mother uses. The same reason holds good for his entire ignorance of that language. The hearing child does not know a word of English when he is born, and Essay Linda of a Salesman by Arthur Miller never would learn it if taken away from where it is spoken. He learns English unconsciously by The Benefits Herbal imitating what he hears.

The deaf child never hears English, and so he never learns it till he goes to define theatre, school. Here he has to start learning English - or whatever is the language of his native land - in the same way as a hearing boy learns a foreign language. But another reason exists which renders his task much more difficult than that of a normal English schoolboy learning, say, German. The latter has two channels of information, the eye and the ear; the deaf boy has only one, the eye. The hearing boy learns German by what he hears of it in class as well as by The Benefits Herbal Supplements reading it; the deaf boy can only learn by evolution what he sees. It is as if you tried to The Benefits and Natural, fill two cisterns of the same capacity with two inlets to one and only one inlet to the other; supposing the inlets to be the same size, the former will fill twice as fast. So it is in the case of the perpaduan kaum, hearing boy as compared with his deaf brother. The cerebral capacity and quality are the same, but in one case one of the avenues to the brain is The Benefits Supplements, closed, and kaum di malaysia consequently the development is less rapid.

Moreover, the thoughts are precisely those which would be expected in people who form them only from Herbal and Natural Essay, what they see. We were often asked by our deaf playmates in our childhood such questions (in signs) as What does the cat say? - The dog talks, does he not ? - Is the rainbow very hot on define theatre, the roof of that house? They have often told us such things as that they used to think someone went to The Benefits of Using Herbal Essay, the end of the earth and climbed up the sky to light the stars, and to pour down rain through a sieve. But there is yet a third disadvantage for the already handicapped deaf boy. He has no other language to cabaran perpaduan kaum di malaysia, build upon, while the of Using Herbal and Natural, other has his mother tongue with which to compare the foreign language he is learning. The latter already has a general idea of sentences and clauses, of tense and mood, of gender, number and The Secret Beneath Sky Essay case, of substantives, verbs and prepositions; and he knows that one language must form some sort of parallel to another. He is of Using Herbal Supplements, already prepared to Linda as an Anabler of a, find a subject, predicate and object, in The Benefits Supplements Essay the sentence of a foreign language, even when he knows not a word of Linda as an in Death of a Salesman by Arthur, any but his own mother tongue. If he is told that a certain word in German is an adjective, he understands what its function is, even when he has yet to learn the meaning of the word.

All this goes for nothing in the case of the deaf pupil. The Benefits Of Using And Natural Supplements Essay! The very elementary fact that certain words denote certain objects - that there is such a class of word as substantives - comes as a revelation to most deaf children. They have to begin at define theatre, seven laboriously and artificially to learn what an ordinary baby has unconsciously and naturally discovered at the age of two. English, spoken, written, printed or finger-spelled, is no more natural, comprehensible or easy of acquirement to the deaf than is Chinese. The manual alphabet is simply one way of expressing the vernacular on the fingers; it is no more the deafmute's natural language than speech or writing, and if he cannot express himself by the latter nodes of communicating, he cannot by The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements spelling on the fingers. The last is simply a case of vicaria linguae manus. None of these are languages in themselves; whether you use pen or type, hand or voice, you are but adopting one or other method of expressing one and the same tongue - English or whatever it may be, that of a people of a strange speech and of a hard language, whose words they cannot understand. Evolution! The deaf child's natural mode of communication - more natural to him than any verbal language is to hearing people - is the world-wide, natural language of signs. We have just called signs a natural language. While a purist might properly object to this adjective being applied to all signs, yet it is not an unfair term to use as regards this method of conversing as a whole, even in the United States, where signs, being to a great extent the French signs invented by de 1'Epee, are more artificial than in England.

The old story, by the way, of the The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements, pupil of de l'Epee failing to write more than hand, breast, as describing what an incredulous investigator did when he laid his hand on his breast, proves nothing. In all probability he had no idea that he was expected to describe an action, and thought that he was being asked the names of certain parts of the body. Beneath Sky Essay! The hand was held out to him and he wrote hand. Then the The Benefits, breast was indicated by placing the hand on it, and he wrote breast. Moreover, the With Wolves by Michael, artificial element is much less pronounced than is supposed by most of those who are loudest in their condemnation of signs, there being almost invariably an obvious connexion between the sign and idea. Of Using And Natural Supplements Essay! These critics are generally people whose acquaintance with the Essay Linda in Death Salesman, subject is rather limited, and the thermometer of whose zeal in waging war against The Benefits and Natural Supplements gestures generally falls in proportion as the photometer of their knowledge about them shows an define theatre, increasing light. We may go still further and point out that to The Benefits of Using Herbal Essay, object to any sign on the ground of artificiality per se, is to strain at the gnat and to swallow the camel, for English itself is one of the most artificial languages in cabaran di malaysia existence, and The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements Essay certainly is more open to Anabler in Death of a Salesman, such an objection than signs.

If we apply the same test to The Benefits Herbal, English that is applied to perpaduan kaum di malaysia, signs by The Benefits of Using those who would rule out any which they suppose cannot come under the head of natural gesture or pantomime, what fraction of our so-called natural language should we have left? For a spoken word to be natural in this sense it must be onomatopoetic, and what infinitesimal percentage of English words are such ? A foreigner, unacquainted with the language, could not glean the drift of a conversation in English, except perhaps a trifle from the tone of the voices and With Wolves Blake more from the natural signs used - the smiles and frowns, the The Benefits of Using Herbal Essay, expressions of the faces, the play of eyes, lips, hands and primates whole body. The only words he could possibly understand without such aids are some such onomatopoetic words as the cries of animals - mew, chirrup, c., and a few more like bang or swish. The reason why we insist emphatically upon and Natural Essay the importance of teaching English in schools for the deaf in English-speaking countries, is, firstly, because that is the language which the pupil will be called upon to summary, use in his intercourse with his fellow-men 331 175 171 166 138 122 119 37 33 2 after he leaves school, and secondly, because, if his grasp of that tongue only be sufficient and his interest in books be properly aroused, he can go on educating himself in The Benefits of Using and Natural after-life by means of reading. Amy Tan Summary! Time tables are overcrowded with kindergarten, clay modelling, wood-carving, carpentry, and other things which are excellent in themselves. But there is not time for everything, and these are not as important in the case of the deaf pupil as language. Putting aside the question of religion and moral training, we consider the of Using and Natural Supplements Essay, flooding of their minds with general knowledge, and the teaching of English to enable them to express their thoughts to their neighbours, to be of paramount importance, so paramount that all other branches of education in their turn pale into insignificance by comparison with these, while the define theatre, question of methods of instruction should be subservient to these main ends. Too many make speech in itself an end. The Benefits Herbal Supplements Essay! This is define theatre, a mistake. Herbal Supplements! Speech is not in itself English; it is only one way of cabaran kaum di malaysia, expressing that language. Herbal Essay! And we are little concerned to inquire by what means the Essay Linda as an of a by Arthur Miller, deaf pupil expresses himself in English so long ' 1234 5678 9 ' Observations. - People speak of ` manual signs.' Of course there are signs which are made with the hands only, as there are others which are labial, c. But the sign language is comprehensive, and at times the whole frame is engaged in its use.

A late American teacher could and did ` sign ' a story to of Using and Natural Supplements, his pupils with his hands behind him. Facial expression plays an important part in the language. Sympathetic gestures are individualistic and spontaneous, and are sometimes unconsciously made. The speaker, feeling that words are inadequate, reinforces them with gesture. Arbitrary signs are, e.g., drumming with three separated fingers on the chin for ` uncle.' Grammatical signs are those which are used for inflections, parts of Essay With by Michael Blake, speech, or letters as in the manual alphabet, and The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements Essay some numerical signs, though other numerals may be classed as natural; also signs for sounds, and even labial signs. Amy Tan! Signs, whether natural or arbitrary, which gain acceptance, especially if they are shortened, are ` conventional.' ` Mimic action ' refers, e.g., to The Benefits and Natural Supplements, the sign for cabaran kaum di malaysia sawing, the side of one hand being passed to and fro over the side or back of the other. ' Pantomime ' means, e.g., when the and Natural Supplements Essay, signer pretends to two kinds, hang up his hat and coat, roll up his sleeves, kneel on his board, guide the saw with his thumb, saw through, wipe his forehead, c. Illustrations of one style of numerical signs are given below. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 FIG.

I. as he does so express himself, whether by speech or writing or finger-spelling--for if he can finger-spell he can write. It is not the mere fact that he can make certain sounds or write certain letters or form the alphabet on his hands that should signify. It is the The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural, actual language that he uses, whatever be the means, and the thoughts that are enshrined in Essay on Dances Blake the language, that should be our criterion when judging of his education. The importance of The Benefits of Using and Natural Essay, English is insisted upon because to place the deaf child in touch with his English-speaking fellow-men we must teach him their language, and also because he can thereby educate himself by means of books if, and timeline when, he has a sufficient command of The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, that language. Two Kinds! The reason is not because the vernacular is actually superior to signs as a means of conversation. The sign language is quite equal to the vernacular as a means of expression. The former is as much our mother tongue, if we may say so, as the The Benefits and Natural, latter; we used one language as soon as the other, in our earliest infancy; and, after a lifelong experience of both, we affirm that signs are a more beautiful language than English, and provide possibilities of a wealth of expression which English does not possess, and Essay Linda as an Anabler in Death by Arthur which probably no other language possesses. That others whose knowledge of The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Essay, signs is lifelong hold similar opinions is shown by the following extract from The Deaf and their Possibilities, by Dr Gallaudet: Thinking that the question may arise in the minds of some, ` Does the The Starry Sky Essay, sign language give the deaf, when used in public addresses, all that speech affords to the hearing? ' I will say that my experience and observation lead me to answer with a decided affirmative. The Benefits Herbal And Natural Supplements Essay! On occasions almost without number it has been my privilege to Essay, interpret, through signs to the deaf, addresses given in of Using Herbal Supplements speech; I have addressed hundreds of assemblages of deaf persons in the college, in schools I have visited, and elsewhere, using signs for the original expression of thought; I have seen many more lectures and public debates given originally in signs; I have seen conventions of deaf-mutes in which no word was spoken, and yet all the forms of parliamentary proceedings were observed, and the most earnest, and even excited, discussions were carried on.

I have seen the ordinances of religion administered, and the full service of the Church rendered in signs; and all this with the assurance growing out of my complete understanding of the language - a knowledge which dates from my earliest childhood - that for all the purposes enumerated gestural expression is in no respect inferior, and is in many respects superior, to oral, verbal utterance as a means of communicating ideas. The following is an analysis of the sign language given by Mr Payne of the Swansea Institution, together with his explanatory notes: - Analysis of the Sign Language. Primates Evolution! I. Facial expression. I. Sympathetic II. Gesture 2. Representative (= Natural signs) 3. Systematic (a) Arbitrary signs ( b ) Grammatical signs III. Mimic action. Units are signified with the and Natural Supplements, palm turned inwards; tens with the palm turned outwards; hundreds with the fingers downwards; thousands with the left hand to the right shoulder; millions with the hand near the forehead. For 12, sign to Beneath, outwards and 2 inwards, and so on up to 19.21 = 2 outwards, I inwards, and so on up to The Benefits of Using and Natural, 30.146 = I downwards, 4 outwards, 6 inwards. Perpaduan Di Malaysia! 207,837 = 2 downwards, 7 inwards (both at shoulder), 8 downwards, 3 outwards, 7 inwards. The Benefits Of Using Supplements! 599,126,345= 5 downwards, 9 outwards, 9 inwards (all near forehead); z downwards, 2 outwards, 6 inwards (all at shoulder); 3 downwards, 4 outwards, 5 inwards (in front of chest).

Only the third, and a few of the second, subdivision of the second section of the two kinds amy tan, above classes of signs can be excluded when talking of signs as being the deaf-mute's natural language. In fact we hesitate to call representative gesture - e.g. the horns and action of milking for cow, the smelling at something grasped in the hand for flower, c. The Benefits Of Using Essay! - conventional at all, except when shortened as the two kinds summary, usual' sign for cat is, for instance, from the sign for whiskers plus stroking the The Benefits of Using Supplements, fur on back and tail plus the action of a cat licking its paw and washing its face, to the sign for whiskers only. The deaf child expresses himself in the sign language of his own accord. The supposition that in manual or combined schools generally they teach them signs is incorrect, except that perhaps occasionally a few pupils may be drilled and their signs polished for a dramatic rendering of a poem at a prize distribution or public meeting, which is no more teaching them signs than training hearing children to recite the same poem orally and Beneath The Starry polishing their rendering of it is teaching them English. If the deaf boy meets with some one who will use gesture to him, a new sign will be invented as occasion requires by one or other to express a new idea, and if it be a good one is tacitly adopted to express that idea, and so an entire language is built up.

It follows that in different localities signs will differ to a great extent, but one who is accustomed to signing can readily see the connexion and understand what is meant even when the signs are partly novel to him. We are sometimes asked if we can make a deaf child understand abstract ideas by this language. Our answer is that we can, if a hearing child of Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, no greater age and intelligence can understand the same ideas in English. Signs are particularly the best means of conveying religious truths to the deaf. If you wish to appeal to him, to impress him, to reach his heart and his sympathies (and, incidentally, to offer the best possible substitute for music), use his own eloquent language of signs. We have conversed by signs with deaf people from all parts of the British Isles, from France, Norway and Sweden, Poland, Finland, Italy, Russia, Turkey, the United States, and found that they are indeed a world-wide means of communication, Conventional especially in shortened form. even when we wandered on to most unusual and abstract subjects. Deaf people in two kinds amy tan summary America converse with Red Indians with ease thereby, which shows how natural the generality of even de l'Epee signs are. The sign language is everybody's natural language, not only the deaf-mute's. Addison ( Deaf Mutism, p. The Benefits Of Using And Natural Supplements! 283) quotes John Bulwer as follows:- What though you (the deaf and dumb) cannot express your minds in those verbal contrivances of man's invention: yet you want not speech who have your whole body for a tongue, having a language which is more natural and Essay Anabler in Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller significant, which is common to The Benefits and Natural Supplements Essay, you with us, to wit, gesture, the general and universal language of human nature.

The same writer says further on (p. 297): The same process of With Blake, growth goes on alike with the signs of the deaf and dumb as with the spoken words of the hearing. Arnold, than whom no stronger advocate of the oral methoa exists, recognizes this in The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements Essay his comment on this principle of the German school, for he writes: 'It is much to define theatre, be regretted that teachers should indulge in unqualified assertions of the of Using and Natural Essay, impossibility of deaf-mutes attaining to clear conceptions and abstract thinking by signs or mimic gestures. Linda Salesman By Arthur Miller! Facts are against The Benefits and Natural Supplements Essay them.' Again, Graham Bell, who is generally considered an opponent of the sign system, says: ' I think that if we have the mental condition of the child alone in view without reference to language, no language will reach the mind like the language of signs; it is the method of reaching the mind of the deaf child.' The opinions of the deaf themselves, from all parts of the world, are practically unanimous on this question. In the define theatre, words of Dr Smith, president of the World's Congress of the The Benefits, Deaf held at St Louis, Missouri, in 1904, under the auspices of the National Association of the define theatre, Deaf, U.S.A., the educated deaf have a right to be heard in these matters, and they must and shall be heard. A portion may be quoted of the resolutions passed at that congress of 570 of the best-informed deaf the of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements, world has ever seen, at least scores, if not hundreds, of them holding degrees, and being as well educated as the vast majority of Sky Essay, teachers of the deaf in England: Resolved, that the oral method, which withholds from the congenitally and quasicongenitally deaf the use of the language of signs outside the schoolroom, robs the The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural, children of their birthright; that those champions of the oral method, who have been carrying on a warfare, both overt and covert, against Linda in Death Salesman Miller the use of the language of signs by the adult deaf, are not friends of the deaf; and that, in our opinion, it is the duty of every teacher of the deaf, no matter what method he or she uses, to have a working command of the sign language. It is often urged as an objection to the use of signs that those who use them think in them, and The Benefits Supplements that their English (or other vernacular language) suffers in consequence. There is, however, no more objection to thinking in signs than to thinking in any other language, and as to the second objection, facts are against such a statement.

The best-educated deaf in Linda Salesman by Arthur the world, as a class, are in The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements America, and the American deaf sign almost to a man. It is two kinds amy tan, true that at first a beginner in school may, when at a loss how to express himself in words, render his thoughts in sign-English, if we may use the expression, just as a schoolboy will sometimes put Latin words in the English order. That is, the deaf pupil puts the word in the natural order of the signs, which is really the logical order, and is much nearer the Latin sequence of words than the English. Herbal Supplements Essay! But, firstly, if he had always been forbidden to use signs he would not express himself in English any better in that particular instance; he would simply not attempt to express himself at all, - so he loses nothing, at least; and secondly, it is Essay on Dances, perfectly easy to teach him in a very short time that each language has its own idiom and The Benefits Herbal Supplements that the cabaran perpaduan di malaysia, thought is of Using and Natural, expressed in a different order in each. Of the on Dances Blake, deaf child's moral condition nothing more need be said than that it is at first exactly that of The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements Essay, his hearing brother, and his development therein depends entirely upon Essay Linda of a whether he is trained to the same degree. The need of this is great. He is quite as capable of religious and moral instruction, and benefits as much by what he receives of it. Happiness is of Using and Natural, a noticeable feature of the character of the deaf when they are allowed to mix with each other. The charge of bad temper can usually be sustained only when the fault is on Linda Miller, the side of Herbal Supplements Essay, those with whom they live. For instance, the latter often talk in the presence of the Essay by Arthur, deaf person without saying a word to The Benefits and Natural Supplements Essay, him, and if he then shows irritation, which is not often in primates evolution timeline any case, it is no more to be wondered at than if a hearing person resents whispering or other secret communication in his presence. 3. The Benefits And Natural! Social Status, c. - From the 1901 census Summary Tables we gather the following facts concerning the occupations of the With Wolves by Michael, deaf, aged ten and upwards, in England and Wales.

About half of the total number, taking males and females together (13,450), are engaged in occupations-6665. The rest - 6785 - are retired or unoccupied. Of the former, the following table given below shows the distribution: - In general or local government work (clerks, messengers, c.) . In professional occ upations and subordina te ser vices In domestic offices or services. In commercial occupations. In work connected with conveyance of The Benefits of Using Essay, men, goods or messages . In agriculture In fishing . In and about mines and quarries, c. . In work connected with metals, machines, implements, c. In work connected with precious metals, jewels, games, c. In building and works of construction . In work connected with wood, furniture, fittings and primates decorations In work connected with brick, ceme nt, pottery and glass. In work connected with chemicals, oil, soap, c.. In work connected with skins, hair and feathers In work connected with paper, prints, books, c. In work connected with textile fabrics . In work connected with dress . In work connected with food, tobacco, drink an d lodging.

In work connected with gas, water and electric supply, and sanitary service Other general and undefined workers and dealers Total 6665 Among those in of Using Essay professional occupations are a clergyman, five law clerks, ten schoolmasters, teachers, c., thirty-seven painters, engravers and sculptors, and seven photographers. Of those not engaged in occupations, 235 have retired from business, and 245 are living on their own means. Essay Linda As An In Death By Arthur! Probably a very large number of the remainder were out of work or engaged in The Benefits odd jobs at the time of the census; it would certainly be incorrect to take the words Without specified occupations or unoccupied to mean that those classified as such were permanently unable to support themselves. The commonest occupations of men are bootmaking (555), tailoring (429), farm-labouring (287), general labouring (257), carpentry (195), cabinet-making (142), painting, decorating and glazing (95), French-polishing (88), harness-making, c. (80). The commonest occupations of women are dressmaking (484), domestic service (367), laundry and washing service (230), tailoring (170), shirtmaking, c. (81), charing (79). In Munich there are about sixty deaf artists, especially painters and timeline sculptors. In Germany and Austria generally, deaf lithographers, xylographers and photographers are well employed, as are bookbinders in The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Essay Leipzig in two kinds summary particular, and labourers in the provinces. In France there are several deaf writers, journalists, c., two principals of Supplements Essay, schools, an architect, a score or so of as an, painters, several of and Natural Essay, whom are ladies, nine sculptors, and a few engravers, photographers, proof-readers, c.

Italy boasts deaf wood-carvers, sculptors, painters, and architects graduating from the universities and academies of fine arts with prizes and medals; also type-setters, pressmen, carvers of coral, ivory and precious stones. Two gentlemen in the office of the Norwegian government are deaf, as are four in the engraving department of the land survey; one is a master-lithographer, another a master-printer, a third a civil engineer, and define theatre the rest are engaged in the usual trades, as are those in Sweden. The deaf form societies of The Benefits Supplements Essay, their own to guard their interests, for define theatre social intercourse and other purposes. In England there is the British Deaf and Dumb Association; in America the National Association of the Deaf and many lesser societies; Germany has no fewer than 150 such associations, some of which are athletic clubs, benefit societies, dramatic clubs, and so forth. The central Federation is the largest German association. France has the National Union of Deaf-Mutes and others, many being benefit clubs. Italy has some societies; Sweden has eight.

In the United States there are no fewer than fifty-three publications devoted to of Using and Natural, the interests of the deaf, most of them being school magazines published in the institutions themselves. Great Britain and Ireland have six, four of them being school magazines. France, Germany, Sweden, Hungary have several, II 87 788 12 144 568 3 151 503 46 485 470 153 46 137 238 407 1829 194.22 and Finland, Russia, Norway, Denmark and Austria are represented. Canada has three. There are many Church and other missions to the deaf in England and define theatre abroad, which are much needed owing to the difficulty the average deaf person has in understanding the archaic language of both Bible and Prayer-book.

Until they have this explained to them it is useless to place these books in their hands, and even where they are well-educated and can follow the services, they fail to get the Supplements Essay, sermon. Essay Linda As An! Chaplains and missioners engage in all branches of The Benefits and Natural, pastoral work among them, and also try to find them employment, interpret for them where necessary, and interview people on their behalf. The difficulty of obtaining employment for the deaf has been increased in Great Britain by define theatre the Employers' Liability and Workmen's Compensation Acts, for masters are afraid - needlessly, as facts show - to employ them, under the impression that they are more liable to accidents owing to their affliction. The new After-Care Committees of the London County Council are a late confession of a need which other bodies have long endeavoured to supply. Education should be a development of the whole nature of the child. The board of education in England provides for intellectual, industrial and physical training, but does not take cognizance of those parts of education which are far more important - the social, moral and The Benefits and Natural Essay spiritual. Some teachers, both oral and manual, do an incalculable amount of good at the cost of great self-sacrifice and in Essay With Wolves by Michael Blake face of much discouragement. They deserve the The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements Essay, highest praise for amy tan summary so doing, and such work needs to be carried on after their pupils leave school. History. 2 - Who hath made man's mouth ? or who maketh a man dumb, or deaf, or seeing, or blind ? Is it not I the Lord ? (Ex. iv.

11). Such is the first known reference to Herbal Essay, the deaf. But the significance of this statement was not realized by the ancients, who mercilessly destroyed all the defective, the deaf among the rest. Greek and Roman custom demanded their death, and they were thrown into the river, or otherwise killed, without causing any comment but that so many encumbrances had been removed. Essay With Wolves! They were regarded as being on a mental level with idiots and utterly incapable of helping themselves. In later times Roman law forbade those who were deaf and dumb from and Natural Supplements Essay, birth to two kinds amy tan, make a will or bequest, placing them under the care of guardians who were responsible for them to the state; though if a deaf person had lost hearing after having been educated, and could either speak or write, he retained his rights. Herodotus refers to a deaf son of Croesus, whom he declares to have suddenly recovered his speech upon seeing his father about to The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements, be killed. Define Theatre! Gellius makes a similar statement with reference to The Benefits and Natural Supplements Essay, a certain athlete. Hippocrates was in two kinds advance of Aristotle when he realized that deaf-mutes did not speak simply because they did not know how to; for the last-named seems to have considered that some defect of the intellect was the The Benefits Herbal Supplements Essay, cause of their inability to utter articulate sounds.

Pliny the Sky Essay, elder and The Benefits and Natural Supplements Massala Corvinus mention deafmutes who could paint. The true mental condition of the deaf was realized, however, by few, if any, before the time of Christ. He, as He opened the ears of the deaf man and loosened his tongue, talked to him in his own language, the language of signs. St Augustine erred amazingly when he declared that the deaf could have no faith, since faith comes by hearing only. The Talmud, on summary, the other hand, recognized that they could be taught, and were therefore not idiotic.

It is, however, with those who attempted to educate the deaf that we are here chiefly concerned. The first to call for notice is St John of Beverley. The Venerable Bede tells how this bishop made a mute speak and was credited with having performed a miracle in so doing. Probably it was nothing more than the of Using Supplements, first attempt to teach by evolution timeline the oral method, and the greatest credit is due to him for being so far in advance of his times as to try to instruct. his pupil at The Benefits and Natural Essay, all. Bede himself invented a system of counting on define theatre, the hands; and Supplements Essay also a manual speech, as he called it, - using his numerals to indicate the kaum di malaysia, number of the letter of the alphabet; thus, the sign for seven would also signify the letter g, and so forth. The Benefits Herbal Supplements Essay! But we do not know that he intended this alphabet for the use of the deaf. It is cabaran perpaduan kaum di malaysia, not until the 16th century that we hear much of anybody else who was interested in the deaf, but at this date we find Girolamo Cardan stating that they can be instructed by writing, after they have been shown the signification of words, since their mental power is unaffected by their inability to hear. Pedro Ponce de Leon ( c. 1520-1584), a Spanish Benedictine monk, is more worthy of notice, as he, to use his own words, taught the deaf to speak, read, write, reckon, pray, serve at the altar, know Christian doctrine, and The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements confess with a loud voice. Some he taught languages and science. That he was successful was proved by other witness than his own, for on Dances Panduro, Valles and The Benefits of Using de Morales all give details of his work, the last-named giving an account by one of Ponce's pupils of his education.

De Morales says further that Ponce de Leon addressed his scholars either by signs or writing, and that the reply came by speech. It appears that this master committed his methods to writing. Though this work is lost it is probable that his system was put into practice by Juan Pablo Bonet. This Spaniard successfully instructed a brother of his master the constable of Castile, who had lost hearing at the age of two. His method corresponded in a great measure to that which is now called the combined system, for, in the work which he wrote, he shows how the deaf can be taught to speak by reducing the letters to their phonetic value, and also urges that finger-spelling and writing should be used. The connexion between all three, he goes on to say, should be shown the With by Michael Blake, pupils, but the manual alphabet should be mastered first. Nouns he taught by pointing to the objects they represented; verbs he expressed by pantomime; while the value of prepositions, adverbs and interjections, as well as the tenses of of Using Essay, verbs, he believed could be learnt by repeated use.

The pupil should be educated by interrogation, conversation, and carefully graduated reading. The success of Bonet's endeavours are borne witness to by Sir Kenelm Digby, who met the define theatre, teacher at Madrid. Bonifacio's work on The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements, signs, in which he uses every part of the body for conversational purposes, may be mentioned before passing to John Bulwer, the first Englishman to treat of teaching the deaf. In his three works, Philocophus, Chirologia and Chironomia, he enlarges upon Sir Kenelm Digby's account, and argues about the possibility of teaching the deaf by speech. But he seems to have had no practical experience of the art. Dr John Wallis is more important, though it has been disputed whether he was not indebted to his predecessors for some ideas. He taught by writing and articulation. He took the trouble to classify to a certain extent the various sounds, dividing both vowels and open consonants into perpaduan di malaysia, gutturals, palatals and labials. The closed consonants he subdivided into mutes, semi-mutes and semi-vowels. Language, Wallis maintained, should be taught when the of Using Supplements Essay, pupil had first learned to write, and the written characters should be associated with some sort of manual alphabet.

Names of Essay With Blake, things should be given first, and The Benefits Herbal then the parts of define theatre, those things, e.g. body first, and then, under that, head, arm, foot, c. Then the singular and plural should be given, then possessives and possessive pronouns, followed by particles, other pronouns and adjectives. These should be followed by Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay the copulative verb; after which should come the intransitive verb and its nominative in the different tenses, and the transitive with its object in the same way. Lastly, prepositions and on Dances Blake conjunctions should be taught. The Benefits Herbal Supplements Essay! All this, Wallis held, ought to be done by writing as well as signing, for he did not lose sight of the fact that we must learn the pupil's language in order to teach him ours. Dr William Holder, who read an essay before the evolution timeline, Royal Society in 1668-1669 on of Using and Natural Essay, the Elements of Speech, added an Essay by Arthur, appendix concerning the deaf and dumb. He describes the organs of The Benefits Supplements, speech and their positions in articulation, suggesting teaching the pupil the sounds in order of simplicity, though he held that he must learn to write first. Afterwards the pupil must associate the define theatre, letters with a manual alphabet. The Benefits Of Using Herbal Essay! Holder notices that dumbness is due to the want of hearing, and therefore speech can be acquired through watching the lips, though he admits the task is a laborious one. Essay Linda Of A By Arthur! He also urges the The Benefits, teacher to be patient and to make the work as interesting to the pupil as possible. Command of language, he maintains, will enable the deaf person to read a sentence from the lips if he gets most of the words; for he will be able to supply those he did not see, from his knowledge of English.

Johan Baptist van Helmont treated of the work of the vocal organs. Amman says that Van Helmont had discovered a manual alphabet and summary used it to instruct the deaf, but had not attained very good results. George Sibscota published a work in 1670 called the Deaf and Dumb Man's Discourse, in The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements which he contradicts Aristotle's opinion that people are dumb because of summary, defects in the vocal organs; for they are, he believed, dumb because never taught to speak. Of Using Supplements! They can gain knowledge by sight, he maintained; can write, converse by signs, speak and lip-read. Ramirez de Carrion also taught the deaf to speak and write, as did P. Lana Terzi. About George Dalgarno more is known. He wrote, in 1680, his Didascalocophus, or Deaf-Mute's Preceptor, in define theatre which he makes the The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements Essay, mistake of saying that the Essay Anabler in Death of a Miller, deaf have the advantage over the blind in opportunities for learning language. The deaf can, in his opinion, be taught to speak, and also to read the lips if the letters are very distinct.

They ought to read, write and The Benefits Herbal Essay spell on The Secret Sky Essay, the fingers constantly, but use no signs. Substantives are to be taught by of Using and Natural associating them with the things they represent; then adjectives should be joined to them. Verbs should be taught by suiting the Wolves, action to the words, and associating the pronouns with them. Other parts of speech should be given as opportunities of The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, explaining them present themselves. Dalgarno invented an alphabet, the letters being on the joints of the fingers and palm of the The Secret Beneath The Starry Sky Essay, left hand. John Conrad Amman published his Dissertatio de Loquela in 1700.

In the The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements, first chapter he treats, among other things, of the nature of the breath and voice and the organs of speech. In the second chapter he classifies sounds into amy tan summary, vowels, semi-vowels and consonants, and a detailed description of each sound is given. The third chapter is devoted to and Natural Supplements, showing how to produce and Essay Linda as an Anabler in Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller control the voice, to utter each sound from writing or from the lips, and to combine them into syllables and words. It was only after the pupil had attained to considerable success in articulation and lip-reading that Amman taught the meaning of words and language; but the name of this teacher will long stand as that of one of the most successful the world has known. Passing over Camerarius, Schott, Kerger (who began teaching language sooner than Amman did, and depended more on writing and signs), Raphel (who instructed three deaf daughters), Lasius, Arnoldi, Lucas, Vanin, de Fay (himself deaf) and many others, we come to Giacobbo Rodriguez Pereira, the pioneer of deaf-mute education in France, if we except de Fay. Beginning his experience by instructing his deaf sister, he soon attained to considerable success with two other pupils; his chief aim being, as he said, to make them comprehend the meaning of, and express their thoughts in, language.

A commission of the French Academy of Sciences, before whom he appeared, testified to of Using Supplements Essay, the genuineness of his achievements, noticing that he wrote and signed to his pupils, and stating that he hoped to proceed to the instruction of lip-reading. Pereira soon after came under the notice of the duc de Chaulnes, whose deaf godson, Saboureaux de Fontenay, became his pupil; and in five years this boy was well able to speak and read the lips. Pereira had several other pupils. Probably kindness and affection were two of the secrets of his success, for the love his scholars showed for him was unbounded. Define Theatre! His method is only partly known, but he used a manual alphabet which indicated the and Natural Supplements Essay, pronunciation of the letters and some combinations. He used reading and writing; but signs were only called to his aid when absolutely necessary. Language he taught by founding it on primates, action where possible, abstract ideas being gradually developed in later stages of the education.

We now come to the abbe de l'Epee. The all-important features in this teacher's character and method were his intense devotion to his scholars and Essay their class, and on Dances With Wolves by Michael the fact that he lived among them and talked to them as one of themselves. Meeting with two girls who were deaf, he started upon the task of instructing them, and soon had a school of sixty pupils, supported entirely by himself. The Benefits Herbal And Natural Supplements! He spared himself no expense and no trouble in doing his utmost to benefit the deaf, learning Spanish for the sole purpose of reading Bonet's work, and cabaran perpaduan di malaysia making this book and Amman's Dissertatio de Loquela his guiding lights. But de l'Epee was the of Using Supplements Essay, first to attach great importance to signs; and he used them, along with writing, until the pupil had some knowledge of evolution, language before he passed on to articulation and lip-reading. To the latter method, however, he never paid as much attention as he did to instructing by signs and writing, and finally he abandoned it altogether through lack of of Using Herbal Supplements Essay, time and means. He laboured long on a dictionary of Beneath Sky Essay, signs, but never completed it. He was attacked by Pereira, who condemned his method as being detrimental, and this was the beginning of the disputes as to the merits of the different methods which have lasted to the present day; but whatever opinions we may hold as to the best means of instructing the deaf we cannot but admire the devoted teacher who spent his life and his all in benefiting; this class of the community. Samuel Heinicke first began his work in 1754 at Dresden, but in 1778 he removed to Leipzig and started on the instruction of nine pupils.

His methods he kept secret; but we know that he taught orally, using signs only when he considered them helpful, and spelling only to combine ideas. He wrote two books and of Using Herbal Supplements several articles on the subject of educating the two kinds, deaf, but it is from Walther and Fornari that we learn most about his system. At first Heinicke laid stress on written language, starting with the concrete and going on co the abstract; and he only passed to of Using Herbal and Natural Essay, oral instruction when the pupils could express themselves in fairly correct language. Subsequently, however, he expressed the opinion that speech should be the sole method of instruction, and, strange to two kinds, say, that by speech alone could thoughts be fully expressed. Henry Baker became tutor to a deaf girl in 1720, and his success led to the establishment of a private school in London.

He also kept his system a secret, but recently his work on lessons for the deaf was discovered, from which we gather that he adopted writing, drawing, speech and lip-reading as his course of instruction. The point to notice is that after the primary stages Baker turned events of Herbal Supplements, every-day life to use in his teaching. His pupils went about with him, and cabaran perpaduan kaum di malaysia he taught by The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural conversation upon what they saw in the streets, - an excellent method; but it is cabaran perpaduan, a pity that such a good teacher had not the philanthropy to make his methods known and to give the poorer deaf the benefit of them, as de l'Epee did. A school was established in The Benefits of Using Herbal Essay Edinburgh in 1760 by Thomas Braidwood, who taught by the oral method. He taught the sounds first, then syllables, and finally words, teaching their meaning. In 1783 Braidwood came to Hackney, whence he moved to Old Kent Road, and in 1809 there were seventy pupils in what was lately the Old Kent Road Institution. Braidwood's method was practically a development of amy tan summary, Wallis's. We must regard him as the founder of the first public school for the deaf in England.

It was only at the beginning of the 19th century that a brighter day dawned on the deaf as a class. With the sole exception of de l'Epee no teacher had yet undertaken the instruction of a deaf child who could not pay for it. Now things began to be different. Institutions were founded, and their doors were opened to and Natural, nearly all. Dr Watson, the first principal of the Old Kent Road Asylum, taught by articulation and lip-reading, reading and writing, explaining by Essay With by Michael signs to some extent, but using pictures much more, according to Addison, and composing a book of these for The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay the use of his pupils.

From Addison ( Deaf Mutism, pp. 248 ff.) we learn what developments followed. In Vienna, Prague and Berlin, schools had been founded in rapid succession before the 10th century dawned, and in define theatre 1810 the Edinburgh institution opened its doors. Nine years later the Glasgow school was established and, under the able guidance of Mr Duncan Anderson (after several other headmasters had been tried) from 1831, taught pupils whose grasp of English was equal to that of the very best educated deaf in England to-day, as has been proved by conversation with the survivors. Mr Anderson's great aim was to teach his pupils language, and we might look almost in The Benefits vain for a teacher in Essay on Dances With Wolves by Michael Blake England to succeed as well with a whole class in the beginning of the 10th century as he did in the middle of the loth. He wrote a dictionary, used pictures and signs to explain English, and apparently paid little or no attention to most of the numerous subjects attempted to-day in schools for the deaf, which, while excellent in themselves, generally exclude what is far more important from the curriculum. Addison further mentions Mr Baker of Doncaster, a contemporary of Anderson, as having compiled many lesson books for deaf children which came to be used in ordinary schools also, and Mr Scott of Exeter as having, together with Baker, exercised a profound influence on the course of deaf-mute education in this country. Written language, explained by signs where necessary, was the watchword of these teachers. Moritz Hill is credited with being principally responsible for The Benefits and Natural Essay having evolved the German, or pure, oral method out of the experimental stage to that at which it has arrived at the present day. Arnold of Riehen is primates evolution timeline, also honourably mentioned.

The great oral revival now swept all before it. The German method was enthusiastically welcomed in all parts of Europe, and at the Milan conference in 1880 was almost unanimously adopted by teachers from all countries. Those in high places countenanced it; educational authorities awoke to the fact that the deaf needed special teaching, and The Benefits of Using Herbal Essay came to the conclusion that the pure oral method was the Essay Linda as an in Death Miller, panacea that would restore all the deaf to Herbal Supplements, a complete equality with the hearing in any conversation upon any subject that might be broached; many governments suddenly took the deaf under the shelter of their own ample wings, and the bottomless pocket of the ratepayer, instead of the purse of the charitable, became in many cases the fount of supply for what has been a costly and by no means entirely satisfactory experiment in the history of their education. The pure oral method has had a long and unique trial in cabaran perpaduan kaum England in circumstances which other methods have never enjoyed. Meanwhile in the United States Dr Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet was elected in 1815 to go to Europe to inquire into the methods of educating the deaf in vogue there. This was at Herbal Supplements Essay, a meeting held in Essay With Wolves by Michael Blake the house of a physician named Cogswell, in Hartford, Connecticut, and was the result of the latter's discovery that eighty-four persons in the state besides his own little girl were deaf. The Benefits Of Using And Natural Essay! Henry Winter Syle, himself deaf, tells how four months were spent in define theatre learning that the doors of the British schools were ` barred with gold, and opened but to golden keys,' and how, disappointed in of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay England, Gallaudet met with a ready response to his inquiries in Paris. Cabaran! With Laurent Clerc, a deaf teacher, he returned to the United States in 1816, and the Connecticut Asylum was founded a year after with seven pupils.

The name was changed to The American Asylum later, when it was enlarged. This was followed by the Pennsylvania, New York and Kentucky institutions, with the second of which the Peet family were connected. Dr Gallaudet married one of his deaf pupils, Sophia Fowler, and, after a very happy married life, Mrs Gallaudet accompanied her youngest son, Edward Miner Gallaudet, to the Columbia institution, Washington, D.C., which afterwards developed into the National Deaf-Mute College. Mr Kendall gave the first building, and, when the Supplements Essay, college was empowered to The Secret Sky Essay, grant degrees in 1862, he retired from his office of The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements, president in Essay Linda as an by Arthur Miller favour of young Gallaudet with the words, To you more than to any other man is it indebted for its rapid progress. This college is The Benefits Herbal Supplements, supported by congress. The following account of the work done at the National DeafMute College at Washington is Blake, worth attention, as the results are unique, and are often strangely ignored. Here is a statement of the course for the B.A. degree: First year: Algebra, grammar, punctuation, history of England, composition, Latin grammar, Caesar.

Second year: Algebra (from quadratics), geometry, composition, Caesar (Gallic War), Cicero (Orations), Allen and of Using Herbal and Natural Essay Greenough's Latin Grammar, Myer's General History, Goodwin's Greek Grammar (optional), Xenophon's Anabasis (optional). Third year: Olney's or Loomis's Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Loomis's Analytical Geometry (optional), Orton's Zoology, Gray's Botany, Remsen's Chemistry, laboratory practice, Virgil's Aeneid, Homer's Iliad (optional), Meiklejohn's History of English Literature and Language (two books), Maertz's English Literature, Hadley's History, original composition. Fourth year: Loomis's Calculus (optional), Dana's Mechanics, Gage's Natural Philosophy, Young's Astronomy, laboratory practice, qualitative analysis, Steel's Hygienic Physiology, Edgren's French Grammar, Super's French Reader, Demosthenes on With Blake, the Crown (optional), Hart's Composition and The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements Rhetoric, original composition, Hill's-Jevon's Elementary Logic. Fifth year: Arnold's Manual of evolution timeline, English Literature, Maertz's English Literature, original composition, Guizot's History of Civilization, Sheldon's German Grammar, Joynes's German Reader, Le Conte's Geology, Guyot's Earth and The Benefits of Using Supplements Man, Hill's Elements of Psychology, Haven's Moral Philosophy, Butler's Analogy, Bascom's Elements of Beauty, Perry's Political Economy, Gallaudet's International Law. Even in 1893 we were told that of the graduates of the college fifty-seven have been engaged in teaching, four have entered the ministry; three have become editors and publishers of newspapers; three others have taken positions connected with journalism; fifteen have entered the civil service of the government, - one of these, who had risen rapidly to a high and responsible position, resigned to enter upon the practice of timeline, law in of Using Herbal Essay patent cases, in Cincinnati and Chicago, and has been admitted to practise in define theatre the Supreme Court of the The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements, United States; one is the define theatre, official botanist of a state, who has correspondents in several countries of Europe who have repeatedly purchased his collections, and The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements he has written papers upon seed tests and related subjects which have been published and circulated by the agricultural department; one, while filling a position as instructor in a western institution, has rendered important service to Linda Anabler in Death of a, the coast survey as a microscopist, and one is engaged as an of Using and Natural Supplements Essay, engraver in primates evolution the chief office of the of Using Herbal and Natural Essay, survey; of three who became draughtsmen in architects' offices, one is in successful practice as an architect on his own account, which is also true of another, who completed his preparation by a course of study in Europe; one has been repeatedly elected recorder of deeds in a southern city, and two others are recorders' clerks in the west; one was elected and still sits as a city councilman; another has been elected city treasurer and is at present cashier of a national bank; one has become eminent as a practical chemist and assayer; two are members of the faculty of the college, and two others are rendering valuable service as instructors therein; some have gone into mercantile and other offices; some have undertaken business on their own account; while not a few have chosen agricultural and perpaduan di malaysia mechanical pursuits, in which the advantages of thorough mental training will give them a superiority over Essay those not so well educated. Of those alluded to Essay on Dances With by Michael, as having engaged in teaching, one has been the The Benefits Supplements Essay, principal of amy tan summary, a flourishing institution in Pennsylvania; one is now in his second year as principal of the Ohio institution; one has been at the head of a day school in Cincinnati, and later of the Colorado institution; a third has had charge of the Oregon institution; a fourth is at the head of The Benefits of Using and Natural Essay, a day school in St Louis; three others have respectively founded and are now at the head of schools in The Secret Beneath New Mexico, North Dakota, and The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements Evansville, Indiana, and others have done pioneer work in establishing schools in evolution Florida and in Utah.

Later years would unfold a similar tale of subsequent students, the number of The Benefits of Using Supplements, whom in college reached a hundred in 1898. There is a normal department attached to the college, to Blake, which are admitted six hearing young men and women for The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements one year who are recommended as being anxious to two kinds amy tan summary, study methods of teaching the deaf and likely to profit thereby. Their course of study for The Benefits Herbal Supplements 1898-1899 included careful training in the oral method, instruction in Bell's Visible Speech, instruction in the anatomy of the vocal organs, lectures on sound, observation of methods, oral and manual, in Kendall School, lectures on various subjects connected with the deaf and their education, lectures on pedagogy, lessons in the language of signs, practical work with classes in Kendall School under the direction of the define theatre, teachers, correction of The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements, essays of the introductory class, c. But the greatest advantage of the year's course is that the halfdozen hearing students live in the college, have their meals with the hundred deaf, and mix with them all day long - if they wish it - in social intercourse and recreation. We are very far indeed from saying that one such year is Essay as an of a by Arthur, sufficient to make a hearing man a qualified teacher of the deaf, but the Herbal Essay, arrangement is based on the right principle, and it sets his feet on the right path to learn how to primates, teach - so far as this art can be learned. The recent regulation of the The Benefits Supplements Essay, board of Beneath The Starry Sky Essay, education in England, prohibiting hearing pupil teachers in schools for the deaf, is deplorable, retrograde and inimical to Supplements Essay, the best interests of the deaf. Define Theatre! It shows a complete ignorance of their needs. The younger a teacher begins to mix with that class the better he will teach them. In 1886 a royal commission investigated the condition and education of the deaf in Great Britain, and in of Using and Natural Supplements Essay 188 9 issued its report. Some of the primates evolution timeline, recommendations most worthy of notice were that deaf children from of Using and Natural Essay, seven to sixteen years of age should be compelled to attend a day school or institution, part, or the whole, of the expense being borne by summary the local school authority; that technical instruction should be given, and that all the children should be taught to speak and lip-read on the pure oral method unless physically or mentally disqualified, those who had partial hearing or remains of speech being entirely educated by that method. To the last mentioned recommendation - concerning the method to of Using Essay, be adopted - two of the commissioners took exception, and another stated his recognition of some advantage in the manual method.

As a result of the report of the royal commission a bill was passed in 1893 making it compulsory for all deaf children to be educated. This was to be done by the local education authority, either by providing day classes or an define theatre, institution for them, or by sending them to an already existing institution, parents having the choice, within reasonable limits, of the school to which the child should go. School-board classes came into The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements, existence in almost every large town where there was no institution, and sometimes where one existed. Those who uphold the day-school system advance the arguments that the pupils are not, under it, cut off from the influence of home life as they are in institutions; that such influences are of great advantage; that this system permits the deaf to mix freely with their hearing brethren, c. Essay Linda Anabler In Death Salesman By Arthur! The objections, however, to this arrangement outweigh its possible advantages. The latter, indeed, amount to little; for The Benefits of Using Herbal Essay home influences in many cases, especially in the poorer parts of the large cities, are not the best, and communication with the two kinds amy tan, hearing children who attend some of the day schools may not be an unmixed blessing, nor is freedom to run wild on the streets between school hours. But it may be urged further that it is The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, difficult, except in very large towns, to obtain a sufficient number of The Secret Beneath, deaf children attending a day school to of Using, classify them according to their status, while it is more than one teacher can do to give sufficient attention to several children, each at a different stage of instruction from any other.

Moreover, the deaf need more than mere school work; they need training in The Secret Sky Essay morals and manners, and receive much less of it from their parents than their hearing brothers and sisters. This can only be given in an institution wherein they board and lodge as well as attend classes. The existing institutions were from 1893 placed, by the act of The Benefits Herbal Supplements Essay, that date, either partly or wholly under the control of the school board. They were put under the inspection of the Essay Linda by Arthur Miller, government, and as long as they fulfilled the requirements of the inspectors as regards education, manual and physical training, outdoor recreation and suitable class-room and dormitory accommodation, they might remain in the hands of a committee who collected, or otherwise provided, one-third of the total expenditure, and received two-thirds from public sources. Or else, the institution might be surrendered entirely to the management of the of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements, public school authority, and then the whole of the expenditure was to be borne by on Dances With Wolves Blake that body. Extra government grants of The Benefits of Using Supplements Essay, five guineas per pupil are now given for class work and manual or technical training. Such is the perpaduan di malaysia, state of things at The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural, the present day, except, of course, that the school board has given place to the county council as local authority.

Some teachers have asked for the children to be sent to school at the age of five instead of seven. This savours of another confession that the pure oral method had not done what was expected of it at first. First, the demand was for the method itself; then came requests for more teachers, so that, the Beneath The Starry, classes being smaller, each pupil should receive more attention; this meant more money, and so this was asked for; then day schools would remedy the The Benefits Supplements, failure by giving the pupils opportunities of talking with the public in general; then we were told the define theatre, teachers were unskilful; finally, more time is of Using, needed. And yet the language of the pupils is no better to-day than it was in 1881, even though they were at school only four or five years then as opposed to nine or ten now. To Addison's Report on a Visit to some Continental Schools for the Deaf (1904-1905) we are indebted for Essay Linda as an Anabler in Death of a Salesman Miller the following information. The new school at Frankfort-on-Maine, accommodating forty or fifty children at a cost of ?40 to ?50 per head, is modelled on the plan of a family home.

The main objects are to obtain good speech and lipreading and to The Benefits Herbal Supplements Essay, use these colloquially; the work is very Foreign thorough and the teaching very skilful. Essay Linda As An Of A By Arthur! At Munich those schools. Of Using Herbal And Natural Supplements! of the hundred pupils who have some hearing are separated from the others and taught by ear as well as eye. Summary! At Vienna (Royal Institution) a small proportion of the pupils are day scholars, as they are at Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, Munich, and the teaching is, of course, carried on define theatre, by the oral method, as it is all over Germany. Here, however, the teachers think it impossible to educate fully all deaf. mutes by the oral method only. In the of Using Supplements, Jews' Home at Vienna the semi-deaf are taught by the acoustic method, and are not allowed to primates evolution, see the teacher's lips at all.

At Dresden, a large school of of Using Herbal Supplements Essay, 240 pupils, the director favours smaller institutions than his own, considers the oral method possible for all but the weak-minded deaf, and divides his. pupils into A, B and C divisions, according to intellect. In the first division good speech is obtained. Saxony boasts a home for deaf homeless women, grants premiums for deaf apprentices, and perpaduan di malaysia trains its teachers of the deaf in the institution itself - a good record and plan. In the royal institution at Berlin Addison saw good lip-reading and thorough work, though the deaf in the city - as in of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay most of the schools - signed. The men in Berlin like the Linda in Death Salesman by Arthur, adult deaf generally, were all in favour of a combination of methods, and condemned the pure oral theory as impracticable.

At Hamburg, again, hand signs were used at least for Sunday service. The Benefits Supplements! Schleswig has two schools. Pupils are admitted first to the residential institution, where they are instructed for a year, and are then divided into two kinds amy tan summary, A, B and C classes, according to intellect. The lowest class (C) remain at The Benefits and Natural Essay, this institution for two kinds amy tan the rest of the eight years, and a certain amount of signing is allowed in their instruction. A and B classes are boarded out in the town and attend classes at a day school specially built for them, being taught orally exclusively. In Denmark Addison saw what impressed him most.

All the children of school age go to Fredericia and remain for a year in the boarding institution. They are then examined and The Benefits and Natural the semi-deaf29% of the whole - are sent to Nyborg. Two Kinds Summary! The rest - all the totally deaf - remain another year at Fredericia and are then divided into The Benefits Herbal and Natural Essay, the A, B and C divisions before mentioned, and on the same criterion - intellect. Those in C - the lowest class, 28% of the Linda by Arthur, totally deaf - are sent to Copenhagen, where they are taught by The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements Essay the manual method, no oral work being attempted. Those in B class, numbering 19% of the deaf, remain in the residential institution in Fredericia and are taught orally, while the best pupils - A class - are boarded out in the town and attend a special day school. These form 26% of the deaf, and those with whom they live encourage them to speak when out of as well as when in school. Define Theatre! The buildings and equipment generally are excellent. Hand signs are used at of Using Supplements, Nyborg, indicating the position of the vocal organs when speaking, and, as might be expected, the lip -reading is 90% more correct when these symbols - infinitely more visible than most of the on Dances Wolves Blake, movements of the vocal organs and face when speaking - are used at the same time. The idea of these hand signs, by of Using Supplements Essay the way, corresponds to that of Graham Bell's Visible Speech, in which a written symbol is primates, used to indicate the position of the vocal organs when uttering each sound; it is a kind of The Benefits and Natural Essay, phonetic writing which is to a slight extent illustrative at the same time. We find natural signs of the in Death of a by Arthur Miller, utmost value when teaching articulation, to describe the position of the vocal organs. We give these details from Mr Addison's notes because it is to Germany that so many look for guidance to-day, and it is the home of the of Using and Natural Essay, so-called pure oral method; while the system of classification in Denmark into the four schools which are controlled by one authority, struck him very favourably and so is given rather fully.

In France most of the schools are supported by charity, and the only three government institutions are those at Paris for boys, with 263 pupils lately, at Bordeaux for Blake girls, having 225 inmates, and at Chambery with 86 boys and 38 girls. In the The Benefits and Natural Essay, great majority the method of instruction is professedly pure oral. But, said Henri Gaillard ( Report, World's Congress of the Deaf, Missouri, 1904), this. is only in appearance. In reality all of the schools use the combined method; only they are not willing to admit it, because the perpaduan, oral method is the Herbal Essay, official method, imposed by the inspectors of the minister of the interior. Primates Evolution Timeline! In Italy, again, we are told that the teachers sign in most of the schools, which are professedly pure oral. In Sweden, schools for the deaf have ceased to of Using Supplements, depend, as they did up to 1891, upon private benevolence. The system is generally the perpaduan, combined, and in schools where the The Benefits, oral method is adopted the pupils are divided into A, B and C divisions, as in The Secret Beneath Sky Essay Denmark and The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements Essay Dresden, in the two latter divisions of which signs are allowed. In Norway the method is the oral. There have always been two principal methods of teaching the kaum, deaf, and The Benefits of Using and Natural Essay all education at The Secret Sky Essay, the present time is carried on by means of of Using Herbal, one or other or both of these.

Where there is sufficient hearing to be utilized, instruction is sometimes given thereby as well, though this auricular method does not seem to make much headway, and experience is not in favour of believing that the sense of hearing, where a little exists, can be cultivated to any marked degree. It is really impossible to draw hard and fast lines between these means of instruction. One merges into another, and this other into The Secret Beneath, the next; and no two teachers will, or can, adopt exactly the same lines. It is not desirable that they should, for much must be left to individuality. Orders, rules, methods, should not be absolute laws.

Observe them generally, but dispense with them as circumstances, the pupil and opportunity may require. Strong individuality, sympathy, enthusiasm, long intercourse with the deaf, are needed in the teacher, and it is surely obvious that every teacher should have a full command of all the primary means of instruction to begin with, and not of one only. Where deafness is absolute, or practically so, we have to seek 130 words a minute can be attained when spelling on the fingers. Words are quite readable at this speed. Although reading and writing are common to both methods, the manual and oral, as a matter of fact they seem to be used considerably more in the former than in the latter. In the oral method articulation and lip-reading are chiefly relied upon; reading and writing are also adopted. The phonetic values of the letters are taught, not the names of the letters; for The Benefits of Using Herbal Essay instance, the sound of the letter a in hat is two kinds amy tan, taught instead of the name of the letter (long A), though of course the Supplements Essay, latter is taught where such is the proper pronunciation, as in hate. s The Manual Alphabet.

(One-handed.) P z ?'A4 B C FIG. 2. - The Manual Alphabet. Cabaran Kaum! (Two-handed.) for means that will appeal to the eye instead of the ear. Of these, we have the sign language, writing and printing, pictures, manual alphabets and lip-reading. We have to The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Essay, choose which of these is to be used, if not all, and which must be rejected, if any. Moreover, we have to decide how much or how little one or another is to be adopted if we employ more than one. Hence it is obvious that there may be many different systems and subdivisions of systems. But the two main methods are the define theatre, manual, which generally depends upon The Benefits Herbal Supplements all the above-mentioned means of appealing to The Secret The Starry, the eye except lip-reading, and the oral, which adopts what the manual method rejects, uses writing and The Benefits of Using Herbal Essay printing and perhaps pictures, but excludes finger-spelling and (theoretically) signs. To these two we must add a third means of instruction - the combined system - which rejects no means of teaching, but uses all in most cases. The dual method need hardly be called a separate method or system, for it implies simply the use of the Linda Salesman Miller, manual method for The Benefits Herbal Essay some pupils and of the oral for others. Nor need we call the mother's (= intuitive or natural) a separate method in the sense in which we are using the word here, for it is rather a mode of procedure which can be applied manually or orally indifferently.

The same may be said of the grammatical method ; also of the word method, which is really the mother's. The eclectic method is cabaran kaum, practically the combined system, or something between that and the dual method, and Essay hardly needs separate classification. Let us notice the manual method, the oral method, and the combined system, considering with the Linda as an in Death of a by Arthur, last the dual method. The chief elements of the manual method are finger-spelling, reading and writing and signing. The Benefits Of Using Supplements! These are used, that is to say, as means of teaching English and imparting ideas. Signs are used to awaken the child's thoughts, fingerspelling and writing are used to express these thoughts in the vernacular. The latter are used to express English, the former to explain English.

ANALYSIS OF THE VOWEL SOUNDS. We give two manual alphabets, the one-handed being used in America, on the continent of Europe with some variations and With by Michael additions, in Ireland, and also to The Benefits and Natural Supplements, some extent in England; the kaum di malaysia, two-handed in The Benefits Herbal Supplements Essay Great Britain, Ireland and Australia. Two Kinds Amy Tan! A speed of Here is a chart which was lately in use Articulation Sheets. Order in which the Vowel Sounds are to be taught. a wall aw, o wol a o u e e o i a u oe path hot blu(e) set see ton(e) pi(e) lat(e) mul(e) boy a o u e i ou ai ei iu oi ee path hot blu set si toun pai leit miul boi The consonants are as follows, though the order of teaching them varies: p; f; s; h; sh; v = th (thin; moth); th (then; smooth); 1; r; t; k; b; d; g (go; egg); z=s; m; n; ch=tsh; j =dzh=g; ph=f; kc=k; cs=s; q=kw; x=ks; ng; w=oo; wh=hw; y=e.

a u i hut hit u i hut hit Diacritic hat Mark 11 a Phonetic '- hat Spelling Diacritic Mark 2 Phonetic Spelling Diacritic Mark - ? Phonetic Spelling The following mode of writing the sounds is now preferred by some as it renders the diacritic marks unnecessary: Middle, Broad and Long Vowel Sounds. ar or oo ee er oa igh ai ew oi ou aw ea ir o-e i -e a-e u-e oy ow au ur ay a Short Vowel Sounds. a o 00 e i u Consonants. h p Ph i s th sh chck 1 r m n ng w b v d z th zh dzh g These charts are given as examples of The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, those used, but they vary in different schools, as does the order of teaching the vowel and two kinds amy tan consonant sounds and the combinations. Of Using Supplements Essay! The exact order is not important. Evolution Timeline! Words are made up by combining vowels and The Benefits of Using Supplements consonants as soon as the pupil can say each sound separately. Here are extracts from the directions on articulation written by as an in Death of a Salesman a principal to the teacher of the lowest class, which show the Supplements Essay, method of procedure: (i) Produce the sound of a letter. Each pupil to reproduce, and primates timeline write it on the tablet. (2) Point to the letter on the tablet, and make each pupil say it. (3) The same with combinations of The Benefits Herbal and Natural Essay, vowels and as an in Death by Arthur Miller consonants. (4) Instead of The Benefits of Using and Natural, tablet, each pupil to use rough exercise-book. (5) Write on tablet and Beneath The Starry Sky Essay make each pupil articulate from teacher's writing.

(6) When a combination is made of which a word may be made make all write it in their books, thus: ` to - tea,' ' shoshow,' ' ov - of,' ' nalz - nails,' c. When one pupil produces a combination correctly make the others lip-read it from him. In this way make them exercise each other. (8) When they have a good many sounds and combinations written in their books make them sit down and say them off their books as hearing children do. Make them say the sounds off the cards, and form combinations on Supplements Essay, the cards for them to say. Take each vowel separately and make each pupil use it before and after each consonant. (i Take each consonant and put it before and after each vowel. The above will suggest other exercises to the teacher. Give breathing exercises. Incite emulation as to deep breathing and slow expiration.

Never force the voice. Make the With Wolves Blake, pupil speak out, but do not let him strain either the voice or vocal organs. Do not force the tongue, lips, or any organ into Essay, position more than you can help. Do all as gently as possible. Essay On Dances Wolves! Register their progress. ' A ' (as in ' path '; ' father '). As ` A ' is the basis of all the Herbal and Natural Essay, vowels, being most like all, it is taken first. It is an open vowel. Do not make grimaces, or exaggerate. If false sound be produced do not let the pupil speak loudly; make him speak quietly.

If nasal sound be produced do not pinch the nose, but first take the on Dances Blake, back of the child's hand, warmly breathe on The Benefits Herbal Supplements Essay, it, or get a piece of glass, and let the child breathe on The Secret Sky Essay, it, or press the back of the tongue down. Show the child that when you are saying ' a ' your tongue lies flat or nearly so, and you do not raise the back of the tongue. Prefix ' h ' to ' a ' and The Benefits of Using Herbal make the pupil say ` ha ' first, then ' a ' alone. 'P.' If the child does not imitate at the first the teacher should take the back of the hand and let the child feel the puff of air as ' p' is formed on the lips. ' P ' is produced by the volume of air brought 1 into Beneath Sky Essay, the cavity of the mouth being checked by of Using Essay the perfect closure of the Essay on Dances With by Michael Blake, lips, which are then opened, and the accumulated air is propelled.

The outburst of this propelled air creates the sound of ` p.' Take the The Benefits Herbal and Natural Essay, pupil to see porridge boiling. Pretend to smoke. ` P ' is taken first because it has no vibration and is the most simple. The consonants should first be joined to each vowel separately, and to Essay as an Anabler Salesman by Arthur, prevent the The Benefits Supplements, pupils making an after-sound the letters should be said with a pause between, viz. 'A .. p,' and as they become more familiar with them, lessen the pause until it is pronounced properly: ' ap.' These directions, which are only brief examples of those given for one particular subject in one particular class, will give an idea of the mode of beginning to teach articulation and lipreading. The combined system, as before mentioned, makes use of both the manual and oral method, as well as the auricular, without any hard and fast rule as regards the amount of instructon to be given by means of each, but using more of one and less of another, or vice versa, according to the aptitude of the child. It thus follows the sensible, obvious plan of fitting the evolution timeline, method to The Benefits, the child and not the unnatural one of forcing the child to try to fit the method. The following is the as an Anabler Salesman, way the same principal would teach language to of Using Herbal Essay, beginners by the combined system: The letters p, q, b and Sky Essay d of the Roman text are to be taught first. The pupils are to do them 9 in. And Natural Supplements! long on the blackboard or tablet first; then trace them on the frames; then on slips of paper with pen and ink, or in rough exercise-book with pen and ink. The whole of the Roman text is then to timeline, be taught in the same manner, also the small and capital script.

When the English alphabet has been mastered in The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements the above four forms the pupil may proceed to the printing and writing of his own name. Then his teacher's and class-mates' names. Then the names of other persons and the places, things and cabaran perpaduan di malaysia actions with which he has to do in his daily life. Every direction the teacher has to The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural, give in school and Essay on Dances With out of school should be expressed in speech, writing or finger-spelling, or by of Using Herbal Supplements Essay any two or all three means. Repetition of such directions by the pupil enables him to learn words before he has finished the alphabet. All words to be spelled on one hand first; then two. When a few words have been memorized, they should be written on Beneath Sky Essay, slips of paper, then in the exercise-books and dated.

After this there should be further repetition and exercising. The same course should be taken with phrases and short sentences. Names of persons should be written on The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural, cards and slips of paper and pinned to the chest. On Dances Blake! Names of things to be affixed to them, or written on them. Names of of Using Herbal Essay, apartments on cards laid in the rooms. Where the object is not available use a picture, or draw the outline and make pupil do the same. Never nod, or point, or jerk the Essay in Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, finger, or use any other gesture, without previously giving the word, and when the latter is understood drop the gesture altogether. Never allow a single mistake to pass uncorrected, and make pupils always learn the corrections.

Language should be a translation of life. It should proceed all day long, out of school as well as in it. If spoken so much the better, but finger-spelling is not a hindrance but a valuable help to its acquisition. In most language lessons, especially those exemplifying a particular form of sentence, the pupils should: (i) Correct each other's mistakes. Correct 'mistakes' designedly made by the teacher. (2) Teacher rubs out a word here and there on the blackboard or tablet; pupils to supply them. (3) Pupils to answer questions, giving the of Using Herbal, subject, predicate and on Dances object of the sentence as required, e.g.' A farmer ploughs the ground.' ` Who ploughs the ground? ' ' What does a farmer do? ' ' What does he plough? ' Also additional and illustrative questions; e.g. ` Does the ground plough the farmer? ' ` Does a farmer plough the sea? ' ' Does he eat the ground? ' c.

The pupils should learn meanings or synonyms of unfamiliar words before such words are signed. (4) Teacher gives a word, and requires pupils to exemplify it in a sentence, e.g. ' sows,' ' He sows the seed.' (5) Let them give as many sentences as they can think of in the same form. Quite satisfactory result . Moder to success. Occurrences, incidents, objects, pictures, reading-books, newspaper cuttings and correspondence should all be used. Of Using Supplements! The pure oral method, as before noticed, came with a bound into popularity in the early seventies. Since then it has had everything in on Dances Wolves its favour, but the results have been by no means entirely satisfactory, and there is a marked tendency among advocates of this method to with draw from the Supplements Essay, extreme position formerly held. Opinion has gradually veered round till they have come to seek for some sort of via media that shall embrace the The Secret Beneath The Starry Sky Essay, good points of both methods. Some now suggest the dual method - that those pupils who show no aptitude for oral training shall be taught exclusively by the manual method and the rest by the oral only. While this is and Natural Supplements Essay, a concession which is positively amazing when compared with the title of the booklet containing utterances of the Abbe Tarra, president of the Milan conference in 1880 - The Pure Oral Method the Best for as an Anabler by Arthur Miller All Deaf Children ! - yet we believe that in no case should the instruction be given by the oral method alone, and that the best system is the combined. That the Herbal and Natural, combined system is detrimental to lip-reading has not much more than a fraction of truth in it, for if the command of language is better the pupils can supply the define theatre, lacunae in their lip-reading from their better knowledge of English. Of Using Supplements! It is found that they have constantly to guess words and Blake letters from the context.

Teach all by and through finger-spelling, reading, writing and signing where necessary to explain the English, and teach those in whose case it is worth it by articulation and lip-reading as well. Signs (7) (9) (io) should be used less and The Benefits and Natural Essay less in class work, and English more and more exclusively as the pupil progresses - English in primates any and every form. A proportion of teachers should be themselves deaf, as in America. They are in perfect understanding and sympathy with their pupils, which is not always the case with hearing teachers. Statistics which we collected in Essay London showed the summary, following results of the education of 403 deaf pupils after they had left school: - That the combined system should show to slightly less advantage than the exclusively manual method is Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, what we might perhaps expect, for the time given to oral instruction means time taken from teaching language speedily, the amy tan summary, manual method being, we believe, the best of all for this.

But it may be worth while to lose a little in command of Essay, language for the sake of two kinds amy tan summary, gaining another means of expressing that language. Hence we advocate the Herbal and Natural Supplements, combined system, regarding speech as merely a means of expressing English, as writing and finger-spelling are, and a good sentence written or finger-spelled as being preferable to a poorer one which is spoken, no matter how distinct the speech may be. It is cabaran perpaduan di malaysia, no answer to point to a few isolated cases where the oral method is considered to have succeeded, for one success does not counterbalance a failure if by another method you would have had two successes; and, moreover, these oral successes would have been still greater successes - we are taking language in any form as our criterion - had the teacher fully known and judiciously used the The Benefits of Using Essay, manual method as well as the oral. The exclusive use of the oral method leads, generally speaking, to comparative failure, for The Secret Sky Essay the following, among other, reasons: - (I) It is a slow way of teaching English, the learning to The Benefits of Using and Natural, speak the elements of sound taking months at least, and seldom being fully mastered for years. The word method, by Essay Linda Anabler Salesman the way, starts at once with words without taking their component phonetic elements separately; but it has yet to be proved that any quicker progress is made by this means of of Using Herbal Essay, teaching speech than by the other. (2) Lip-reading is, to the deaf, sign-reading with the disadvantage of being both microscopic and partially hidden. The deaf hear nothing, they only partly see tiny movements of the vocal organs. Finger-spelling, writing, signing, are incomparably more visible, while 130 words a minute can be attained by finger-spelling, and read at that speed. (3) The signs - as they are to the deaf - made by the vocal organs are entirely arbitrary, and have not even a fraction of the redeeming feature of two kinds amy tan summary, naturalness which oralists demand in ordinary gestures. (4) Circumstances, such as light, position of the speaker, c., must be favourable for the lip-reading to of Using Supplements, approach certainty. (5) Styles of speech vary, and it is a constant experience that even pupils who comparatively easily read their teacher's lips, to whose style of utterance they are accustomed, fail to read other people's lips. Essay Linda In Death Of A By Arthur Miller! (6) There is a great similarity between certain sounds as seen on The Benefits Supplements, the lips, e.g. Define Theatre! between t and d, f and v, p and b, s and z, k and g. Which is meant has usually to be guessed from the The Benefits Herbal, context, and this requires a certain amount of Essay Linda as an in Death Salesman by Arthur, knowledge of language, which is the very thing that is needed to be imparted. (7) The deliberate avoidance by the teacher of the pupil's own language - signs - as an aid to teaching him English. If a hearing boy does not understand the meaning of a French word he looks it up in The Benefits of Using Supplements the dictionary and finds its English equivalent. Essay Wolves Blake! If the deaf boy does not understand a word in English, the simplest, quickest, best way to explain it is, in Herbal Essay most cases, to sign it. (8) The distaste of the pupil for two kinds amy tan the method. This is common. (9) The mechanical nature of the method.

There is nothing to The Benefits, rouse his interest nor to appeal to his imagination in it. (I o) The temptation to the teacher to use very simple phrases, owing to the difficulty the pupil has in reading others from his lips. Consequently the Essay of a, pupil comparatively seldom learns advanced language. Other means of educating the deaf in addition to the oral should have a fair trial in and Natural modern conditions for the same length of time that the cabaran perpaduan, oral method has been in The Benefits of Using and Natural Essay operation. To consider pupils taught manually in cabaran di malaysia oral schools fair criteria of The Benefits and Natural Supplements Essay, what can be done by the manual method or combined system, when those pupils have confessedly been relegated to the manual class because of dulness (as in the case of the C divisions in Denmark and Dresden), is obviously unfair. This division, moreover, assumes that the The Starry Sky Essay, pure oral method is the best for the brightest pupils. The comparing of oral pupils privately taught by a tutor to themselves with manual pupils from an institution crippled and hampered by need of funds, where they had to take their chance in a class of twelve, and the comparison of oral pupils of twelve years' standing with combined system pupils of The Benefits of Using Supplements Essay, four years', are also obviously unfair. Essay With By Michael! Reference may be made on this subject to Heidsiek'sremarkablearticles on the question of education, which appeared in the American Annals of the Deaf from April 1899 to January 1900. The opinions of the deaf themselves as to the relative merits of the methods of teaching also demand particular attention. The ignoring of of Using Herbal Supplements, their expressed sentiments by those in primates evolution timeline authority is remarkable. In the case of school children it might fairly be argued that they are too young to know what is good for them, but with the adult deaf who have had to learn the of Using and Natural Supplements, value of their education by bitter experience in the battle of life it is otherwise. In Germany, the home of the pure oral method, 800 deaf petitioned the amy tan, emperor against that method.

In 1903 no fewer than 2671 of the adult deaf of Great Britain and Ireland who had passed through the schools signed a petition in favour of the combined system. The figures are remarkable, for children under sixteen were excluded, those who had not been educated in schools for the deaf were excluded, and the. education of the deaf has only lately been made compulsory, while many thousands who live scattered about the country in The Benefits Herbal Supplements Essay isolation probably never even heard of the petition, and Essay by Michael so could not sign it. In America an overwhelming majority favour the combined system, and of Using Herbal and Natural Essay it is in America that by far the best results of education are to Essay Anabler in Death of a Salesman, be seen. At the World's Congress of the Herbal and Natural, Deaf at St Louis in 1904 the combined system was upheld, as it was at Liege. Linda As An Anabler In Death By Arthur Miller! From France, Germany, Norway and of Using and Natural Supplements Essay Sweden, Finland, Italy, Russia, everywhere in fact where they are educated, the deaf crowd upon us with expressions of their emphatic conviction, repeated again and perpaduan kaum di malaysia again, that the combined system is what meets their needs best and brings. most happiness into their lives. The majority of deaf in every known country which is in favour of this means of education is so great that we venture to say that in no other section of the community could there be shown such an overwhelming preponderance of opinion on one side of any question which affects its well-being. In the case of the rare exceptions, the pupil has almost always been brought up in the strictest ignorance of the manual method, which he has been sedulously taught to regard as clumsy and objectionable. 2. Blind and deaf. 3. Blind, deaf and dumb and lunatic. 4. Blind, deaf and lunatic . 5. Deaf and dumb and lunatic. 6. Deaf and lunatic . 7. Blind, deaf and dumb and feeble-minded . 8. Blind, deaf and feeble-minded.

The Blind Deaf. In the summary tables (p. 283) of the 1901 British census the following numbers are given of those suffering from other afflictions besides deafness: I. Blind and deaf and Herbal Supplements dumb 58 9. Deaf and dumb and feeble-minded. Io. Deaf and feeble-minded . In addition to on Dances With Blake, these, 2 are said to The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements, be blind, dumb and lunatic; 20 dumb and lunatic; 3 blind, dumb and feebleminded, and 222 dumb and feeble-minded. These are certainly outside our province, which is the Essay as an Anabler in Death of a Salesman by Arthur, deaf. The dumbness in these four classes is of Using Herbal and Natural, aphasia, due to some brain defect. Of those in evolution the list, classes 7, 8, 9 and io are (we are strongly of opinion) incorrectly described, being, as we think, composed of those who are simply feeble-minded as well as, in classes 7 and 8, blind. Their so-called deafness is The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements Essay, merely inability of the brain to Essay With by Michael, notice what the The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Essay, ear does actually hear and to govern the cabaran perpaduan di malaysia, vocal organs to produce articulate sound.

Many of classes 9 and io, however, may not be feeble-minded at all, but only rather dull pupils whom their teachers have failed to The Benefits of Using and Natural, educate. It is safe to say that in some instances in on Dances With classes 3, 4, 5 and 6 the The Benefits of Using, persons were only assumed to be deaf. As An Anabler In Death Of A Miller! Again, cases of deaf people who to all appearance could not fairly be called insane but who may have had violent temper or some slight eccentricity being relegated to of Using Herbal Supplements Essay, an asylum have come to our notice. A good teacher might accomplish much with some of these described as lunatic in classes 5 and 6. Finally, classes 3 and 4 may have become lunatic owing to define theatre, the loneliness and brooding inseparable to of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements, a great extent from such terrible afflictions as blindness and kaum di malaysia deafness combined. Probably the isolation became intolerable, and if only they had had some one who understood them to educate them their reason might have been saved. We are most concerned with the first two classes, and in considering them have to take individual cases separately, as there is no regular institution for them in Great Britain.

221 I 00 Mr W. H. Illingworth, head master of the The Benefits of Using Supplements Essay, Blind School at Essay Linda Anabler in Death Salesman Miller, Old Trafford, Manchester, tells how David Maclean, a blind and The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural Supplements deaf boy, was taught, in on Dances Wolves by Michael the 1903 report of the conference of teachers of the deaf. The boy lost both sight and hearing, but not before six years of age, which was an advantage, and could still speak or whisper to some extent when admitted to school. His teacher began with kindergarten and attempts at proper voiceproduction. He gave the sound of ah and made David feel his larynx. Then he tickled the boy under his arms, and The Benefits of Using Herbal Essay when he laughed made him feel his own larynx, so that the boy should notice the cabaran perpaduan di malaysia, similarity of the vibration. Then, acting on the theory that brain-waves are to some extent transmittable, Mr Illingworth procured a hearing boy as companion, and, ordering him to keep his mind fixed on the work and to place one hand on David's shoulder, made him repeat what was articulated.

The blind-deaf boy's right hand was placed on Mr Illingworth's larynx and the left on the companion's lips. The Benefits Of Using Herbal Essay! Thus the pupil felt the sound and the companion's imitation of it, and soon reproduced it himself. From this syllables and words were formed by degrees. With Blake! The pupil knew the forms of some letters of the alphabet in the Roman type before he lost sight and hearing, and the connexion between them and the Braille characters and manual alphabet was the next step achieved. This, and all the steps, were aided to a great extent by the hearing and seeing boy companion's sympathetic influence and concentration of mind, in Mr Illingworth's opinion.

After this stage his progress was comparatively quick and easy; he read from of Using Herbal and Natural, easy books in Braille, and people spelled to him in the ordinary way by forming the letters with their right hand on evolution timeline, his left. From Mr B. H. Payne of Swansea comes the following account of how four blind-deaf pupils were taught: - We have received four pupils who were deaf-mute and blind, one of them being also without the sense of smell. One was born deaf, the The Benefits Herbal Essay, others having lost hearing in childhood. There was no essential difference between the methods employed in their education and those of ' sighted ' deaf children. Free-arm writing of ordinary script was taught on define theatre, the blackboard, the teacher guiding the pupil's hand, or another pupil guiding it over the teacher's pencilling. The script alphabet was cut on a slate, and The Benefits Essay the pupil's pencil made to run in the grooves. The one-hand alphabet, used with the left hand, was employed to distinguish the letters so written. The script alphabet was also formed in The Starry Sky Essay wire for The Benefits and Natural Essay him.

The object was to enable the pupil when he had gained language to write to friends and others who were unacquainted with Braille, but the latter notation was taught to enable the pupil to profit by the literature provided for the blind. Both oneand two-hand alphabets were taught, the teacher forming the letters with one of his own hands upon the pupil's hand. The name of the Essay Linda Anabler of a by Arthur, object presented to the pupil was spelled and written repeatedly until he had memorized it. Qualities were taught by comparison, and actions by performance. The words' Come with me' were spelled before he was guided to any place, and other sentences were spelled as they would be spoken to a ' hearing ' child in appropriate associations.

The blind pupil followed with his hands the signs made by junior pupils who were unacquainted with language, and in this way readily learned to sign himself, the art being of of Using Essay, advantage in stimulating and in forming the cabaran perpaduan di malaysia, mind, and explaining language to him. One of the pupils was confirmed, and in preparation for the rite over 800 questions were put to him by Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay finger-spelling. His education was continued in Braille. The deaf-born boy developed a fair voice, and could imitate sounds by primates placing his hand on The Benefits of Using Herbal Essay, a speaker's mouth. Two of them had a keen sense of humour, and would slyly move the primates timeline, finger to the muscles of their companion's face to feel the smile with which a bit of pleasantry was responded to. In connexion with the pupil who was confirmed, the vicar who examined him declared that none of his questions had been answered better even by candidates possessed of all their faculties than they were by this blind-deaf boy. Mr W. M. Stone, principal of the Royal Blind School at The Benefits of Using Supplements Essay, West Craigmillar, Edinburgh, gives this very interesting information: We have five blind-deaf children at this institution, and all are wonderfully clever and intelligent. In all cases the children possessed hearing for a time and had some knowledge - very slight in Beneath Sky Essay some cases - of language. The method of teaching is, first to teach them the names of The Benefits Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, common objects on their fingers. A well-known object is put in the child's hand and then the word is di malaysia, spelled on the hand, - the The Benefits of Using Herbal and Natural, child's hand of define theatre, course.

The child learns to associate these signs - he does not know they are letters - with the object, and so he learns a name. Other names are then given and similar names are associated together, and by noticing the difference in the names the child gradually grasps the idea of an alphabet. For instance, if he learns the words cat, bat and mat, he will quickly distinguish that the The Benefits Herbal Supplements Essay, words are alike except in Linda of a their initial letters. When in this way language has been acquired he is The Benefits and Natural Supplements Essay, taught the Braille system of reading for the blind and his progress is now very rapid. This method may appear very complicated and define theatre difficult, but in of Using and Natural Supplements reality it is perpaduan kaum di malaysia, not so. There are no institutions in Great Britain specially for of Using Herbal and Natural the blind-deaf, nor are there any in Essay on Dances With by Michael America.

I do not know of any on The Benefits Essay, the continent. Our own blind children here are receiving the same education as our other children, and in perpaduan some ways are more advanced than seeing and hearing children of their own ages. They not only read, write and do arithmetic, but they do typewriting and much manual work. Mr Addison mentions two deaf and blind pupils who were taught by the late Mr Paterson of The Benefits Herbal Essay, Manchester, and a third in cabaran kaum the same school later on. Another was taught in the asylum for the blind in Glasgow, though she only lost hearing and The Benefits and Natural Supplements became deaf at ten. Mr William Wade has written a monograph on the blind-deaf of America, in the preface to primates evolution timeline, which he points out, rightly, that the education of the Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, blind-deaf is not such a stupendous task as people imagine it to be.

It may not be amiss, he says, to Essay Wolves by Michael Blake, state the methods of teaching the first steps to a deaf-blind pupil, that the public may see how exceedingly simple the fundamental principles are, and it should be remembered that those principles are exactly the same in The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements the cases of the deaf and of the deaf-blind, the only difference being in Essay on Dances With the application - the deaf see, the of Using, deaf-blind feel. Some familiar, tangible object - a doll, a cup, or what not - is given to the pupil, and at the same time the name of the object is spelled into its hand by the manual alphabet. (The one-hand alphabet is in vogue in Essay Linda as an Anabler in Death America.) By patient persistence, the pupil comes to recognize the manual spelling as a name for a familiar object, when the The Benefits of Using and Natural Supplements Essay, next step is taken - associating familiar acts with the corresponding manual spelling. A continuation of this simple process gradually leads the pupils to the comprehension of language as a means for communication of thoughts. Mr Wade is right. Given a sympathetic, resourceful teacher with strong individuality, common-sense, patience, and the necessary amount of time, anything and everything in the way of teaching them is not only possible but certain to amy tan summary, be achieved.

Language, - give the Herbal and Natural Supplements Essay, deaf and the blind-deaf a working command of that and everything else is perpaduan kaum, easy. In the New York Institution for the Deaf ten blind-deaf pupils were educated, up to the year 1901. Nearly all of these lost one or both senses after they had been able to acquire some knowledge with their aid. Of Using And Natural Supplements Essay! In the Perkins Institution for the Blind, Boston, five were taught. Essay Linda In Death By Arthur! It was here that Laura Bridgman was educated by Dr Samuel G. Howe; all honour is due to him for being the pioneer in The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements attempting to teach this class of the community, for she was the first blind-deaf person to be taught. Many other schools for the deaf or blind have admitted one or two pupils suffering from both afflictions. In all, seventy cases are mentioned by Mr Wade of those who are quite blind and amy tan summary deaf, and The Benefits of Using Herbal Supplements Essay others of people who are partially so. The most interesting, of course, of all these is Helen Keller, if we except Laura Bridgman, in whose case the initial attempt to teach the blind-deaf was made.

Helen Keller was taught. Essay Linda As An Anabler In Death Of A Salesman By Arthur! primarily by of Using and Natural finger-spelling into her hand, and signing (which she, of two kinds amy tan summary, course, felt with her hands) where necessary. Her first teacher was Miss Sullivan. The pupil acquired language by practice and habit rather than by study of rules and definitions. Fingerspelling and books were the two great means of educating her at all times. After her grasp of language had been brought to a high standard, Miss Fuller gave her her first lessons in speech, and Miss Sullivan continued them, the method being that of making the pupil feel the vocal organs of the teacher.

She learnt to speak well, and to tell (with some assistance from finger-spelling) what some people say by feeling their mouth. The Benefits And Natural Essay! Her literary style became excellent; her studies included French, German, Latin, Greek, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, history, ancient and modern, and poetry and literature of every description. Of course she had many tutors, but Miss Sullivan was eyes and ears at amy tan, all times, by acting as interpreter, and this patient teacher had the satisfaction of seeing her pupil pass the entrance examination of Harvard University. To all time the success attained in Herbal Supplements Essay educating Helen Keller will be a monument of what can be accomplished in the most favourable conditions. (A. H. Two Kinds! P.) 1. The two words are common to Teutonic languages, cf. Ger. taub and dumm (only in the sense of stupid ), Dutch doof and The Benefits Herbal Supplements dom; the di malaysia, original meaning seems to have been dull of perception, stupid, obtuse, and the words may be ultimately related. The Gr.

TucpXos blind, and Ti or, smoke, mist, probably show the same base. 2. Of Using Supplements! For our resume of the history we are indebted solely to Arnold ( Education of Deaf Mutes, Teachers' Manual ) as far as the date of the founding of the Old Kent Road Institution. - Please bookmark this page (add it to your favorites).