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Avoid These 10 Phrases for sphinx a Better Resume. Money, And The Of Dreams! Everyone knows that a resume is in egypt, one of the evaluation matrix, most important components of a job application. Sphinx In Egypt! What many people may not realize is nervous functions, that it#39;s not just your past positions and sphinx, accomplishments, but also the matrix, words you use to sphinx in egypt describe those achievements, that can make a difference in how the hiring manager or recruiter views you. In an attempt to nurse rachett make their resumes more appealing, job candidates may include extra information or use words they think sound impressive. But sometimes, those words will not have the desired effect and, in fact, may turn off hiring managers.

Experts agree that these 10 phrases should be removed from your resume because they are overused, meaningless or outdated. Sphinx! If you have a higher degree, remove your GPA, especially if it is of the and their, considered average or low, said Tim Davis, resource manager at in egypt staffing agency Kavaliro. For the internal, most part, employers won#39;t even notice if it is not included on in egypt, a resume. Only include GPA if a company specifically requests it on of the system and their, the application. Instead, summarize your academic statuses or awards, Davis said.

Keep any special academic statuses or awards you may have achieved during your time in school, he added. Sphinx In Egypt! Recognitions such as these show ambition and expression, initiative. Rather than saying you#39;re driven by in egypt results, you should give examples of nurse rachett actual results, said Matt Doucette, director of global talent acquisition at in egypt Monster. And Their! List the results achieved, and outline how you accomplished them, he said. Sphinx! Work is all about solving problems, said Mikaela Kiner, founder and parts of the system functions, CEO of HR consulting firm uniquelyHR.The more important question is, what kind of problems, how complex are they and how do you solve them? Opt for sphinx words that describe your approach to parts of the nervous system and their functions problem solving, such as creative or analytical, Kiner added. Years ago, an sphinx, objective was considered a primary component of parts nervous functions a resume. In Egypt! Today, however, objectives have lost their punch, said Janine Truitt, chief innovations officer at The Sun Rises by Hemingway consulting firm Talent Think Innovations. In Egypt! Instead, candidates should summarize their skills based on importance, the advertised job description, she said.

This phrase is in egypt, meaningless because it doesn#39;t say what you actually accomplished, experts say. Note E.! #39;I was responsible for maintaining company X#39;s servers,#39; doesn#39;t give enough insight into what the candidate did, said Neil Napier, CEO of sphinx job search company jobrack. Nurse Rachett! Quantifying what you did and in egypt, being clear would be better. For example, it would be better to write something like, Managed Company X#39;s servers for six months with Y technology . Napier also suggested alternative words, such as implemented or grew. This word is drastically overplayed, said Adam Hatch, career adviser and The Sun Also Rises Essay, hiring manager at sphinx in egypt ResumeGenius.com. Parts System And Their Functions! If someone is sphinx, a #39;dynamic#39; accountant, what does that mean? Flashy number crunching? Instead, Hatch suggested using words such as energetic, diligent and creative, which are more descriptive and meaningful. Kimberly Bishop, founder and CEO of parts nervous functions Kimberly Bishop Executive Recruiting, said many resumes she has read include the sphinx in egypt, phrase transformational leader, with no explanation of Gatsby: Money, Power, Fulfillment Essays how the candidate was transformational. That phrase is overused and sphinx, doesn#39;t specifically mean anything that translates to of self expression a specific experience, Bishop said. Sphinx In Egypt! My recommendation is to when end more specifically describe the skill set.

8. Sphinx! Microsoft Office (and other outdated tech terms) Technology is nike leadership, changing constantly, and you want to sphinx in egypt prove that you#39;re up-to-date on The Great Gatsby: Money, and the Fulfillment Essays, the latest business software. Sphinx! Joey Price, CEO of Jumpstart:HR, said job seekers who include experience with Microsoft Office on their resumes set the bar pretty low for parts nervous themselves. Sphinx In Egypt! Instead, be more specific about your skills, he said. Most HR managers expect you to already have familiarity with a software suite that has been around since [the beginning of] the the modes used chants all begin note, internet, Price said. In Egypt! Dig deeper and importance of self expression, share that you have experience with Visio, Project and sphinx in egypt, Access more specialized software programs that can really pay off for an employer. Nike Leadership! Like the sphinx, once-ubiquitous objective, this formerly popular resume phrase has become outdated. Dawn Rasmussen, founder of nike leadership Pathfinder Writing and Career Services, said hiring managers hate seeing resumes that say References available upon request. An employer already knows that most candidates will present their references without question when asked for them, she said.

Heather Huhman, founder and sphinx in egypt, president of parts of the and their functions HR tech public relations firm Come Recommended, agreed. You#39;re wasting precious resume space by sphinx including a phrase that is when did feudalism end, clearly understood and implied, she said. If a hiring manager is sphinx in egypt, interested in nike leadership contacting your references, he or she will request the in egypt, information from you, Huhman said. Nurse Rachett! This phrase is sphinx, clichéd and doesn#39;t really say anything, experts agree. It sounds like a candidate who has been cooked, said Roy Cohen, a career counselor and factor evaluation matrix, executive coach. It also gives the sphinx, impression that the used on the note, person it is in egypt, describing has been around for a while.

Additional reporting by nurse rachett Nicole Taylor. Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article. Sphinx In Egypt! Shannon Gausepohl graduated from the modes used all begin on the note e. Rowan University in sphinx 2012 with a degree in journalism. Of Self Expression! She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and sphinx in egypt, is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily. Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and when end, loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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As a response to. Democratic Party , Eleanor Roosevelt , Franklin D. Roosevelt 1017 Words | 4 Pages. I thought you inherited your money (95). To reply, Gatsby states, I did, Old Sport, but I lost most of the modes for gregorian chants all begin on the note e. it in the big panic the panic of the sphinx in egypt war . Winston Patterson 5/17/10 9:38 PM Comment: Single quote inside a double quote to indicate a quote in the passage was quoted in of self the essay . (95). After giving an inappropriate reply to Nicks later question concerning Gatsbys business, he clarifies that he was in sphinx in egypt the drug business and then . . . in the oil business (95).

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95 theses rap yale In late August 2015, two pastors and five elders from the Early Rain Reformed Church 1 in Chengdu, Sichuan, signed a document entitled #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; an article that was accessed over thirty-eight thousand times in the first six months of its posting online [ 1 ]. The resemblance to Martin Luther#x2019;s act of five hundred years earlier is sphinx in egypt not incidental, and Essay while the hubris might bemuse, the document can be seen as a milestone of house church belief, broadcasting its challenge to the state and to the state-registered Protestant church in China. Sphinx! Luther#x2019;s first posting of theses in mid-1517 had very little effect. The Modes All Begin On The E.! It is too early to judge the significance of this new statement in church history, but the fiery, authoritative language, the standing of its lead author within the house church movement and the growing import of the Reformed (Calvinist) sector of the in egypt Chinese church, mean it would be impolitic to dismiss this as a stunt of mimicry. Where Luther set out to The Great Gatsby: and the Fulfillment of Dreams dispute the nature of repentance and salvation, and question the Pope#x2019;s authority to issue indulgences to remit wrong, the Chengdu theses address a series of topics around sovereignty and authority as these pertain to God, the church, the government and the individual. There has been much written on sphinx in egypt, government relations with religious bodies in China, and others have considered the nature of the newly resurgent Calvinist churches in China as political or socio-cultural entities, but there has been little study of their theology. 2 This article examines three of the most controversial aspects of the 2015 document: its analysis of The Sun Also Essay, church#x2013;state relations, its rejection of the sphinx in egypt #x201C;sinicization#x201D; of Christianity, and the excoriation of the state-registered church. These three are intricately linked, and derive from internal factor evaluation matrix, a particular reading of the bible, church tradition, and the role of conscience. The article focuses on church#x2013;state relations, showing how perspectives on the state church and sinicization stem from the same argument, and how #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses#x201D; develops out of pastor Wang Yi#x2019;s earlier writings and his reading of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Reformed thought. We begin, however, with Luther. 2. From Wittenberg to West China. Why would a Calvinist pastor emulate Luther in posting 95 theses on an internet portal?

Was it a clarion call to revolution, or something more akin to Luther#x2019;s set of propositions for debate? A brief comparison of the sphinx in egypt two acts and their authors serves as an introduction to the context and theology of the expression Chinese document. The lead pastor of the Early Rain church, Wang Yi (b. Sphinx In Egypt! 1973), is a prolific author and well-known spokesperson and commentator on of the system and their, the house churches in China, with strong connections to Chinese churches in North America. A former law professor, Wang has been a pastor in Sichuan since 2011, and has a robust media presence through his film reviews and writings in the secular press, as well as web pages and micro-blog. These latter host theological discussion threads as well as sermons and sphinx in egypt articles, and his published volumes (with mainland and Taiwanese presses, as well as self-published works beyond the purview of the nurse rachett censor) include an examination of constitutionalism, a study of the house church movement, essays on Christian faith and volumes of poetry, film reviews, edited interviews and sermons. 3 The #x201C;new urban house-churches#x201D; that Wang represents are characterized by intellectual discourse and a mission for creating an open, #x201C;above ground#x201D; church that interacts with society. Their demographic, stance and outlook are quite different to the predominantly rural house church of the late twentieth century. Congregations are well-educated, young, and media-aware ([ 7 ], pp.

189#x2013;90). Conversion data speaks not of healing miracles as in rural church surveys of the 1980s and 1990s, but of a quest for meaning among young elites whose spiritual need is understood as a release from individualism and sphinx in egypt the vacuity of rampant consumerism. For such believers, Wang Yi holds out a message bridging intellectual thought and political action, charity work and Also Rises Essay justice ([ 4 ], p. 109). Wang Yi has framed much of his theological thought over the past decade within Calvin#x2019;s (or Calvinist) categories of discussion, although the sphinx in egypt overlap with Lutheran ideas is of self evident, whether in the language of two kingdoms or an Augustinian anthropology. In Egypt! The questions why emulate Luther? And why now? Invoke a wider context, and parallels between the two eras and authors are worth pondering. Wang Yi shares a good degree of for gregorian chants all begin on the e., common cause with Martin Luther as a person and a thinker, which sits alongside a general reformed heritage of Lutheran insight (Wang takes sola scriptura and sphinx justification by faith as axiomatic). If the Holy Roman Empire of the used for gregorian note sixteenth century experienced significant political and ecclesial tension, with contorted relations between imperial and local politics, church and culture, as well as serious questions over ecclesial funding, papal prerogatives and cultic revivals, the church in China is currently facing a similar array of sphinx in egypt, tensions, fueling its charged thinking.

The Holy Roman Empire and the limitations of papal authority#x2014;spiritual and regnant#x2014;are met, for Wang, in of self expression the party-state and the Three-Self Patriotic Movement. Like Martin Luther, Wang writes across a range of genres for an avid audience of partisan readers. The writings of both Luther and Wang received immediate national and international scrutiny, and both are able popularizers, writing in an intelligible vernacular and utilizing popular media (whether wood block images or magazines 4 ) to disseminate views. At the sphinx in egypt time of Rises by Hemingway, their thesis writing, each led the busy life of the early middle-aged: teaching, writing, defending contested views, acting as pastor/priest. Both have scholarly and practical interests in history and the law: mining church history extensively and taking recourse in the law when challenged (canon law for Luther; the Chinese constitution for sphinx in egypt, Wang). Just as Martin Luther#x2019;s theology developed across lecture series, Wang#x2019;s theology has evolved over time. Of The System! Many of Luther#x2019;s ideas resonate in Wang#x2019;s faith: from beliefs on church and state, to sphinx in egypt grace, to the need for The Great Power, and the of Dreams, discipline and obedience in churches. In his thinking on authority, Wang follows Luther in holding that no ruler enjoys power unless God wills it, and echoes the careful thought linking nation and church politics seen in the revolutionary manifestoes of sphinx, 1520 [ 9 ]. Wang emulates Luther in internal factor matrix prizing the keys to Heaven as the true treasure of the church (Luther thesis #60; Chengdu theses #55, 62, 67), and in egypt takes from Luther and his heirs an abhorrence towards any confusion of the Kingdom of God with the Kingdom of the World, and a firm belief in ecclesial things for the ecclesial. At the heart of Luther#x2019;s writing was a critique of the church that was deeply pastoral in implication: what happens when the apostolic successors betray their evangelical vocation? ([ 10 ], p. 49)#x2014;this is a core question for Wang of the state church, and argued in the modes used for gregorian chants e. equally passionate terms. Romans 13 was a crucial text for Luther (and Calvin), and is a passage to which Wang returns repeatedly over the course of his writings [ 11 ]. In Egypt! In method, the two sets of theses differ.

Luther#x2019;s #x201C;95 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of expression, Indulgences#x201D; cohere around one central theme, which proceeds logically from step to step, creating in sum a sketch of the world at the time and pinpointing its wrongs and falsities. Luther#x2019;s disputation is an sphinx in egypt, invitation to argument, a gauntlet, and not a definitive statement of belief; it provoked an actual disputation of the gathered learned. By contrast, although the Early Rain church document invites response, it reads more credally, and Wang#x2019;s trial has been virtual. There are significant differences too in internal matrix approach: despite his attacks on the Roman Catholic church and the #x201C;far-fetched decrees#x201D; of the pontiff, Luther held that #x201C;by schism and contempt nothing can be mended#x201D; ([ 10 ], p. 32) and chose reform from within for as long as was possible, unlike Wang#x2019;s position on sphinx, the state-registered church. It is reasonable to infer, however, that detailed comparison with Luther#x2019;s theology was not the intention of the nervous functions Chinese church leaders. It is the symbolism of Luther#x2019;s life and action at a time of great turbulence in church life that inspires. Luther#x2019;s steadfastness and self-belief, even to martyrdom, is the model being held up to the Chinese house church. In God#x2019;s war, as Luther wrote, we need #x201C;beware of thinking Christ will achieve things in sphinx the earth quietly and softly, when He fought with his own blood#x201D; ([ 10 ], p. 81). Wang#x2019;s rhetoric and life experience shadow Luther#x2019;s: in believing adamantly that the fight is of God, in determination and stance for #x201C;truth,#x201D; in willingness to face trial or prison, and in nurse rachett cleaving to in egypt the Word of God as the source for action and knowledge. The great symbolic and spiritual truth of Gatsby: and the Fulfillment, protest against church and worldly powers is captured in sphinx in egypt the theses, whether protesting the degradation of temporal power in the ruling acts of the Chinese Party State or of spiritual power in of self the papacy. It is notable that the language of sphinx, both men against detractors hardens over time, whether in Luther#x2019;s lament questioning whether the Pope was the Antichrist ([ 12 ], p. 170) or in the Early Rain church#x2019;s denunciation of the Three-Self Patriotic Movement as an #x201C;Antichrist movement#x201D; (#76).

Luther brought significant change to the modes chants all begin on the the theology of the sector of the church catholic that chose to follow him: from a reduction in the number of sacraments to a new understanding on transubstantiation to sphinx in egypt the assertion that church Councils may err#x2014;but has Reformed house church theology in China lived up to the promise signified by its posting of Also Essay, 95 theses? Church leaders have for some time regarded the new urban house church as a prophetic development. Wang Yi and sphinx Liu Tongsu see it as forming a new stage in house church history, taking over from the rural house church as the factor matrix center of Chinese mission, in what they characterize as the Chinese church#x2019;s own #x201C;post-apostolic#x201D; age, as the church moves from an sphinx, era of personal experience to one of theorization and forming structures ([ 7 ], p. 112). The strategic importance of the urban church is, moreover, national: God wants, Liu and Wang boldly argue, to renew the whole of mainstream Chinese culture through the urban house church ([ 7 ], p. 206). If the development of the Also urban house church thus represents a turning point in Chinese church history, does the publication of the 95 theses represent a new, bolder claim? This article suggests that the document both continues the prophetic understanding of the church (it is, after all, entitled #x201C; Reaffirming our Stance on the house Churches: 95 Theses#x201D;), but also expands it to a new horizon. The handing over of the baton to the urban churches represented a transfer of sphinx, energy within the broader house church, while the 95 theses stake a claim regarding the entirety of the Chinese Protestant church. Factor Evaluation Matrix! As the attack on the legitimacy of the #x201C;state#x201D; church and the exposing of the ills of the authorities recall Luther#x2019;s claims against the Roman church, and sphinx in egypt as the impassioned language, the strength of the assertions and internal matrix the form of the theses evoke the symbol of Luther within that movement#x2014;and create a resonance between the figure of Luther and a leader such as Wang#x2014;it is difficult to read the document as anything other than a call to a new Reformation. 3. Parsing the Theses.

In structure, #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; begins with initial clauses affirming God#x2019;s sovereignty as creator and authority over human beings and structures, acknowledging God as governor of the human conscience (#9) and the bible as the sphinx rule for human life and inerrant word of God (#12). The second section of theses (#18#x2013;31) presents a concise summation of the importance of self gospel message through the lens of in egypt, covenant, law and redemption. The core of the gospel is not just the parts of the system renewal of individual human relationships with God through the sacrificial offering of Christ, but also signifies #x201C;the coming of the Kingdom of sphinx in egypt, God, and that all rulers, countries and peoples on earth have been commanded to heed this gospel#x2014;and that includes China#x201D; (#30). 5 The following section (#32#x2013;39) addresses the question of the #x201C;Sinicization#x201D; of Christianity in China, adamantly refuting the possibility of any redemption via Chinese culture or love outside of Christ, and presenting an (Romans-heavy) analysis of the nurse rachett state of China#x2019;s relation to God and the limits of natural law. The fourth and fifth sections discuss the authority of Christ given to the church, and the relation between the church and the state as that between two kingdoms.

The church submits to the authority of the #x201C;sword#x201D; of government, while defending its right to protect its own work of preaching the gospel. The nature of the kingdoms and the ideal of absolute separation between church and state comprise the greatest number of clauses (#45#x2013;72), while the final part of the in egypt document attacks the stance of the Three-Self Principles Movement and its #x201C;satanic#x201D; relationship with the government. Two things are immediately apparent in reading the ninety-five theses: the Essay recurrent emphasis on China and China#x2019;s place in God#x2019;s world, and the marked drawing on in egypt, a framework of parts nervous system and their functions, covenants and a language of sphinx, depravity, which are usually identified as Calvinist in China. 6 The coherence and indurate strength of the by Hemingway declarations derive from combining basic theological propositions taken from sphinx, Calvin#x2019;s Institutes and the modes used for gregorian chants on the note e. the Westminster Confession#x2014;expressed in the document in terms of in egypt, scriptural references#x2014;with extensive application to a mainland Chinese environment. A central theological datum for Wang, for example, is freedom of conscience, which is linked to the church#x2019;s freedom and so to church#x2013;state relations, to questions of what is legal and illegal, to who has ultimate authority over the conscience, and to the bible in factor evaluation its role as #x201C;the constitution of the church.#x201D; The premise often guides the argument: forcing a non-biblical standard onto a Christian, for example, is #x201C;to destroy humanity#x2019;s conscience and in egypt rationality, and to attack God#x2019;s rule over a person#x2019;s conscience#x201D; (#16). 3.1. Church and State. Church#x2013;state relations form the greater part of the theses. The introduction to #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; offers the theses as the importance of self expression basis for dialogue with the government, and invites comment and debate from believers in other churches who can affirm the document and who want to join the dialogue. The final clause, #95, notes that the in egypt statement was timed to coincide with the 60th anniversary of the imprisonment of the modes used for gregorian all begin on the note, house church leader Wang Mingdao and in egypt of the government attack on the #x201C;Wang Mingdao Anti-Revolutionary Clique#x201D; in 1955, and so to mark sixty years of oppression of the house church and to #x201C;defend the church before government and society.#x201D; The house church proclaims its willingness to meet with representatives of the state, whether local or national government, at any time and place they wish#x2014;but the dialogue is to Also Rises by Hemingway Essay be based on these theses and on the church#x2019;s theological standpoint.

This is an acknowledgement of a certain stalemate in relations: the Chinese government has accepted that the #x201C;extra-legal#x201D; situation of the house churches cannot continue indefinitely, but expected announcements on their regularization have been continuously postponed, and indeed, the latest revisions to sphinx in egypt the Regulations on Religious Affairs seem to propel house churches back towards an illegal position. 7 The church, meanwhile#x2014;and especially the rights#x2019; defense faction of which Wang Yi is a lead proponent#x2014;wants to be open and legal, but not at the cost of suppressing the memory of its martyrs. Authority is religious, argues the church document. All humans are governed by God (#5), and all authority comes from God (#6): the only legitimate reason we obey laws, is because they are instituted by God (#7). All have freedom of conscience (#10), but God is Lord over importance of self expression, every conscience, and no human laws can exculpate from moral responsibility before God (#9): the choice for all is between obedience to God and enslavement to human authorities. The means that knowing God#x2019;s will is the bible, and sphinx once we jettison the bible and nurse rachett follow any external standards or authorities, our conscience remains neither moral nor secure (#14, which quotes Luther directly to sphinx in egypt this effect). To submit to non-biblical demands is to the modes for gregorian on the note betray freedom, and no-one can demand this of another human. Clauses 20 and 21 encapsulate both the basis of resistance to the government and the perceived perfidy of the registered church: 21. This means that when anyone wants to become the ruler of our life, and wants to replace the will of God with their own will, or demands our unconditional submission, worship and praise#x2014;no matter whether our wife, our parents, or children, or the government or ruling party; no matter whether they come in tears or bearing a sword#x2014;this type of will, these demands, are all in essence religious in nature. These demands become the #x2018;god#x2019; of a family, a company, or a state; they demand the loyalty and compliance of people#x2019;s consciences. Sphinx In Egypt! 22.

Morally, this type of nurse rachett, will and these demands are evil. They are in opposition to God, and to humanity. Submitting to this type of will and these demands is likewise evil, idolatrous action. Having established the basis for authority, and reiterating that Chinese society remains under the sovereignty of Christ whoever is in power, and sphinx that in spiritual reality it is Christ who governs and manages history and human hearts (#43), the authors set out their understanding of church#x2013;state relations. The church, the The Great Gatsby: Fulfillment body of Christ endowed with the authority of Christ, is #x201C;a kingdom that no eye can see#x201D; (#44), and relations between church and state are therefore those of two #x201C;kingdoms/countries#x201D; (#x56FD;#x5EA6;) and not those between a state and a subordinate religious authority, as the Chinese government might hold. In church history, claims the document somewhat magisterially, these have been understood as the relations between the #x201C;City of God#x201D; and #x201C;City on Earth,#x201D; or between the spiritual and secular kingdoms, or the #x201C;already but not yet#x201D; of the eternal kingdom versus the #x201C;doomed to destruction#x201D; present world (#45). When the church in China is asked, therefore, whether its faith is antagonistic to the government, it responds by asserting that God#x2019;s kingdom has already come to China, and no sword may stand against it (#49); that while the in egypt church is obedient to authorities, it has never belonged to any given state or political power (#50, although this does not mean individuals may not oppose it, when their rights are abrogated); and parts system and their functions that, just as the state has been given the authority of the #x201C;sabre#x201D; to manage social order; the sphinx in egypt church has been given the mission of the gospel, to witness to the truth (#53). The critical balance of power between the sword of state and the #x201C;keys of the importance of self expression Kingdom of Heaven#x201D; that the church possesses, or the in egypt principal of #x201C;the separation of church and state#x201D; (#62), imposes responsibilities and restraints on each: for Also, the church to oppose the sphinx sword would be to oppose God (#54), while the government cannot oppose God in refusing the church the nurse rachett right to preach. Since the freedom to preach the gospel comes from Christ, no country on earth has the power to prevent preachers from travelling across territories and organizing worship (#57).

Moreover, just as the church cannot divest itself of this mission on the pretext of complying with extra-biblical or secular laws, nor can it place its glorious mission concerning the eternal soul of sphinx in egypt, humanity under the control or examination of governments or other organizations: to do so would be to #x201C;sell God#x201D; (#58, 61, 72). Nurse Rachett! While the sphinx in egypt things of God and the things of Caesar co-exist, God#x2019;s are internal (#65) and importance do not come under the sphere of Caesar (#64); no secular power can manage or judge conscience or faith (#68). Sphinx In Egypt! It is Christ who has distinguished the two powers (#66), and the church cannot offer its power to transient government or economic powers, or unite its structures with those of the ruling powers, thereby confusing what is of God and nervous system of Caesar. Sphinx! The absolute nature of the language on church and state is clear. The statement is also clear on its intended outcome: as soon as the factor state gives up its attempts to control church doctrine, personnel and evangelization work, the church will willingly comply with external administrative requirements in the name of sphinx in egypt, public order, such as registration with the civil affairs department (#91).

8 Elsewhere, Wang Yi has written at length on church and state, codifying the house church demands and expanding on the theological and legal ramifications of internal evaluation matrix, upholding the central tenets of freedom of conscience, the bible as the church#x2019;s constitution, and in egypt religion as a non-political entity. His own views are, if anything, more polemic than the 95 theses. However, Wang#x2019;s language suggests a subtle balance between gospel and constitution, and his strategy is to address these in tandem. Wang#x2019;s starting point is that the house church#x2019;s demands are the demands of the gospel#x2014;and ought to be respected within the scope of the Chinese Constitution and China#x2019;s position as a signatory to various international treaties. The church is not fighting for new rights, but #x201C;asking the state to the modes used for gregorian all begin on the e. acknowledge and respect the freedom we already have#x2026;#x201D; ([ 14 ], p. 367). Nor is the church, Wang iterates, demanding democracy or the rule of law; the church can and will exist under many forms of government. The only thing it demands, he notes echoing Barth, is the freedom to worship and to in egypt spread the gospel. Apart from the state#x2019;s role in guaranteeing the constitutional right to freedom of religion (a clause he suggests #x201C;exists in name only#x201D;), #x201C;the mission of the gospel has nothing to do with state power.#x201D; ([ 14 ], pp. For Gregorian Chants All Begin Note E.! 364, 362). Sphinx! On the question of factor matrix, legality#x2014;and where human laws clash with divine ones#x2014;Wang#x2019;s rhetoric is frank, and combines an appeal to Christian conscience with a defense of the Christian moral and legal position.

Over the in egypt last sixty years, he admits, the house church has #x201C;continuously violated the law#x201D; in worship, doctrine, theological education, children#x2019;s Sunday school, charitable work, and so forth ([ 14 ], p. 360). By #x201C;non-violent non-cooperation#x201D; the church has comprehensively violated China#x2019;s administrative regulations and laws: but the importance expression more pertinent question, he argues, is whether the state itself has violated them. The state, Wang insists, has #x201C;continuously trampled on its own constitution and laws#x201D; in an #x201C;illegal, autocratic and barbarian fashion,#x201D; as he gives example after example to substantiate the claim of #x201C;mistaken application of the law#x201D; in authorities#x2019; implementation of the various documents pertaining to religious activities from the 1950s through to the 2000s ([ 14 ], pp. 360, 365; [ 15 ]). Sphinx In Egypt! In various essays, Wang (the former lawyer and constitutional historian) discusses the The Sun different types of regulation in force in China, and, like others, challenges the decision to channel religious #x201C;law#x201D; within administrative regulations, overseen by the party-state and in egypt not judicial bodies [ 16 ]. A growing literature by scholars and activists attests to contradictions in current legislation, with Christian believers among the most active in calling for the government to implement its own stated ideal of used on the, rule by law [ 17 ]. 9. The internal question for the church, suggests Wang, is whether it has violated that #x201C;higher, more worthy law#x201D; ([ 14 ], p. 360). Wang triangulates between Augustine, Luther and Calvin in his thinking on sphinx, conscience, authority, and the nature of the The Great Power, and the Essays church, with substantial reference to sphinx in egypt Samuel Rutherford, and figures such as the Scottish #x201C;puritan#x201D; Robert Murray McCheyne. In discussing three stages of conscience that Wang discerns in St Paul, for internal factor evaluation matrix, example (from natural, to religious, to gospel, based on Romans 1 and 2), Wang frequently cites Rutherford, one of the Scottish Commissioners to the Westminster Assembly and author of Lex, Rex [ 18 ]. Sphinx In Egypt! Rutherford is noted for his early reasoning on importance of self expression, violent resistance to sphinx in egypt political sovereignty, constructing on the basis of Romans 13 a conceptual apparatus able #x201C;to appropriate Paul#x2019;s exhortation to by Hemingway obedience in the service of a justification of resistance#x201D; ([ 19 ], p. 140). In tracing Wang#x2019;s mentors, we can see doctrinal, political and personal inspiration: Rutherford not only set out ideas of limited government and constitutionalism, but a divine mandate for Presbyterian forms of church government, and endured banishment and the burning of his books. While Rutherford was strongly opposed to the deification of sphinx, conscience and its absolute liberty, we can find in The Great Money, Power, of Dreams his work the source for in egypt, two central features of Wang#x2019;s thinking as embedded in by Hemingway Essay the 95 theses: the conscience as #x201C;an understanding power#x201D; according to which we will have to give an in egypt, account of ourselves, and the Word of God as #x201C;the rule of Conscience#x201D; ([ 20 ], pp.

4, 10). The question of obeying conscience or state authorities has not been a merely intellectual exercise for Wang and the Early Rain church. Experiences such as the shutting down of the The Great Gatsby: Fulfillment of Dreams church in sphinx 2009 by local authorities, at first on factor, #x201C;fire safety#x201D; grounds and subsequently as an #x201C;unregistered public organization,#x201D; have been the basis for a more developed theological and practical stance on church#x2013;state relations [ 21 ]. Sphinx! At the same time as being willing to suffer inconvenience/detention and call for a prayerful response, the church has defended itself vigorously to the local authorities, arguing that the use of the church name on nurse rachett, law enforcement documents enabled it to be a legal plaintiff, that the enforcement procedure itself was illegal, and that the act denied church members their constitutional right of association. As Wang Yi notes, switching the law enforcement of in egypt, churches from Public Security, to the Religious Affairs Bureau, to matrix the Civil Affairs Bureau was potentially good for house churches#x2014;but denying them the sphinx in egypt right to register as civil organizations left no legal space for their existence ([ 15 ], p. 26). Internal Evaluation Matrix! For Wang, the legal process brought two insights: that the question of in egypt, freedom of belief was now a broader one of free assembly and the church needed to engage in consensus building with other intellectuals over such freedoms, and that the church needed to Also by Hemingway Essay question administrative definitions of #x201C;church,#x201D; and wrest this back as a theological concept, #x201C;a group of people called out by God#x201D; ([ 22 ], p. 41). A perhaps more remarkable example, and parallel case of sphinx in egypt, Wang combining doctrinal and legal argument, concerns church schooling. In discussing the #x201C;Reformed School#x201D; instituted by his church and responding to the question of whether it was then legal to run a church school, Wang sets up a dichotomy.

It is clear that at one level, setting up a school was an illegal act contravening Article 8 of the Education Law (based on used all begin e., Article 36 of the Constitution) which enshrines #x201C;the separation of education and religion.#x201D; Under a system of in egypt, #x201C;unified state and religion#x201D; (#x653F;#x6559;#x5408;#x4E00;), with stipulation for education to be #x201C;nationalist, collective, internationalist and communist,#x201D; it is inevitable that Christianity will clash with the constitution [ 23 ]. While Wang argues for the absolute separation of church and state, he and his church elders will, he vows, single-mindedly oppose the separation of for gregorian all begin note e., education and religion. His legal argument turns on the right of citizens to religious belief, a right denied to in egypt children in this instance. Here a more militant aspect comes into play: the church of the the modes used chants on the e. Lord has no other option, argues Wang, than to refuse to separate education and religion, as he advocates the recovery of Christian education and the rebuilding of church schools. The dialectic tension between the two kingdoms is evident: for the Christian, whose constitution is the bible, this is what #x201C;accords with the law.#x201D; Wang cites scriptural warrant, arguing (from Proverbs 22: 6 and 2 Chron. 7: 5) that educating children is an sphinx in egypt, offering to God, and not a right that parents can give away. When the possibility of Christian education exists, to deny this is #x201C;testing God with children#x2019;s fate.#x201D; Having established the breach between state and church worldviews, Wang proceeds to outline a legal space between the bible and by Hemingway the Chinese constitution which provides for sphinx in egypt, a medium-term reconciliation. Again, this works via recourse to international treaties, which, argues Wang, give parents priority in determining the of self expression type of education, and children the freedom to sphinx religious and moral education. As he also notes, China#x2019;s own Education Law has provision for religious schools (under State Council regulations), setting precedent for their acceptance as legitimate legal entitles [ 23 ]. 10. In Wang#x2019;s thinking, a stance for freedom of conscience and for the achievement of constitutional rights is both a continuation of the work for the gospel of house church martyrs such as Wang Mingdao, and a gift to wider society in Also Rises by Hemingway opening up civic space (this latter is why Alexander Chow wants to discuss Wang et al. as #x201C;public theologians#x201D; rather than #x201C;Calvinist#x201D; ones [ 6 ]).

It is also the only way to understand the in egypt history of church#x2013;state relations in the second half of the twentieth century, since the oppression of the church, Wang argues, has been political not legal, and the church#x2013;state clash a matter of nurse rachett, politics not law. Sphinx In Egypt! From the The Sun by Hemingway Essay church#x2019;s point of view, he notes, questions of sphinx, worship, doctrine etc., are all matters of faith not politics: the government has politicized faith through its sixty years of persecution, turning the house church question into a political question ([ 14 ], pp. 362#x2013;63). This line of argument speaks to fears both in the house churches that the Reformed sector has been #x201C;politicizing#x201D; faith (which Wang defends robustly, pointing out that the premise for not registering through the TSPM is not wanting to politicize church), and fears in society more generally that the church is meddling in politics. (As Liu Tongsu notes, when the church is criticized for #x201C;playing politics,#x201D; this is usually because #x201C;politics#x201D; is nurse rachett widely regarded as meaning #x201C;power games,#x201D; rather than public affairs or public policies [ 24 ].) For Wang, the only way to depoliticize the question is for the state to end oppression and guarantee religious freedom. If Wang insists on a transcendental source for secular values such as liberty or constitutionalism, 11 in writing for sphinx in egypt, Christian audiences, he offers a nuanced version of importance of self expression, freedom of conscience. In a letter to #x201C;Brothers and Sisters who have dedicated themselves to serve the sphinx in egypt Reformed Presbyterian Church,#x201D; he notes that the freedom the church has is #x201C;the freedom of conscience brought by the gospel,#x201D; and offers an The Great Gatsby: Power, and the of Dreams, anecdote to show the nature of this freedom and how it is linked to the church#x2019;s simultaneous existence in two states/kingdoms. An outsider had commented to Wang on how the Early Rain church lived in truth #x201C;as if you weren#x2019;t living under the CCP#x201D; [ 25 ]. Although he was not a believer, the speaker continued, he could see that the church was the freest group in all China, and that no other collective spread the faith or discussed Chinese society with such a lack of in egypt, scruples. This, for Wang, was important affirmation that living in The Sun Rises fearless freedom really did equate to living outside of party-state control, embodying in community the truth that #x201C;the church is sphinx another kingdom/country.#x201D; The transformation that the cross brings is manifest, he explains, in by Hemingway Essay #x201C;a counter-cultural culture, a counter-governmental government,#x201D; where money is for distribution and power is for sphinx in egypt, serving others, and where members can speak in a bounded freedom. Church life is qualitatively different from of the nervous system, life in sphinx in egypt the secular world, since the church is for gregorian chants on the #x201C;the community of those who enter the Most Holy Place,#x201D; a sacred place of truth and protection. In Egypt! 12 In contrast to an older generation of so-called #x201C;cultural Christians#x201D; who have eschewed church community, the generation of the Reformed Church under its young leaders has put a premium on of self, community and especially small-group life.

Wang#x2019;s views on church#x2013;state relations are internally consistent and he is widely viewed as a prophetic voice in the house church movement. However, as may be clear from the description above, they also raise significant questions. In Egypt! The 95 theses document arrogates to the church the right to define relations with the state, based on a biblical view and on a particular reading of theological history, leaving little room for dialogue. Wang might argue that the theses are based on the Westminster Confession [ 26 ], but on such key points as the balancing function of the civil magistrate in its judicial and deliberative functions#x2014;the authority of the magistrate regarding not just orderly worship but also doctrine and the right to call synods (see [ 27 ], Ch. XXX.3)#x2014;he eschews the original (and the view of Calvin) and follows the later revisions and exclusion clauses of various Presbyterian bodies. 13 More critically for ecumenical relations and relations with the state, Wang#x2019;s views disregard other (non-Calvinist) theological constructs of parts of the nervous and their functions, church#x2013;state relations, and do not allow for the possibility of sphinx, their legitimacy, or for importance of self, development within Protestant churches on the matter. Sphinx! 14 The tendency to use Calvinist theology as a proxy for Christian theology vis-#xE0;-vis the state is compounded by a tendency to of self expression speak for the entire house church, and to in egypt regard Reformed doctrine as unquestionably normative for nervous system functions, this disparate body, a move problematic both for the house churches and for the post-denominational emphasis of the (state) church nationally. In Egypt! 15. While the church proclaims its Calvinist heritage, the theological basis and scope of Wang#x2019;s pronouncements merit further discussion.

Certain elements are explicit: a Calvinist political community under the lordship of Christ, with both state and church accountable to God; the church as a restored community; a neo-Calvinist belief in the limited role of government and civil protection for religious freedom; a Lutheran call to take up a (metaphorical) sword when the state transgresses into The Great Gatsby: Money, Fulfillment of Dreams, the spiritual realm. Other elements are less clear, such as the anticipated relation of the in egypt two kingdoms to the Kingdom of God, as well as to each other#x2014;along the lines of a Kuyperian refining of Also Rises, spheres of sovereignty and the function of government itself. Does the stress on imago dei in the 95 theses imply that governance is in egypt good and fundamental to human life? A more positive Calvinist view of the nurse rachett role of the state in God#x2019;s overall economy and in transforming society seems tempered by the experience of the Chinese state, but it is unclear how this experience filters back into doctrinal statements. Under-theorized questions include how life outside of the church, that part under state authority, is sphinx connected to The Great Gatsby: Money, Power, and the Essays God (especially given that the Communist view of all life under its purview parallels the church one), and how the church conceptualizes participation in secular life as individuals and sphinx in egypt communities, in light of Wang#x2019;s #x201C;Christian first, citizen second#x201D; formula. Parts System Functions! The document is silent on such questions as the dangers inhering in elevating individual conscience above legal systems (thesis #10)#x2014;whilst holding to equal separate spheres#x2014;and of the consequences in a country where legislation gives primacy to sphinx the state over individual autonomy ([ 5 ], p. 158). One could argue that the positive engagement with society, especially over questions of public or civil space, by Wang and importance of self expression the rights-proclaiming Chinese churches, is actually aimed at enabling a separate space, a Lutheran-type sphere for the church to be church, in a model more akin to the older house-church version of separation than its Calvinist-leaning leaders might suppose. Despite the much publicized work of select Christian lawyers and rights activists, the social reform, or kingdom building element of sphinx in egypt, house church work is still relatively inchoate#x2014;although it may be premature to expect answers and action when some house churches are still fighting for the basic right to exist. 3.2. The Sinicization of Christianity and Denunciation of the TSPM.

If explaining a house church ecclesiology forms a major concern of #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; the Essay church#x2019;s position on two other significant issues derives naturally from the premises and arguments above. The nature of #x201C;Chinese Christianity#x201D; has been contested since the earliest days of the Protestant mission, and has been a focal question for in egypt, two recent constituencies, the academic study of Christianity in China, often termed Sino-Christian theology, and theologians in state-approved seminaries, particularly within the #x201C;Theological Reconstruction#x201D; movement. The second issue, a trenchant critique of the internal role the state church has taken vis-#xE0;-vis the authorities, is already implicit in the account of church and state. The remainder of sphinx, this article offers some brief pointers towards reading these two questions and nurse rachett their subsurface debates. The house church#x2019;s stance in the 95 theses on sphinx, both issues is unequivocal: anyone advocating, for example, the #x201C;sinicization#x201D; of Christianity is #x201C;denying Christ#x201D; and #x201C;will fall under God#x2019;s righteous curse and judgement#x201D; (#36). The list denoting what #x201C;sinicization#x201D; might mean appears comprehensive: 37. This kind of advocacy or demand for a #x201C;sinicization of Christianity#x201D; includes claims for the worship of the unique God revealed in nervous functions Scripture within traditional Chinese culture and religion, or for a means of saving grace akin to or identical with that of the atonement of in egypt, Jesus Christ; advocating that in traditional Chinese culture or religion there is revelation of salvation outside of the unique God of the bible; advocating that the basic doctrines of the church catholic must, or need, be adapted to Chinese cultural traditions or contemporary society or political system; advocating getting rid of the historic Christ for some #x201C;cosmic Christ#x201D; theory and holding that Chinese traditions contain the parts nervous system and their way of in egypt, salvation of Christ; diluting or denying the substitutionary atonement of Christ on the cross by means of #x201C;justification by love#x201D; or other such tenets consonant with traditional Chinese moral thinking. 38. Parts Nervous System! The church must oppose the #x201C;sinicization of sphinx, Christianity,#x201D; that is, oppose the twisting of the gospel by culture, or the parts nervous system use of politics to bind faith, or using Chinese traditions that are not faithful to God to in egypt sever from the traditions of the universal church that are faithful to God. The referents are unstated, but it is possible to tease out three types of thinking implicated in the critique in #37. The first is the least well-defined: those claiming that the Jewish/Christian God can be found in classical Chinese texts, and that these texts may have a Christian redemptive function.

Debates over whether the #x201C;Shangdi#x201D; of early canonical texts is the same God as referred to in Hebrew and Christian scriptures have occupied Protestant scholars since the nineteenth century, and provided cause for much acrimonious debate and division, but there are very few in the church who have advocated an alternative route to salvation from these, especially in the present, and factor most contemporary work on sphinx, Christian#x2013;Confucian etc., dialogue is of self academic rather than confessional. 16 The timeline gives a clue to the grounds for the objection: thesis #32 explains that God used Chinese culture and wisdom in sphinx in egypt the past to reveal God to China, but the new covenant of Christ (#40) supersedes any earlier stages of revelation through nature or conscience. Power, And The Fulfillment! The second set of those #x201C;twisting the gospel through culture#x201D; seems potentially to encompass all engaged in any form of sphinx, indigenization or in culturation work adapting doctrine to Chinese culture or society#x2014;that is, much of the history of Chinese Christian theology#x2014;and appears predicated on belief in of self a supra-cultural gospel, separated from the linguistic forms and sphinx cultural meanings through which it is transmitted. This may be an over-reading of what is intended in the Early Rain document (indigenization is only sometimes a matter of nervous system functions, transmuting core doctrines), but the text might be read as an undifferentiated attack on everything from the work of in egypt, liberal, church theologians in the bensehua #x672C;#x8272;#x5316; or bentuhua #x672C;#x571F;#x5316; (#x201C;indigenization#x201D;) movements of the early twentieth century through to the writings of a thinker such as He Guanghu in the 2000s arguing that Christianity should start out from social reality. The Sun Also Rises Essay! Reference to the cosmic Christ and #x201C;justification by love#x201D; are more straightforward to delineate: both address the theology of the former head of the TSPM, Bishop Ding Guangxun. Ding#x2019;s work drawing on Teilhard de Chardin is well-known, as is his foregrounding of a God of love#x2014;alongside a widespread (mis)belief that Ding denied the core Protestant doctrine of justification by faith (see e.g., [ 31 ], p. 7).

A discussion of contextualization in Chinese Christianity is beyond the sphinx scope of this paper, but it is a little ironic that a church with such a strong denominational and transplanted historical context shaping the parameters of its theology should be so readily dismissive of others#x2019; attempts to engage their cultural setting. The danger of damning cultural adaptation of core doctrine is that of tainting all indigenization moves, and of discouraging engagement with liberals by anathematizing their extreme manifestation. The Modes Chants All Begin Note! Zhao Zichen, revered theologian and, presumably, epitome of those targeted, wrote in 1947, #x201C;to the Chinese, God speaks as if He were a Chinese,#x201D; and yet for all, #x201C;the Word goes out sphinx in egypt over against their particular existing environments#x201D; ([ 32 ], p. 482). Expression! This same Zhao who saw in sphinx Confucius #x201C;a clear revelation of God, though only in certain particulars#x201D; and the indigenous church as #x201C;one which conserves and unified all truths contained in the Christian religion and in China#x2019;s ancient civilization,#x201D; also did his utmost to evangelize China and to #x201C;follow Jesus#x201D; personally, as did many of the academic theologians of the day [ 33 , 34 ]. The potential for and their functions, misrepresentation of sphinx in egypt, #x201C;Sinicizing#x201D; attempts among liberal theologians is clear, but the thesis gives no context: one of the most active periods of conceptualizing a #x201C;Chinese church,#x201D; for example, was the 1920s, in the midst of national crisis about what it meant to be Chinese, when not to engage with the question would have been negligent. A set of theses is necessarily concise, but the omission of importance of self expression, specificity threatens to blur the argument. Ding Guangxun did not deny justification by faith, arguing only that Christians erred when they paid attention to this to the exclusion of works, yet the tendency to repeat this statement unexamined has extended well beyond Chinese evangelical scholarship.

17 In place of #x201C;sinicization,#x201D; house church voices have called for the #x201C;evangelization of China, the kingdomization of the church, the sphinx in egypt Christianization of culture#x201D; (#x4E2D;#x56FD;#x798F;#x97F3;#x5316;, #x6559;#x4F1A;#x56FD;#x5EA6;#x5316;, #x6587;#x5316;#x57FA;#x7763;#x5316;). It remains to be seen how the #x201C;Christianization#x201D; of Chinese culture may proceed without the evisceration of the Chinese or imposition of foreign cultural forms. A notable trait among urban house church writers is to acknowledge United States church partners for material help, training, and as a dialogue partner#x2014;and yet to seem to see this as a neutral, culture-free Christianity. While the anti-sinicization theses are aimed at a spectrum of academics and theologians and a range of beliefs on Christ and culture, the importance attack on sphinx, the state church (#73#x2013;#95) is directed at one facet: its betrayal of the keys of Heaven entrusted to it, through collusion with the ruling authorities. Internal Evaluation Matrix! There is a clear link between the extremely rigid separation of sphinx, spheres of church and state described above and the rejection in totality of the TSPM, which relates back to the church#x2013;state split of the 1950s (alluded to in #95) and the sense that the nurse rachett church #x201C;sold out#x201D; on in egypt, the faith in the decisions made. The house church, the document states, will not accept any censorship or monitoring by the government, any training or registration or interference in appointments, any financial controls or limitation on worship (place, age of participants, content); any slander against Money, and the of Dreams, or persecution of missionaries in China; any church officers who also work for the government or in political parties; any notion of #x201C;religious affairs#x201D; as part of government business (#74, 86, 87). To do so betrays the authority entrusted to the church and #x201C;joins in the oppression of the sphinx true church#x201D; (#75); it is the sign of a corrupt and idolatrous church, a whore not the bride of Christ (#83), a #x201C;false church#x201D; that has given itself over to of the system functions political power (#79), a #x201C;scheme of Satan#x201D; that denies the kingdom of Christ is higher than nations on earth (#76). The house church must #x201C;fight to death#x201D; for the invisible keys to the kingdom and power of the gospel (#82), and uphold its three core principles of the (inerrant) Bible as its guide; Christ as the only head of the church, and the separation of church and state, with the church submitting to government power in the sphere of governance and holding to freedom of conscience in matters spiritual (#78). Sphinx! The passion is evident, as is the of the nervous system combination of loyalty and theological absolutism, based on a certain reading of scripture and of Reformed theology. Making #x201C;two kingdoms#x201D; theology and the separation of church and state the central dogma of faith has had a clear concomitant effect on the scope and direction of theological debate for the Early Rain church. While one can understand why the current assault of government advice to sphinx registered pastors as to what local and national issues merit attention, and indeed what they might like to focus on in their preaching, might repel pastors such as Wang Yi, such language#x2014;which echoes nothing so much as the tone of the Vatican on communists in the 1950s#x2014;makes reconciliation between the the modes for gregorian note e. registered and unregistered churches almost impossible to sphinx conceive.

It also represents a partial reading of both Chinese church history and Reformed tradition, as suggested above. On the debates of the 1950s, others within the house church movement have taken a more conciliatory approach regarding the decisions that the fledging unified church took to maintain its existence, including Wang Yi#x2019;s co-author Liu Tongsu; a careful re-reading of the debates and of the historical situation of the Chinese church in the Republic and the early years of the factor evaluation matrix PRC is imperative to any progress on this question ([ 35 ], p. 207). Wang Yi#x2019;s particular reading of sphinx in egypt, Calvinist tradition on church autonomy (versus independence) and his heavy dependence on The Great Gatsby: Power, and the of Dreams Essays, American interpretations and experience over, say, European modes of church#x2013;state relations, have channeled the course of debate, a debate which will continue to sphinx have ramifications within the house church movement and nationally. South African theologian Denise Ackermann notes that #x201C;We say God is love; we do not often say that God is freedom,#x201D; and recounts how the neo-Calvinism that dominated Reformed South African theology almost deterred her from finding the #x201C;stunning depth#x201D; in Calvin#x2019;s writing on freedom, that freedom which enables consciences to rise above the law and resist tyranny, whose embrace permits true service of others ([ 36 ], pp. 150#x2013;55).

In contrast, freedom of conscience is a cardinal tenet of Wang Yi#x2019;s theology (whereas God as love is more problematic because of the association of that theme with TSPM theologies). It is Power, of Dreams Essays easy to see why a Chinese lawyer and constitutional expert would be drawn to Calvinist thought and to the central question of church#x2013;state relations. The exponential growth in academic interest in Calvinism in sphinx in egypt China attests to broader interest in such thought ([ 5 ], pp. 156#x2013;57), 18 while Wang Yi himself invested considerable time in translating into Chinese Douglas F. Kelly#x2019;s volume The Emergence of Liberty in the Modern World: The Influence of Calvin on Five Governments from the Sixteenth through Eighteenth Centuries [ 37 ]. If anything, one might argue that Wang Yi has spent too much time reading sixteenth- and used chants all begin on the note seventeenth-century theology, seen in hyperbolic language and in the revivifying of debates in contemporary China soaked in the 1584 Black Acts, monarchical tyranny and National Covenant. We can hold in tension two conclusions. The first is the courageous, and timely stance on the gospel and on such questions as the in egypt rule of law and role of a constitution that the Early Rain church document represents. The cost to the house church of its beliefs has been very great over the last sixty years, and the sacrifice has given the church a strong moral voice in debate, a voice and confidence that it is now deploying to good effect in Money, Essays the interests of other citizens. Given China#x2019;s contradictory relations with its judiciary and constitution as well as with international legal bodies, and set against a background of the state strengthening its control over churches, it is both timely and dangerous to dissect the constitution, or to write openly of teaching school children about the Tiananmen massacre. Grounding legal activism in theology has provided the same impetus and in egypt strength that drove an older generation of parts of the system and their functions, house church activists. In an era when the Chinese government is dealing with global aspirations to theocracy on its north-west borders, a propulsion to absolute division between state and religion also provides much food for political thought.

This tendency towards the sphinx absolute, however, furnishes the second conclusion. Wang Yi and internal factor evaluation matrix the Early Rain church 95 theses have avoided much of the in egypt more nationalistic aspects of The Great Gatsby: Power, and the Fulfillment Essays, Calvinist thought and sphinx of other sectors of the Chinese church in their analysis of church#x2013;state relations, and two kingdoms theology may contribute to a way beyond recent advocacy of Chinese exceptionalism, or insoluble debate on nationalism versus patriotism. The zealous and uncompromising interpretation of two kingdoms theology, however, brings its own problems. One is a potential inflexibility in dealing with the state, both at a practical level (and so potentially engendering unnecessary oppression or control, limiting the reach of church work 19 ) and also metaphysically, in parts nervous system functions inhibiting theological thinking on how to integrate life in the civil and church worlds#x2014;even under an oppressive, atheist regime, or on how to serve vocationally in in egypt the civic sphere, or even be a Christian leader and politician. Another is in representing Christianity truthfully, to Christians and to the state.

As suggested above, the tendency to importance speak for all of the #x201C;house church#x201D; has been compounded by narrow views of Christian history and biblical mandate, especially on the contentious question of church#x2013;state relations. While Wang Yi has championed thinkers such as the Scottish reformers, he has not always followed through the natural inference: in the Scottish case, that kirk#x2013;state relations have been much more complex and interrelated than allowed for in his parsing, or that various European Presbyterian churches have followed very different trajectories than the US model and its outworking in church and society#x2014;or even that Luther himself entertained a much greater acceptance of state authority over sphinx in egypt, church affairs than Wang#x2019;s absolutist line.

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The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: An Overview of the in egypt, Law and Coverage-Related Issues. By Stacey L. McGraw and Stacey E. Importance. Rufe [1] March 21, 2014. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) was enacted in 1977 in response to revelations of widespread bribery of foreign officials by sphinx in egypt, U.S. companies in order to win business. The Sun By Hemingway Essay. [2] FCPA enforcement actions by the Securities and in egypt Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Department of Justice (DOJ), which share enforcement authority for of self expression, the FCPA, have increased in recent years. For example, while the SEC’s website lists a total of 15 enforcement actions between 1978 and 2000, it lists 15 enforcement actions in sphinx in egypt 2011 alone. [3] The DOJ lists four enforcement actions in nurse rachett all of in egypt 2002; four DOJ enforcement actions were announced or filed in January 2014 alone. Ongoing investigations have been reported or disclosed by large companies from across the spectrum, including large drug manufacturers, computer companies, media firms, and retailers, among others. FCPA investigations and the investigative costs, defense costs, penalties, and fines associated with those investigations can be significant. For example, since 2008, Avon Products, Inc. has spent about $340 million in importance of self legal and related costs in connection with an sphinx investigation alleging that Avon violated the FCPA by nurse rachett, paying or giving improper gifts to government officials in China and in egypt other countries. Rises Essay. [4] In January 2014, Alcoa World Alumina LLC announced that it had agreed to in egypt, plead guilty and of self pay $223 million in criminal fines and in egypt forfeitures to resolve charges that it paid bribes to a government official in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Alcoa also settled a parallel action by the SEC in which it paid an additional $161 million in disgorgement. [5] Given the The Sun by Hemingway, increased enforcement of the FCPA and sphinx the duration and cost of investigations and related litigation, it is important that counsel for insurers and insureds are familiar with the law and internal evaluation the insurance coverage issues that may be implicated by FCPA investigations and related litigation. The FCPA contains two main components: the anti-bribery provisions, which prohibit payments to foreign officials to obtain or retain business, and the accounting provisions that require issuers to make and keep accurate books and sphinx in egypt records and to maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. The accounting provisions also prohibit individuals and businesses from knowingly falsifying books and records or knowingly failing to implement internal controls.

Persons and entities subject to the FCPA include “domestic concerns,” which are U.S. persons and businesses. [6] “Issuers,” which are U.S. and foreign public companies listed on U.S. stock exchanges or which are required to file periodic reports with the importance expression, SEC, also are subject to the FCPA. [7] In addition, certain foreign persons and businesses acting while in the territory of the United States may be subject to the FCPA. [8] As noted above, enforcement authority for the FCPA is shared by the SEC and the DOJ. The DOJ has an FCPPA unit within the in egypt, Criminal Division’s Fraud Section. Parts Of The. It has criminal enforcement authority over issuers as well as criminal and civil enforcement authority over domestic concerns for the FCPA’s anti-bribery provisions. Sphinx In Egypt. The DOJ maintains a website dedicated to the FCPA and used for gregorian chants enforcement issues and questions. [9]

The SEC has authority for civil enforcement of the FCPA over issuers and their officers, directors, employees, agents, and stockholders acting on the issuer’s behalf. The SEC has a specialized FCPA unit with attorneys in Washington, D.C., and in regional offices. The SEC’s FCPA Unit also maintains a website, which contains links to sphinx in egypt, all SEC enforcement actions involving the FCPA, organized by year. [10] Other organizations involved in enforcement include the Internal Revenue Service, the Department of expression Homeland Security, and in egypt the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which has its own dedicated FCPA unit. Generally, the anti-bribery provisions make it unlawful to offer, pay, promise to Gatsby: Power, Fulfillment of Dreams, pay, or authorize payment of money, or to offer, give, or promise to give anything of value to a foreign official in order to sphinx in egypt, obtain or retain business or secure an improper business advantage. The Great Gatsby: Money, Power, And The Fulfillment. [11] Jurisdiction. The anti-bribery provisions can apply to conduct both inside and outside the sphinx, United States. When the FCPA originally was enacted, its anti-bribery provisions applied only to parts nervous system, U.S. nationals and to U.S. firms and issuers, which can be U.S. or foreign companies. Sphinx. Congress amended the FCPA in 1998 to expand its scope. The anti-bribery provisions now prohibit any acts taken in furtherance of internal matrix a foreign bribery scheme that occurs in the United States or uses any means of interstate communication, even if the actual communication takes place intrastate. [12] Under the alternative jurisdiction provisions of the FCPA enacted in in egypt 1998, U.S. companies or persons are subject to the anti-bribery provisions even if they act outside the United States and even if no means of interstate commerce is the modes used for gregorian chants note e. used. [13] Business purpose test.

The FCPA applies only to payments intended to influence a foreign official to use his or her position “in order to assist . . . in obtaining or retaining business for or with, or directing business to, any person.” [14] This “business purpose” test has been broadly interpreted to in egypt, include bribes made in the course of business or to gain a business advantage. For example, in United States v. Kay , the Also Rises by Hemingway Essay, Fifth Circuit held that. Congress intended for the FCPA to sphinx in egypt, apply broadly to payments intended to assist the payor, either directly or indirectly, in obtaining or retaining business for some person, and that bribes paid to foreign officials to secure illegally reduced customs and tax liability constitute a type of evaluation matrix payment that can fall within this broad coverage. [15] To constitute a violation of the FCPA, a payment must be made “corruptly,” [16] which means that there must be intent to wrongfully influence the recipient. Thus, a violation may be found even if no bribe is ultimately paid, if the identity of the recipient is not known, or even if the company does not ultimately receive a benefit as a result of the payment. The intent to influence corruptly is sufficient. To establish criminal liability of an individual under the anti-bribery provisions, he or she must have acted willfully. Sphinx. [17] “Willfully” generally means that the the modes all begin on the note e., person must act with a “bad purpose” or knowledge that the conduct is unlawful. In Egypt. [18] The person need not necessarily know that his or her conduct violates the FCPA specifically. [19] Proof of willfulness is relevant only to violations by individuals; willfulness is not required to establish corporate criminal or civil liability. An improper payment may be anything of value. [20] This includes not only cash payments; it may also include travel expenses, entertainment expenses, or expensive gifts. Gifts may also be prohibited, particularly if they are lavish or excessive. Factor. Likewise, foreign charitable contributions are not prohibited under the FCPA unless made for the purpose of in egypt improperly influencing a foreign official or made without a proper vetting of the foreign charity.

Further, an improper payment need not be made directly to a foreign official; payments to friends or family members of an official may also violate the FCPA, if made in order to influence the official. [21] Who is a foreign official? Under the FCPA, “foreign official” means. any officer or employee of internal factor matrix a foreign government or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for sphinx in egypt, or on behalf of any such government or department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, or of a public international organization, or any person acting in Also by Hemingway an official capacity for or on behalf of any such government or department, agency or instrumentality, or for or on sphinx, behalf of any such public international organization. Factor. [22] The term “instrumentality” has been construed broadly and may include state-owned companies or other state-controlled entities. In Egypt. [23] The ownership, control, status, and function will be examined to determine whether an Gatsby: Money, Power, and the Fulfillment Essays entity is an sphinx agency or instrumentality of a foreign government. “Foreign official” includes employees and representatives of factor evaluation matrix “public international organizations.” [24] These are organizations that are specifically designated by executive order under the International Organizations Immunities Act, 22 U.S.C. § 288. [25] Currently, this includes organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and the Organization of American States. Payments to third parties.

The FCPA specifically prohibits improper payments to foreign officials made through third parties or intermediaries. It prohibits payments to “any person, while knowing that all or a portion of in egypt such money or thing of value will be offered, given, or promised, directly or indirectly” to a foreign official. [26] Accordingly, liability may not be avoided simply by outsourcing the of the nervous, payment of the bribe to a third party. Conduct is considered “knowing” if the person is aware that there is a high probability that an illegal payment is going to occur. [27] Congress intended to sphinx, impose liability not only on The Sun Rises, those with actual knowledge but also on those who purposefully avoid actual knowledge“head in the sand” conduct. [28] Willful blindness to FCPA violations does not protect a company or individual from liability under the statute. Affirmative defenses. Sphinx In Egypt. There are two possible affirmative defenses under the anti-bribery provisions: the “local law” defense and the “reasonable and bona fide business expenditure” defense. [29] The local law defense is evaluation applicable when the company can show that a payment was lawful under the sphinx in egypt, written laws of the foreign country at issue. [30] The “reasonable and bona fide business expenditure” defense applies if the company can show that the money spent was reasonable, bona fide, and used chants directly related to the performance of a contract, or marketing, promotion, or product demonstration. [31] In addition to these affirmative defenses, the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA also contain a narrow exception for “facilitating or expediting payments” made in furtherance of routine governmental action that involves nondiscretionary acts. [32] Payments made under imminent threat of physical harm do not violate the FCPA because there is no corrupt purpose, but economic coercion is not sufficient to in egypt, excuse an otherwise improper payment. [33] This exception, however, is in conflict with many local anticorruption laws.

Statute of limitations. System And Their Functions. No specific statute of limitations is provided for sphinx in egypt, in the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA; therefore, the general five-year limitations period applies to the modes for gregorian all begin note, substantive criminal violations of the act. [34] In cases involving conspiracies, the government may be able to in egypt, reach conduct occurring before the five-year limitations period because generally the government need only prove that a single act in furtherance of the conspiracy occurred within the The Sun Also Rises, limitations period. Sphinx In Egypt. The limitations period also may be extended by a tolling agreement, or the government may apply for an extension of up to three years in order to internal, obtain evidence from foreign countries. Sphinx In Egypt. [35] The five-year limitations period also applies to nurse rachett, civil actions for penalties. [36] However, the SEC may bring actions for equitable relief or disgorgement of sphinx in egypt ill-gotten gains outside the five-year limitations period. Again, the limitations period may be extended by the modes used for gregorian all begin note, a tolling agreement, and in in egypt cases involving foreign individuals, the limitations period is tolled for any period during which the The Great Gatsby: Power, and the, individuals are not found within the United States. [37] The FCPA’s accounting provisions contain two main components. First, the books and records provisions require issuers to make and keep records that accurately and fairly reflect an issuer’s transactions and dispositions of assets. [38] Books and records provisions are intended to prevent the mischaracterization or concealment of bribes. Second, the FCPA contains provisions regulating internal controls, which require that issuers devise and maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to ensure management’s control, authority, and responsibility over the firm’s assets. [39] There can be civil liability under the sphinx in egypt, accounting provisions for parts system and their functions, both companies and individuals. In addition, both individuals and companies can be criminally liable for knowingly failing to comply with the FCPA’s accounting provisions. In Egypt. [40] However, the FCPA’s accounting provisions apply only to issuers; the accounting provisions do not apply to private companies. [41] Penalties, Sanctions, and Remedies.

Corporations and other business entities are subject to fines of up to $2 million for each knowing violation of the anti-bribery provisions. [42] Individuals are subject to a fine of up to $100,000 and imprisonment for up to five years for willful violations. [43] For each willful violation of the accounting provisions, business entities are subject to a fine of up to $25 million. Individuals are subject to a fine of up to $5 million and imprisonment for up to 20 years for criminal violations. [44] Additional fines may be imposed by the courts under the Alternative Fines Act, 18 U.S.C. § 3571 (d). The DOJ may pursue civil actions for anti-bribery violations by domestic concerns and their affiliated persons and by foreign nationals and companies for violations while in the United States. The SEC may pursue civil actions against issuers and their affiliated persons for violations of the importance of self, accounting provisions. A civil penalty of up to $10,000 per violation is available for violations of the anti-bribery provisions (for both entities and sphinx individuals). [45] For violations of the accounting provisions, the SEC may obtain a civil penalty of up to a certain specified dollar amount dependent on the egregiousness of the violation, or the gross amount of the pecuniary gain to the defendantwhichever is greater. Evaluation. [46] There also may be collateral consequences resulting from FCPA violations, including suspension or debarment from contracting with the federal government, cross-debarment by multilateral development banks (such as the World Bank), and suspension or revocation of certain export privileges. Insurance Coverage Issues.

Notice. Many, if not most, FCPA investigations originate as internal investigations by the companies. After an internal investigation is sphinx in egypt completed, a company may determine that it should “self-report” to the SEC or DOJ, at which point the SEC or DOJ may commence its own investigation. A company conducting an internal investigation should consider when it is appropriate or necessary to give notice to The Sun Also by Hemingway Essay, its insurer of a claim or potential claim. Different policies contain different notice requirements, so it is important for sphinx in egypt, insureds and insurers to be familiar with the notice language and requirements of their policies and to proceed accordingly. Claim. Whether a government investigation constitutes a claim and when a claim arises depends on the language in the specific insurance policy. Some policies define “claim” to include government investigations, but often only if such investigation is commenced by Essay, a formal order of investigation, subpoena, or other such formal document.

Because many FCPA investigations begin informally or possibly with self-reporting after an internal investigation, a claim may not arise until long after a company first becomes aware of possible FCPA violations. Moreover, a company may choose to agree to cooperate with the SEC or DOJ, thus delaying or avoiding a subpoena or other formal compulsory process or procedure that would constitute a claim under the company’s insurance policy. Under some policies, an FCPA or other government investigation may not constitute a claim under any circumstances. As always, it’s important to be familiar with the particular policy language. Worldwide coverage. FCPA investigations may be followed by or proceed concurrently with investigations in sphinx in egypt other countries, such as bribery investigations under the United Kingdom’s Bribery Act 2010, which took effect in July 2011. Coverage for such foreign investigations may be available under policies that provide worldwide coverage, if the matter is otherwise covered based on the language of the particular policy. Selection of defense counsel. Insurance policies that do not contain a duty to defend typically provide that the insured must obtain the insurer’s consent to its selection of defense counsel.

Because, as noted above, defense counsel may have been retained long before a claim arises and is tendered to the insurance carrier, there may be issues for insurers and insureds to negotiate with respect to the choice of internal factor defense counsel, the rates charged, and possible coverage of pre-notice or pre-tender defense expenses. Fines and penalties. The amounts payable for violations of the FCPA are fines and sphinx penalties, which typically are not covered by professional liability insurance. However, there may be policies or endorsements available that provide limited coverage for certain FCPA fines or penalties. In addition, some policies may provide limited coverage for FCPA-related defense costs, even in the absence of coverage for the fines and penalties themselves. Follow-on litigation. As in nurse rachett other governmental investigations, an in egypt FCPA enforcement action often will trigger follow-on actions, such as class actions by The Sun Also Rises by Hemingway Essay, shareholders alleging securities fraud, derivative actions alleging breach of sphinx in egypt fiduciary duty and based on the same conduct alleged in importance of self the FCPA investigation, or congressional investigations. In Egypt. These types of lawsuits typically are covered by directors’ and officers’ liability policies. Even if these actions ultimately are unsuccessful, they add to the overall costs of defending an FCPA investigation. Exclusion for intentional acts and imputation. Exclusions barring coverage for intentional, willful, or fraudulent acts may apply to FCPA matters.

Many times, these exclusions require a final adjudication of intentional or fraudulent conduct. Nurse Rachett. However, if such a final adjudication occurs, the insured may be required to reimburse the insurer for sphinx, any defense costs advanced on its behalf. However, with respect to the application of exclusions, such as the exclusions for factor evaluation, intentional acts, insurance policies may contain non-imputation clauses providing that the knowledge or conduct of one insured cannot be imputed to other insureds for purposes of determining whether the exclusion applies. A policy also may provide that only certain persons’ knowledge can be imputed to an insured entity. For example, some policies provide that only the chief executive officer’s or chief financial officer’s knowledge may be imputed to the company. FCPA investigations and enforcement actions are on sphinx, the rise and, along with parallel shareholder litigation, may lead to The Great Gatsby: Money, Power, of Dreams Essays, increased exposure for both insureds and insurers. Counsel for insureds and insurers should be aware of the related insurance coverage issues as they apply in the context of FCPA enforcement actions and related litigation. Keywords: litigation, insurance, coverage, Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, FCPA, anti-bribery, fines and penalties, exclusions. [1] Stacey L. McGraw is a partner in the Washington, D.C., office and Stacey E. Rufe is an associate in the Richmond, Virginia, office of Troutman Sanders, LLP, where they both represent insurers in complex coverage disputes and litigation. Sphinx In Egypt. The views stated in this article are the views of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of Troutman Sanders, LLP, or its clients.

[2] The 2012 Resource Guide to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act published by the Criminal Division of the U.S. Also Essay. DOJ and the Enforcement Division of the SEC is the sphinx in egypt, best source for factor matrix, additional information about the FCPA. Sphinx. See also Mike Koehler, “The Story of the FCPA,” 73(5) Ohio St. L.J. Money, Power, And The Fulfillment Essays. 93238 (2012) (providing history of the drafting and passage of the FCPA). [4] Serena Ng Anna Prior, “SEC Warning Sinks Avon,” Wall St. J. Sphinx. , Nov. 1, 2013. [5] “Alcoa to Pay $384 Million to Settle Bribery Charges,” N.Y. Times , Jan.

9, 2014. [18] See United States v. Nurse Rachett. Kay , 513 F.3d 432, 44748 (5th Cir. Sphinx In Egypt. 2007) (discussing common-law definitions of “willfully” and level of knowledge required to establish willful violation of the FCPA). [19] See Kay , 513 F.3d at 448 (holding that defendant need not know the terms of statute and know that he was violating statute in order to have “willfully” violated the FCPA). [21] See, e.g. , United States v. Nurse Rachett. Liebo , 923 F.2d 1308, 131112 (8th Cir. 1991) (sufficient evidence existed for jury to sphinx, conclude that gifts given to official’s cousin were given “corruptly” to “obtain or retain business” in violation of FCPA). [23] See, e.g. , United States v. System. Aguilar , 783 F. Supp.

2d 1108 (C.D. Cal. 2011) (motion to dismiss denied because electric utility wholly owned by Mexican government may be considered an “instrumentality” of a foreign government within the meaning of FCPA). Copyright 2017, American Bar Association. All rights reserved. This information or any portion thereof may not be copied or disseminated in any form or by any means or downloaded or stored in an electronic database or retrieval system without the express written consent of the American Bar Association. The views expressed in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the sphinx in egypt, positions or policies of the Gatsby: and the Essays, American Bar Association, the Section of in egypt Litigation, this committee, or the employer(s) of the the modes all begin on the note, author(s).

A multi-part series in which a group of insurer and policyholder attorneys provide 5 almost-Twitter friendly practical pointers on insurance. Circuit Conflicts in Antitrust Litigation. This practical guide surveys current conflicts among the Circuit Courts of Appeal in antitrust litigation. A Century of Legal Ethics: Trial Lawyers and in egypt the ABA Canons of Professional Ethics. The ABA Canons of Ethics was adopted in 1908 and created ethical standards for lawyers.

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Job satisfaction sample IELTS essay. This is the next in my series of model IELTS essays. Sphinx. In this essay on job satisfaction and employment, I talk you through different ways to structure the nurse rachett essay there is sphinx, always more than one way to skin a cat. I also give you notes on how you can use repetition to help your writing become more cohesive and coherent. Repeating words and nervous and their functions, ideas can be a good thing. In addition to the essay to download, you will also find 3 separate exercises on vocabulary to help you write the essay yourself. This is sphinx in egypt, a particularly tough question because it is a double/double question. You need to discuss both stress and longer working hours and nurse rachett, explain the reasons for them and suggest what can be done by in egypt, employers. Nowadays many jobs are more stressful and expression, the working day is longer. Sphinx In Egypt. What are the reasons for this?

What can employers do to help employees? There are different ways you can structure this essay. Whatever option you choose, you must ensure you cover all the points in the task. The Great And The Fulfillment Of Dreams. This is sphinx in egypt, where you need to leave yourself plenty of The Great Gatsby: Money, and the Fulfillment thinking time before you start writing. What I do here is to sphinx, show you some of the possible choices you have.

The idea is parts system functions, you write a logical answer to the essay question and do not follow one model . One choice would be to divide the essay by employees (stress and hours) and employers (solutions): content 1: explain reasons for both stress and long working hours content 2: suggest what employers could do. content 1: write about stress and what employers could do about sphinx it content 2: write about working hours and what employers could do about it. content 1: write about stress content 2: write about The Great Money, Power, and the Fulfillment Essays working hours content 3 and conclusion: what employers could do about stress and sphinx, working hours. One option is to write about different reasons for stress and hours in separate paras and then write about employer solutions. The reason for this is that the question asks you for reasons in the plural. content 1: reason 1 for stress and nurse rachett, hours content 2: reason 2 for stress and hours content 3: employer suggestion. content 1: write about stress content 2: write about in egypt working hours content 3: what employers could do about stress and nurse rachett, working hours separate conclusion.

Ideas for the essay and for job satisfaction essays. Stress and longer working hours ideas. employees are worried about in egypt losing their jobs because of job market conditions mass unemployment globalisation causes greater competition and leads to everyone having to work harder employees are not given adequate training employees work individually and not in teams poor management and lack of feedback some countries do not regulate working hours employees do too much overtime to matrix, earn more cash. employers recognise longer hours do not mean more efficiency employers limit the hours of work and restrict overtime set meal breaks provide a better working environment provide all the training necessary encourage employees to spend some time relaxing during the working day managers set clear targets for employees that can be attained. Here are some other job satisfaction ideas for other employment essays. sense of belonging to sphinx, a team sense of doing a job that is The Sun Also Rises, worthwhile if low paid (teachers. ) being promoted and taking on more responsibilities enjoyable work environment and socialising with your colleagues sense of achievement when you meet a target or complete a project learning new skills understanding why and how what you do matters understanding more about sphinx in egypt your company and its business. Vocabulary for the essay think word formation and collocations. It is important that you have some variety of vocabulary when you write this essay. This does not mean that you need to use lots of different words.

In fact, your essay will be more cohesive if you repeat some words. All you need to do is make sure that you use them in different ways. That means using different forms of the words (word formation) and The Sun by Hemingway Essay, use them in different ways. In this essay, the key word is sphinx, work. Here are some variations I use: work longer hours. do the same work.

work more efficiently. I do of course use other words too. Used For Gregorian Chants Note. However, by repeating and rephrasing the in egypt one word work in different ways the essay is importance of self, linked together and becomes more cohesive. Sphinx. Its a trick you should try. The Modes Chants All Begin On The Note E.. You will find more employment vocabulary on my employment vocabulary page. Two ways in which the workplace has changed in the modern era are that employees are required to work longer hours and there is more pressure on sphinx in egypt, them than in the past. In this essay, I examine how competition is the of the nervous and their functions main reason for this and in egypt, suggest how employers can improve their employees working conditions . Competition from the job market is chants all begin on the e., one reason why some employees are under more pressure at sphinx in egypt work. High levels of unemployment mean that it would often be cheaper for an employer to hire someone else to do the nervous system and their same work.

This naturally has a negative psychological effect on employees . It can also result in their staying longer in the office to in egypt, ensure that they meet their performance targets. Increased competition caused by globalisation is also significant . Many smaller businesses now need to compete either with multinationals or companies from importance, developing countries where labour is cheaper. The effect of this on employees is that they know they may be made redundant if the business they work for sphinx, fails. This is not only stressful, but can also lead to their working longer hours to help the business survive. Despite this competition, employers should ensure that their staff have the best possible working conditions . This means that employees should not be required to work overtime unless in an emergency, be given regular breaks and be reassured that their future is system and their, safe. Sphinx. If this were to happen, the employees should work more efficiently, something which is in the interest of the employer. My conclusion would be that competition from the job market and globalisation is the principal cause of stress at work and a longer working day . Internal Factor. Employers can help address these problems by recognising that reducing stress and regulating working hours will lead to greater efficiency. You will find more exercises on vocab below. You should note the range of different employment vocabulary words I use.This means I can afford to repeat the word work when I need to in egypt, and still have enough variation of vocab.

The skill is to vary when you need to and be consistent when you need to. To write this essay well, you need to think about of the nervous system functions cause and sphinx, effect. See the different cause and effect language I use. Identifying the task in the introduction. The introduction clearly identifies all the parts of the task. The first sentence identifies the topic areas of stress and nurse rachett, working hours. Sphinx. The second sentence leads into the body of the essay by Gatsby: and the Fulfillment, stating how I will examine the reasons and suggest solutions.

Coherence and essay structure notes. See how the first sentence of each content para links to the main idea of the introduction and the conclusion. Sometimes repetition is a good thing. Also note how each content para starts with a relatively short simple sentence. All I am trying to do is show the reader what the one main idea of that para is. Note how I dont try and include all my ideas in the essay.

Vocabulary exercises on the essay. Here are 3 exercises to help you write the essay yourself. How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and sphinx in egypt, even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 11 Responses to Job satisfaction sample IELTS essay.

First of all I would like to thank you because of such useful site that I think you could never find site on parts of the system and their, the Internet which has as much effective information as this site has (ofcourse I like Simon too). Sphinx. Despite of designing part of site which I felt to some extent confusing to follow and takes a bit time to be familiar with , I think without no doubt that this is the best site about IELTS. Im sure if someone likes you were lived in my country , he never would share his knowledge as you are doing. Next I would like to The Sun Rises by Hemingway Essay, ask you put some exercises about relative clause and how we can omit them as I found it is the best way to in egypt, add information . At the end I have problem with this sentence in importance expression terms of grammar. From (check your vocabulary for ACADEMIC ENGLISH ) The atmospheres of sphinx most planets is not transparent , MAKING IT difficult for of the and their functions, us to sphinx in egypt, see the surface.( Am I right that it was which makes it then turned into making it) Sorry if I am so basic and functions, take your time. Thanks for the comment.

Re the site design which part is most confusing? I know there are problems!! At the mo the site is only about a tenth built. By year end there should be neatly organised guides to essays. listening and reading (and perhaps part 1 writing). The aim is for sphinx in egypt, people to start at different points and of the nervous, work through a skill systematically. I do believe it is importan tto be systematic in your learning and not just start anywhere.

However, it will me take a little time to sphinx, get there. Good question. In fact, I should be doing another lesson on relatives quite soon. You are quite right that it could have been which makes it. The point is that we often avoid relatives they tend to be ugly and parts nervous, make your writing harder to understand. One way we do this is by using -ing. This site is excellent very strong on Writing Skills.Simon?s site is perhaps stronger on The Speaking section with numerous model answers (for all 3 parts)and useful tips. Unlike the previous post I think the sphinx site is very well organised and the model essays with their color-coded attention to vocab, cohesion, linking words are first-rate. Thank you for your hard work.

Yes Simon is good. If you are looking for alternative speaking materials (I shall be updating mine more systematically once my writing materials are more complete) can I point you in the direction of Splendid Speaking. They have by some distance the Essay best speaking materials on the net. Dont be put off by the subscribe feature its all free and the weekly transcripts and sphinx in egypt, tips are second to Also Rises by Hemingway, none. What this site gets very right is the distinction between the written and in egypt, the spoken language. Id add that the materials for other exams are also well worth looking at. Importance. It can be very misleading to think of IELTS speaking as a peculiar skill. It isnt. The best speaking tips are normally very simple and dont require a specialist approach.

Good speaking is good speaking and ultimately the sphinx in egypt one tip that should be carried into the exam is chants all begin note, listen to the question and answer it. Ill update this comment with another link from my IELTS directory. Without question, the most complete set of speaking materials on the net for IELTS is English Lab. This is another site written by an ex-IELTS examiner (theyre not supposed to say they are!). It is very, very complete indeed. It takes a bit of navigation because it so big but youll find everything you could possibly want there if you are after IELTS specific speaking materials and ideas. dear Dominc,hi it,s my pleasure to see such a useful site for those want to study ielts .not only for students ,but for teachers .i as a teacher ejoy a lot and learn many things form it.just i want to thank you for sphinx, your great job you ,ve done.wishing you the of self expression very best.i would like to in egypt, ask ,if possible texplain how to teach geapghs which is considered to be very important in IELTS.please.IS there a specific method to internal, teach?thanking you ..with deep respect and sphinx in egypt, regards M.Andalibi. Hi Always nice to hear from a fellow teacher. This year I aim to nurse rachett, post quite a lot of teacher specific materials as I know a number of teachers drop by.

In principle, I should post an idea/resource each Sunday. Sphinx In Egypt. Have you found my task 1 teaching ideas that I have already posted? There are lots more to functions, follow. Increasingly, I teach task 1 as just another bit of writing. I think it can be misleading to concentrate on too much trend language for example. Task 1 is graded in sphinx in egypt exactly the parts of the nervous system and their functions same way as an essay. I also think that students get confused by thinking that it is completely different. In Egypt. Im not sure it is.

You pick out the Money, Power, and the Fulfillment Essays details you need, you organise the logically combining main points and explanations just as you would in an essay. Ironically, the sphinx idea of charts and internal factor matrix, graphs is to in egypt, display information more clearly, but in my experience students often go wrong because they dont really get the point of the chart/graph. Hence the lesson on demystifying charts. My personal students did much better once they understood the of self concept of charts in this way and that was without bothering to teach much/any specialised language. THIS IS ABSOLUTELY FABULOUS PIECES OF INFORMATION ON IELTS TASK 2.I HAVE NEVER SEEN SUCH A WONDERFUL BLOG ANYWHERE THANK YOU.SIR.

THESE ARE ABSOLUTELY FABULOUS PIECES OF INFORMATION ON IELTS TASK 2.I HAVE NEVER SEEN SUCH A WONDERFUL BLOG ANYWHERE THANK YOU.SIR. In the competitive world of today, it is common for employees to spend long and stressful hours at work. This essay will discuss the socio economic reasons why employees need to work harder and put in longer hours ; it will also discuss what the employers can do to make the life easier for sphinx in egypt, their working staff. intro for the above topic I wud chose the simple 4 paragraph essay one describing the reasons why employees need to put longer hrs -one describing what employers can do to ease this the intro and conclusion i loved your intro -mine suddenly looks awful and i also love the way in which you have organised your essay its terrific thanks for sharing it with us #128578; The nights spent on learning insanely academic words would foster a good foundation for the language proficiency I thought at the start of my journey to The Sun Rises, English.

However, as years passed by, I realized the language shouldnt be confined with tons of specification barriers that would limit ones outlook into profound possibilities of the sphinx language. The foundation should be built on a flexible framework that grasps every aspect of the language. Take into account, it doesnt mean expanding ones vocabulary with colloquial phraseology, but spreading the experience of what the language represents in a native environment. Ielts is a cornerstone of Money, Power, and the Fulfillment Essays English. Nonetheless, do not limit youself on merely accomplishing the in egypt requirements. Importance Of Self. Instead, try to diversify your learning path with discovering nuances of English. It can be done in infinite amount of ways. First, start with reading news, reviews of gadgets, PC or whatever you are interested in. The internet is your right hand for most of the cases.

Other times, try to talk to natives. Ah, I am running out of time. So, Cheers up! And do not give up on your dreams!